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WordPress Template hierarchy

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A presentation breaking down the WordPress Template Hierarchy originally presented at the STL WordPress Meetup on October 26, 2015.

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WordPress Template hierarchy

  1. 1. WordPress Template Hierarchy Jason Yingling
  2. 2. Post vs Page vs Webpage • Webpage – an HTML document being served to a web browser. The final output of your PHP into HTML, CSS, and JS.
  3. 3. Post vs Page vs Webpage • “post” – content stored in the database in the wp_posts table
  4. 4. Post vs Page vs Webpage • Post – A default WordPress post of type “Post” • Page – A default WordPress post of type “Page” • Posts, Pages, and Custom Post Types are all stored together in the wp_posts table of the database with different types (Post, Page, Product, etc.)
  5. 5. Template Terminology • Template Files – PHP files that determine the site’s markup. • Page Templates – “those that apply only to pages to change their look and feel. A page template can be applied to a single page, a page section, or a class of pages.” • Template Tags – Functions used within template files to retrieve and return data. (ex. the_title() or the_content() • Template Hierarchy – The logic WordPress uses to determine which template file to use to display certain data
  6. 6. WordPress as a Factory • posts – The raw materials • Database – The warehouse • WordPress theme – The Assembly Line • The Browser – The consumer • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nR47WZ GTywE
  7. 7. Crucial Templates • style.css – determines the theme’s visual appearance and registers the theme with WordPress • functions.php – used for presentational functionality. • Template Files – determine the site’s markup. Uses PHP to convert data from the database into the HTML output to the browser.
  8. 8. style.css • (image of registration header) • Required by WordPress to register the theme
  9. 9. functions.php • Enqueuing additional stylesheets and scripts • Creating widgetized areas and menus Should only be used for presentational functionality such as: • Registering Post Types or Custom Taxonomies • These should go in a plugin so data is not lost when a theme is switched. Should not be used for content functionality such as:
  10. 10. Template Files • Always used files – files used in every template – header.php – footer.php – sidebar.php (if applicable) • Additional files – files that may or may not be used depending on content / hierarchy – index.php – single.php – page.php – And more
  11. 11. Template Partials • Allows you to easily reuse code throughout the theme • header.php, footer.php, and sidebar.php are some basic examples • content.php is commonly used to pull in post content markup “A template partial is a piece of a template that is included as part of another template, such as a site header.”
  12. 12. Common Template Files • index.php – The main template file. Required in all themes. • style.css – The main stylesheet. Required in all themes. • Header.php – Usually contains site’s doc type, meta info, stylesheets, etc. • single.php – used when a visitor requests a single post. • page.php – used when a visitor requests individual pages • Many more descriptions available on the Codex - https://developer.wordpress.org/themes/basics/templ ate-files/#common-wordpress-template-files
  13. 13. Template Hierarchy • The logic WordPress uses to determine which template file to use to return requested post data
  14. 14. Everything goes back to index.php • No single.php template? WordPress will use index.php • No page.php template? WordPress will use index.php
  15. 15. https://developer.wordpress.org/files/2014/10/template-hierarchy.png
  16. 16. Single Post • single-{post-type}-{slug}.php - (since 4.4) – WP looks for a specific post. Fox example, single-product- shirt.php would work for a product post type with the slug shirt. • single-{post-type}.php – If the post type of the data is Product, WordPress would look for single-product.php • single.php – If the above don’t exist, WordPress then falls back to single.php • singular.php – If single.php doesn’t exist, WP looks for singular.php • index.php - If none of the above exist WordPress falls back to index.php
  17. 17. Page • Custom template file – the page template assigned to the page • page-{slug}.php – If the page slug is recent-news, WordPress looks for page-recent-news.php • page-{id}.php – If the page ID is 6, WordPress looks for page-6.php • page.php • singular.php • Index.php
  18. 18. Template Hierarchy Resources • WordPress Codex image - https://developer.wordpress.org/files/2014/10/t emplate-hierarchy.png • Template Hierarchy in Detail - https://developer.wordpress.org/themes/basics/t emplate-hierarchy/#the-template-hierarchy-in- detail • Interactive Hierarchy map- http://wphierarchy.com/ • Show Current Template Plugin - https://wordpress.org/plugins/show-current- template

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