Se ha denunciado esta presentación.
Se está descargando tu SlideShare. ×

Presentation3.pptx

Anuncio
Anuncio
Anuncio
Anuncio
Anuncio
Anuncio
Anuncio
Anuncio
Anuncio
Anuncio
Anuncio
Anuncio
Próximo SlideShare
Case study.pptx
Case study.pptx
Cargando en…3
×

Eche un vistazo a continuación

1 de 23 Anuncio
Anuncio

Más Contenido Relacionado

Más reciente (20)

Anuncio

Presentation3.pptx

  1. 1. Flood plain mapping using passive remote sensing systems JANHVI GUPTA – M220230AR
  2. 2. 1. WHAT ARE FLOOD PLAINS? Floodplain is defined as the low lying land adjacent to a stream channel that gets inundated due to past or present flood event or is likely to be inundated from future flood event. Usually, land adjacent to river has low gradient and any increase in flood level in river causes inundation of these areas. The settlements also come up in the floodplain and thus, floods also cause loss to property and life due to submergence. FIG 1 :FLOOD PLAINS
  3. 3. 1. WHAT ARE FLOOD PLAINS? Various definition of the floods/ floodplains are given below: ● Base flood: Base flood is defined as flood of 100 years return period. ● Base floodplain: Base floodplain is defined as area inundated due to passing of base flood in the river. This is also synonymous with regulatory floodplain and floodway. ● Regulatory floodplain: The floodplain that is subject to floodplain land use regulations is called regulatory floodplain. It is a floodplain of 100-year return period. ● Floodway: Floodway is floodplain that caries a flood of large magnitude, say 100 year return period, which is required to pass flood without causing much increase in height of the flood. ● Severe flood: It is defined as the flood that causes at least a rise of the stage in the river two meter above the danger level.
  4. 4. 1. WHAT ARE FLOOD PLAINS? Various definition of the floods/ floodplains are given below: ● Base flood: Base flood is defined as flood of 100 years return period. ● Base floodplain: Base floodplain is defined as area inundated due to passing of base flood in the river. This is also synonymous with regulatory floodplain and floodway. ● Regulatory floodplain: The floodplain that is subject to floodplain land use regulations is called regulatory floodplain. It is a floodplain of 100-year return period. ● Floodway: Floodway is floodplain that caries a flood of large magnitude, say 100 year return period, which is required to pass flood without causing much increase in height of the flood. ● Severe flood: It is defined as the flood that causes at least a rise of the stage in the river two meter above the danger level. 1i. Understanding flood mapping ● During extreme flood event it is important to determine quickly the extent of flooding and land use under water (Wang et al, 2002). ● Flood map can be applied to develop comprehensive relief effort immediately after flooding. There are varieties of issues and uncertainties involved in flood mapping. ● Remotely senses data can be used to develop flood map in an efficient and effective way. FIG 1 :2007 Global Flooding (Dartmouth Flood observatory)
  5. 5. 1. WHAT ARE FLOOD PLAINS? Various definition of the floods/ floodplains are given below: ● Base flood: Base flood is defined as flood of 100 years return period. ● Base floodplain: Base floodplain is defined as area inundated due to passing of base flood in the river. This is also synonymous with regulatory floodplain and floodway. ● Regulatory floodplain: The floodplain that is subject to floodplain land use regulations is called regulatory floodplain. It is a floodplain of 100-year return period. ● Floodway: Floodway is floodplain that caries a flood of large magnitude, say 100 year return period, which is required to pass flood without causing much increase in height of the flood. ● Severe flood: It is defined as the flood that causes at least a rise of the stage in the river two meter above the danger level. 1i. IMPORTANCE OF FLOOD MAPPING Flood maps are tools used to help prepare for floods and reduce their impacts. They outline potential flood hazards that help decision-makers with: ● flood preparedness and mitigation ● land use planning ● emergency management ● public awareness of flood risk 1Ii. TYPES OF FLOOD MAPS 1. INUNDATION MAPS 2. 2. FLOOD EXTENT MAPS 3. FLOOD HAZARD MAPPING 4.
  6. 6. 1. WHAT ARE FLOOD PLAINS? 1Ii. TYPES OF FLOOD MAPS 4. FLOOD RISK MAPS 5. 5. FLOOD AWARENESS MAPS 6.
  7. 7. 1. WHAT ARE FLOOD PLAINS? 1Ii. PROCESS OF FLOOD MAPPING 1.STEP 1 : UNDERSTAND PRIORITIES 2.Identify and prioritize areas at high risk of flooding that require up-to-date flood maps. 3.STEP 2 : DATA ACQUISITION 4.Gather information on the area (such as land elevation (LiDAR), meteorological, and historical data) to help predict where the water will flow in case of flooding. This information is required for hydrologic and hydraulic modelling. 5.STEP 3 : HAZARD ASSESSMENT 6.Analyze historic precipitation and flow data to understand future floods. Consider climate change, meteorology and other factors that contribute to potential flooding.
  8. 8. 1. WHAT ARE FLOOD PLAINS? 1Ii. PROCESS OF FLOOD MAPPING 1.STEP 4 : FLOOD DELINEATION 2.Delineate flood levels and scenarios using hydrologic and hydraulic modelling. Hydrologic assessment estimates a range of potential flood flows, and hydraulic modelling calculates water levels along rivers for those flows. 3.STEP 5 : MAP PRODUCTION & DISSEMINATION 4.Produce and disseminate maps based on modelling for easier interpretation. 5.STEP 6 : RISK ASSESSMENT 6.Use maps and other relevant information to identify flood risk zones.
  9. 9. 1. WHAT ARE FLOOD PLAINS? 1Ii. PROCESS OF FLOOD MAPPING 1.STEP 7 : FLOOD MITIGATION 2.Implement land-use restrictions and invest in flood mitigation measures. 3.INVOLVED IN ALL STEPS 4.Inform and gather feedback from community members and stakeholders every step of the way.
  10. 10. 1. WHAT ARE FLOOD PLAINS? Various definition of the floods/ floodplains are given below: ● Base flood: Base flood is defined as flood of 100 years return period. ● Base floodplain: Base floodplain is defined as area inundated due to passing of base flood in the river. This is also synonymous with regulatory floodplain and floodway. ● Regulatory floodplain: The floodplain that is subject to floodplain land use regulations is called regulatory floodplain. It is a floodplain of 100-year return period. ● Floodway: Floodway is floodplain that caries a flood of large magnitude, say 100 year return period, which is required to pass flood without causing much increase in height of the flood. ● Severe flood: It is defined as the flood that causes at least a rise of the stage in the river two meter above the danger level. 1V. DATA REQUIRMENTS FOR flood mapping 1. Generally for flood mapping two sets of remotely sensed data are required. 2. One set consisting of data acquired before the flood event and the other acquired during the flood occurrence (Wang et al., 2002). 3. The image before the flood usually used as the reference. 4. Sometimes two reference images acquired for finding out the mean reference DN values of pre flood scenarios. 5. However aerial photographs, DEM, water level measurements and high water marks after flood events are required for the aid of analysis. 6. The remote sensing data may be provided by the active or passive remote sensing system. 7. In some of the studies a combination of active and passive remotely sensed data is used.
  11. 11. 1. WHAT ARE FLOOD PLAINS? Various definition of the floods/ floodplains are given below: ● Base flood: Base flood is defined as flood of 100 years return period. ● Base floodplain: Base floodplain is defined as area inundated due to passing of base flood in the river. This is also synonymous with regulatory floodplain and floodway. ● Regulatory floodplain: The floodplain that is subject to floodplain land use regulations is called regulatory floodplain. It is a floodplain of 100-year return period. ● Floodway: Floodway is floodplain that caries a flood of large magnitude, say 100 year return period, which is required to pass flood without causing much increase in height of the flood. ● Severe flood: It is defined as the flood that causes at least a rise of the stage in the river two meter above the danger level. 1V. DIFFICULTIES IN DATA AQUISITION ● Flood is a wave phenomenon and all satellites have their repeating intervals. So generally the time of acquisition of satellite data does not coincide with the time of flood peak which is related to the maximum inundation area. ● In most of the cases timely acquisition of flood data is prevented by the obscuring cloud cover, especially in the monsoon countries where flooding occurs due to widespread precipitation over relatively long period of time (Imhoff et al., 1987). Usually passive remote sensing system as NOAA AVHRR, LandSat MSS, LandSat TM cannot receives the radiance from a cloud covered ground surface. So presence of cloud cover over the flooded area limits the usefulness of these data and difficulties arises with the interpretation of whether a given area beneath cloud cover is dry or water
  12. 12. 1. WHAT ARE FLOOD PLAINS? Various definition of the floods/ floodplains are given below: ● Base flood: Base flood is defined as flood of 100 years return period. ● Base floodplain: Base floodplain is defined as area inundated due to passing of base flood in the river. This is also synonymous with regulatory floodplain and floodway. ● Regulatory floodplain: The floodplain that is subject to floodplain land use regulations is called regulatory floodplain. It is a floodplain of 100-year return period. ● Floodway: Floodway is floodplain that caries a flood of large magnitude, say 100 year return period, which is required to pass flood without causing much increase in height of the flood. ● Severe flood: It is defined as the flood that causes at least a rise of the stage in the river two meter above the danger level. 1V. FLOOD MAPPING USING PASSIVE REMOTE SENSING SYSTEMS 1.METHODOLOGY Identifying water vs non-water areas i. Representation of the reflectance values of water and non water feature ● It was found that on the TM 5 and TM 7 (2.08-2.35μm) image the reflectance of water, paved roof surfaces and rooftops are different. But the differences are slightly smaller in TM 5 than those are in TM 7. So the addition of TM 4 and TM 7 (TM 4+TM 7) will be useful for determining water verses non water area. So if the reflectance of a pixel is low in TM 4+TM 7 image the pixel is considered as water, otherwise it will represented as non water
  13. 13. 1. WHAT ARE FLOOD PLAINS? Various definition of the floods/ floodplains are given below: ● Base flood: Base flood is defined as flood of 100 years return period. ● Base floodplain: Base floodplain is defined as area inundated due to passing of base flood in the river. This is also synonymous with regulatory floodplain and floodway. ● Regulatory floodplain: The floodplain that is subject to floodplain land use regulations is called regulatory floodplain. It is a floodplain of 100-year return period. ● Floodway: Floodway is floodplain that caries a flood of large magnitude, say 100 year return period, which is required to pass flood without causing much increase in height of the flood. ● Severe flood: It is defined as the flood that causes at least a rise of the stage in the river two meter above the danger level. 1V. FLOOD MAPPING USING PASSIVE REMOTE SENSING SYSTEMS 1.METHODOLOGY Identifying water vs non-water areas ii. Setup the cut off value ● After the representation of the reflectance of the water and non water features, a cutoff value of DN has to be set to separate the water and non water features. Say this cutoff value is DNc. ● So if a pixel’s DN value is less than DNc, the pixel will be categorized as water otherwise it would be assigned as non water. The selection of cutoff values might be done by ground truthing and by histogram analysis of the (TM 4 + TM7) image. Ground truthing involves taking observation directly form the field and through the ● analysis of aerial photos
  14. 14. 1. WHAT ARE FLOOD PLAINS? Various definition of the floods/ floodplains are given below: ● Base flood: Base flood is defined as flood of 100 years return period. ● Base floodplain: Base floodplain is defined as area inundated due to passing of base flood in the river. This is also synonymous with regulatory floodplain and floodway. ● Regulatory floodplain: The floodplain that is subject to floodplain land use regulations is called regulatory floodplain. It is a floodplain of 100-year return period. ● Floodway: Floodway is floodplain that caries a flood of large magnitude, say 100 year return period, which is required to pass flood without causing much increase in height of the flood. ● Severe flood: It is defined as the flood that causes at least a rise of the stage in the river two meter above the danger level. 1V. FLOOD MAPPING USING PASSIVE REMOTE SENSING SYSTEMS 1.DETERMINING FLOOD AREA DURING FLOOD EVENT Both images are examined pixel by pixel basis i. Water-Water: If a pixel is classified as water on the pre-flood image and water on the during flood image the pixel is not be considered as flooded, rather the pixel represents the regular water body as streams, lakes etc. ii. Non Water-Water: If a pixel is classified as non water on the pre-flood image and water on the during flood image the pixel will be considered as Flooded. iii. Non Water-Non Water: If a pixel is classified as non water on the both image, the pixel will be considered as Non flooded iv. Non Water-Water: If a pixel is found that is classified as non water on the pre flood image but water on during flood image the pixel might be considered as changes in landuse during period of image acquiring or cloud.
  15. 15. 1. WHAT ARE FLOOD PLAINS? Various definition of the floods/ floodplains are given below: ● Base flood: Base flood is defined as flood of 100 years return period. ● Base floodplain: Base floodplain is defined as area inundated due to passing of base flood in the river. This is also synonymous with regulatory floodplain and floodway. ● Regulatory floodplain: The floodplain that is subject to floodplain land use regulations is called regulatory floodplain. It is a floodplain of 100-year return period. ● Floodway: Floodway is floodplain that caries a flood of large magnitude, say 100 year return period, which is required to pass flood without causing much increase in height of the flood. ● Severe flood: It is defined as the flood that causes at least a rise of the stage in the river two meter above the danger level. 1V. FLOOD MAPPING USING PASSIVE REMOTE SENSING SYSTEMS 3.APPLICATION STUDY The methodology discussed above was used to study flood area of North Carolina, USA i. Study area and flood occurrence ● The study area is the city of Greenville, Pit County which situated on the south side of the Tar River. There are four large rivers system that drain the coastal plain in a north-west-south-east direction. In 15 September 1999, Hurricane Floyd made landfall near South Carolina –North Carolina border and proceed to churn through eastern North Carolina. On 21 September Tar River reached its peak flood stage in the study area.
  16. 16. 1. WHAT ARE FLOOD PLAINS? Various definition of the floods/ floodplains are given below: ● Base flood: Base flood is defined as flood of 100 years return period. ● Base floodplain: Base floodplain is defined as area inundated due to passing of base flood in the river. This is also synonymous with regulatory floodplain and floodway. ● Regulatory floodplain: The floodplain that is subject to floodplain land use regulations is called regulatory floodplain. It is a floodplain of 100-year return period. ● Floodway: Floodway is floodplain that caries a flood of large magnitude, say 100 year return period, which is required to pass flood without causing much increase in height of the flood. ● Severe flood: It is defined as the flood that causes at least a rise of the stage in the river two meter above the danger level. 1V. FLOOD MAPPING USING PASSIVE REMOTE SENSING SYSTEMS 3.APPLICATION STUDY The methodology discussed above was used to study flood area of North Carolina, USA ii. Flood Mapping ● After ground thruthing and histogram analysis a cutoff value of 141 was selected for the July image and 109 was selected for the September image. So any pixel having DN value less than 141 will be represented as water on the July image where as any pixel having DN value less than 109 will be considered as water in September image. So based on these cutoff values both images were classified as water and non water.
  17. 17. 1. WHAT ARE FLOOD PLAINS? Various definition of the floods/ floodplains are given below: ● Base flood: Base flood is defined as flood of 100 years return period. ● Base floodplain: Base floodplain is defined as area inundated due to passing of base flood in the river. This is also synonymous with regulatory floodplain and floodway. ● Regulatory floodplain: The floodplain that is subject to floodplain land use regulations is called regulatory floodplain. It is a floodplain of 100-year return period. ● Floodway: Floodway is floodplain that caries a flood of large magnitude, say 100 year return period, which is required to pass flood without causing much increase in height of the flood. ● Severe flood: It is defined as the flood that causes at least a rise of the stage in the river two meter above the danger level. 1V. FLOOD MAPPING USING PASSIVE REMOTE SENSING SYSTEMS 3.APPLICATION STUDY The methodology discussed above was used to study flood area of North Carolina, USA iii. Results
  18. 18. 1. WHAT ARE FLOOD PLAINS? Various definition of the floods/ floodplains are given below: ● Base flood: Base flood is defined as flood of 100 years return period. ● Base floodplain: Base floodplain is defined as area inundated due to passing of base flood in the river. This is also synonymous with regulatory floodplain and floodway. ● Regulatory floodplain: The floodplain that is subject to floodplain land use regulations is called regulatory floodplain. It is a floodplain of 100-year return period. ● Floodway: Floodway is floodplain that caries a flood of large magnitude, say 100 year return period, which is required to pass flood without causing much increase in height of the flood. ● Severe flood: It is defined as the flood that causes at least a rise of the stage in the river two meter above the danger level. 1V. FLOOD MAPPING USING PASSIVE REMOTE SENSING SYSTEMS 3.APPLICATION STUDY The methodology discussed above was used to study flood area of North Carolina, USA iv. Effect of data acquisition date on flood mapping 1. Comparing the flood map of 23 September and 30 September pixel by pixel, it was found that two maps are spatially in agreement of 90.7% . 6.7 % of the area involves the pixels that are classified as flooded on 23 September but as non flooded on 30 September. This 6.7% area may indicate the underestimation of flooded area. 2. Remaining 2.6 % of the study area ware classified as non flooded on 23 September image and as flooded on 30 September image. The authors conclude these scattered pixels as local pooling. 3. In an accuracy analysis they showed that the overall accuracy of the flood map is between 82.5% and 89.7% , whereas the accuracy of determining flooded and non flooded open areas is 96%. 4. The decrease in overall accuracy is due to the presence of some forest areas in the study area in agreement with the inability of TM sensor to penetrate through dense forest canopies.
  19. 19. 1. WHAT ARE FLOOD PLAINS? Various definition of the floods/ floodplains are given below: ● Base flood: Base flood is defined as flood of 100 years return period. ● Base floodplain: Base floodplain is defined as area inundated due to passing of base flood in the river. This is also synonymous with regulatory floodplain and floodway. ● Regulatory floodplain: The floodplain that is subject to floodplain land use regulations is called regulatory floodplain. It is a floodplain of 100-year return period. ● Floodway: Floodway is floodplain that caries a flood of large magnitude, say 100 year return period, which is required to pass flood without causing much increase in height of the flood. ● Severe flood: It is defined as the flood that causes at least a rise of the stage in the river two meter above the danger level. 1V. FLOOD MAPPING USING PASSIVE REMOTE SENSING SYSTEMS 3.APPLICATION STUDY Inundation maps of 23 September 1999
  20. 20. 1. WHAT ARE FLOOD PLAINS? Various definition of the floods/ floodplains are given below: ● Base flood: Base flood is defined as flood of 100 years return period. ● Base floodplain: Base floodplain is defined as area inundated due to passing of base flood in the river. This is also synonymous with regulatory floodplain and floodway. ● Regulatory floodplain: The floodplain that is subject to floodplain land use regulations is called regulatory floodplain. It is a floodplain of 100-year return period. ● Floodway: Floodway is floodplain that caries a flood of large magnitude, say 100 year return period, which is required to pass flood without causing much increase in height of the flood. ● Severe flood: It is defined as the flood that causes at least a rise of the stage in the river two meter above the danger level. 1V. FLOOD MAPPING USING PASSIVE REMOTE SENSING SYSTEMS 3.APPLICATION STUDY Inundation maps of 30 September 1999
  21. 21. 1. WHAT ARE FLOOD PLAINS? Various definition of the floods/ floodplains are given below: ● Base flood: Base flood is defined as flood of 100 years return period. ● Base floodplain: Base floodplain is defined as area inundated due to passing of base flood in the river. This is also synonymous with regulatory floodplain and floodway. ● Regulatory floodplain: The floodplain that is subject to floodplain land use regulations is called regulatory floodplain. It is a floodplain of 100-year return period. ● Floodway: Floodway is floodplain that caries a flood of large magnitude, say 100 year return period, which is required to pass flood without causing much increase in height of the flood. ● Severe flood: It is defined as the flood that causes at least a rise of the stage in the river two meter above the danger level. 1V. FLOOD MAPPING USING PASSIVE REMOTE SENSING SYSTEMS 3.APPLICATION STUDY Comparison of two maps
  22. 22. 1. WHAT ARE FLOOD PLAINS? Various definition of the floods/ floodplains are given below: ● Base flood: Base flood is defined as flood of 100 years return period. ● Base floodplain: Base floodplain is defined as area inundated due to passing of base flood in the river. This is also synonymous with regulatory floodplain and floodway. ● Regulatory floodplain: The floodplain that is subject to floodplain land use regulations is called regulatory floodplain. It is a floodplain of 100-year return period. ● Floodway: Floodway is floodplain that caries a flood of large magnitude, say 100 year return period, which is required to pass flood without causing much increase in height of the flood. ● Severe flood: It is defined as the flood that causes at least a rise of the stage in the river two meter above the danger level. 1V. conclusions Flood mapping with Landsat TM or MSS is economic and might be applied for a large area. But due to lack of capability of TM or MSS sensor to penetrate through cloud and dense forest cover the method is weather dependent and unable to detect flood inundation beneath forest cover. The method applied by Wang et al (2002) used TM 4+TM 7 band to separate water from other land cover. They mentioned at TM 7 water might be distinguished from asphalt roads or rooftops but they didn’t provide any evidence in favor of this. However their method is efficient and economic
  23. 23. 1. WHAT ARE FLOOD PLAINS? Various definition of the floods/ floodplains are given below: ● Base flood: Base flood is defined as flood of 100 years return period. ● Base floodplain: Base floodplain is defined as area inundated due to passing of base flood in the river. This is also synonymous with regulatory floodplain and floodway. ● Regulatory floodplain: The floodplain that is subject to floodplain land use regulations is called regulatory floodplain. It is a floodplain of 100-year return period. ● Floodway: Floodway is floodplain that caries a flood of large magnitude, say 100 year return period, which is required to pass flood without causing much increase in height of the flood. ● Severe flood: It is defined as the flood that causes at least a rise of the stage in the river two meter above the danger level. 1i. references 1. Wang, Y., 2004, Using Landsat 7 TM data acquired days after a flood event to delineate the maximum flood extent on a coastal floodplain, International Journal of Remote Sensing, vol. 25, no. 5, 959–974 2. Wang, Y., Colby, J. D., and Mulcahy, K. A., 2002, An efficient method for mapping flood extent in a coastal floodplain using Landsat TM and DEM data, International Journal of Remote Sensing, vol. 23, no. 18, 3681–3696 3. https://www.nrcan.gc.ca/science-and-data/science-and-research/natural-hazards/flood- mapping-types-and-process/24264 4. Islam, Zahidul. (2007). Determination of Flood Extent Using Remote Sensing. 10.13140/2.1.3549.7289.

Notas del editor

  • INUNDATION MAPS :Maps that show the floodwater extent of real flood events, or that show potential floodwater coverage for flood events of different magnitudes. They are intended to aid in emergency preparedness plans for communities in floodplains and flood hazard zones.

    FLOOD EXTENT MAPS:A type of inundation map that shows the distribution or extent of water during real-time events. They aid in emergency response and preparedness for communities situated within floodplains

    FLOOD HAZARD MAPS: Shows the results of hydrologic and hydraulic investigations, including areas of potential flooding in different scenarios. Flood hazard maps are engineering maps, often used as regulatory maps for land use planning related to flood mitigation
  • FLOOD RISK MAPS: Demonstrates potential negative consequences that communities may face during a flood scenario. Consequences include social, economic, environmental and cultural aspects.

    FLOOD AWARENESS MAPS: Communication maps that provide a narrative along with flood risk/hazard maps and show the history of flooding in their communities. They also show the potential for future flooding and the associated risks

×