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Team Dynamics Mod 3 Summary.pdf
Team Dynamics Mod 3 Summary.pdf
Team Dynamics Mod 3 Summary.pdf
Team Dynamics Mod 3 Summary.pdf
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Team Dynamics Mod 3 Summary.pdf
Team Dynamics Mod 3 Summary.pdf
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Team Dynamics Mod 3 Summary.pdf

  1. 1 Jayanti R Pande email: jayantipande17@gmail.com RTMNU MBA Sem 4 – TEAM DYNAMICS [HR] MODULE NO 3: GROUP & TEAM DECISION MAKING CONCEPT OF GROUP A group is a bunch of people who join forces for a common goal, like sharing ideas or information. It can be formal or informal, with or without a leader, and the members may not have specific roles or equal levels of dedication. Examples include business brainstorming sessions, social events, and interest groups. DEFINITION OF GROUP A group is a collection of individuals who come together for a common purpose or interest. Edgar H Schien – “A Group may be defined as social phenomenon in which two or more persons decide to interact with one another, share common ideology & perceive themselves as a group” NATURE OF GROUP 1 Two or More People: A group requires at least two people. 2 Collective Identity: A group has a distinct identity based on shared values, beliefs, or goals. 3 Interaction: Members of a group interact to achieve shared goals. 4 Shared Goal Interest: A group is united by a common goal or interest. WHY DO PEOPLE JOIN GROUPS? 1 People attraction: Shared interests, values, or personalities can attract people to join a group and provide social support and companionship. 2 Group activities: Groups engage in enjoyable, challenging, or rewarding activities that provide opportunities for personal growth and socialization. 3 Group goals: Groups are formed to achieve specific objectives or goals, providing direction and motivation. 4 Security and social affiliation: Being part of a group provides a sense of security, protection, and social affiliation. 5 Status and self-esteem: Being part of a successful or high-status group can boost self- esteem and provide a sense of purpose. 6 Power: Being part of a group provides a sense of power and influence, contributing to a sense of control and autonomy. STAGES OF GROUP FORMATION 1 Forming: Members get to know each other, establish ground rules, and define the group's goals and purpose. 2 Storming: Conflicts and tensions arise as members assert opinions and ideas to establish group norms and values. 3 Norming: The group develops cohesion, compromise, and trust as members work together to achieve common goals. 4 Performing: The group functions effectively with clear roles and responsibilities, mutual support, and high productivity. 5 Adjourning: The group comes to an end, either because the project is complete or members move on to other things, leading to a sense of closure. CLASSIFICATION OF GROUPS 1 Primary & Secondary groups:Primary groups: small, emotional (e.g. family, close friends). Secondary groups: large, task- oriented (e.g. work teams, associations). 2 Membership groups & reference groups: Membership groups: individuals have formal membership (e.g. clubs, orgs). Reference groups: individuals use them as standards for evaluation (e.g. aspirational, social comparison). 3 In groups & out groups: In groups: individuals identify and belong (e.g. sports team, political party). Out groups: individuals do not identify and may view as different or inferior (e.g. rival team, opposing political party). 4 Interest & Friendship groups: Interest groups: formed around shared interests (e.g. hiking club, book club). Friendship groups: formed around personal relationships and shared values (e.g. childhood friends). 5 Formal & Informal groups: Formal groups: established by organization to perform a specific task or achieve a goal (e.g. work teams, committees). Informal groups: emerge spontaneously among members (e.g. lunch groups, social networks). 6 Temporary & Permanent groups:
  2. 2 Jayanti R Pande email: jayantipande17@gmail.com Temporary groups: formed for a specific purpose or period of time (e.g. project teams, task forces). Permanent groups: exist over an extended period of time (e.g. social clubs, families). 7 Nominal & Non-performing groups: Nominal groups: in name only, without interaction or communication among members. Non-performing groups: fail to achieve goals or objectives due to lack of cohesion, coordination, or commitment among members. GROUP STRUCTURE 1 GROUP COMMUNICATION - The exchange of information and ideas among group members, which can be verbal or nonverbal. 2 GROUP SIZE - The number of individuals in a group, which can impact communication, decision-making, and overall dynamics. 3 GROUP ROLES - The expected behaviours and responsibilities of individual members within a group, which can vary depending on the group's purpose and structure. 4 GROUP LEADERSHIP - The process of guiding and directing a group towards a common goal or objective, which can involve various leadership styles and approaches. 5 GROUP NORMS - The unwritten rules and expectations for behavior within a group, which can influence communication, decision- making, and overall cohesiveness. 6 GROUP COHESIVENESS - The degree of unity and loyalty among group members, which can be influenced by factors such as shared goals, norms, and communication patterns. 7 GROUP STATUS - The relative level of power, prestige, and influence among group members, which can impact communication, decision-making, and overall dynamics. GROUP BEHAVIOUR EXTERNAL FACTORS - Environmental factors that can impact group behaviour, such as societal norms, cultural values, and economic conditions. GROUP MEMBER'S RESOURCES - The individual characteristics and resources that each member brings to the group, such as skills, knowledge, and experience. GROUP STRUCTURES - The formal and informal rules and norms that shape the organization and operation of the group, such as roles, communication patterns, and decision-making processes. GROUP PROCESSES - The interactions and dynamics that occur within the group, such as conflict resolution, decision-making, and communication. GROUP TASKS - The specific goals and objectives that the group is trying to achieve, which can influence the group's behaviour and dynamics. PERFORMANCE & SATISFACTION - The outcomes and evaluations of the group's efforts, such as productivity, quality of work, and member satisfaction. ADVANTAGES OF GROUP 1 ENHANCED CREATIVITY AND INNOVATION - Sharing ideas and perspectives leads to more diverse and creative solutions. 2 INCREASED PRODUCTIVITY AND EFFICIENCY - Dividing tasks allows for quicker and more efficient completion of complex tasks. 3 IMPROVED LEARNING AND DEVELOPMENT - Group work provides opportunities for members to learn from one another and develop their interpersonal abilities. 4 ENHANCED DECISION-MAKING - Diverse perspectives and expertise lead to more informed and well-rounded decisions. 5 IMPROVED MORALE AND ENGAGEMENT - Group work increases members' sense of involvement and connection, leading to higher motivation and satisfaction. DISADVANTAGES OF GROUP 1]INEFFICIENT COMMUNICATION - Communication breakdowns and conflicts can arise, hindering productivity and effectiveness. 2]CONFLICT AND TENSION - Differences in opinion and personality clashes can create tension and discord within the group. 3]SOCIAL LOAFING - Some members may not contribute their fair share, relying on others to complete tasks. 4] LACK OF ACCOUNTABILITY - With shared responsibility, individual accountability may be diluted, making it harder to identify and address individual performance issues. 5] POTENTIAL FOR GROUPTHINK - The desire
  3. 3 Jayanti R Pande email: jayantipande17@gmail.com for group harmony can lead to conformity and a lack of critical evaluation, potentially leading to flawed decision-making. CONCEPT OF TEAM A team is a group of individuals working together towards a common goal, with complementary skills and roles, often led by a designated leader. Teams have structured communication channels, decision-making procedures, and shared accountability. Examples include project teams, cross- functional teams, or management teams in the business context. DEFINITION OF TEAM A team is a group of individuals who work together closely and regularly towards achieving a common goal or objective, with shared accountability and complementary skills and roles. Stephen P Robbins – “ A Work Team is a collection of people whose individual efforts result in a level of performance which is greater than the sum of their individual contributions.” NATURE OF TEAM 1 COLLABORATION - Teams work together to achieve a common goal or objective, often requiring a high degree of collaboration and coordination. 2 INTERDEPENDENCE - The success of the team depends on the contributions of each individual member, leading to a high level of interdependence. 3 SHARED ACCOUNTABILITY - Team members share responsibility for achieving the team's goals, and are held accountable for their individual contributions to the team's success. 4 INTERACTION - Teams regularly interact and communicate with one another to share information, make decisions, and resolve conflicts. 5 DYNAMIC - Teams are dynamic and can evolve over time, with changes in membership, roles, and goals influencing their structure and performance. SYNERGY OF TEAM WORK It refers to the idea that the combined efforts of a group of individuals working together are greater than the sum of their individual efforts. In other words, when individuals collaborate and work together effectively in a team, they can achieve more than they could working alone. Team synergy needs following key components- Common Values, Common Purpose, Complementary Talent. TYPES OF TEAM A] PROBLEM-SOLVING TEAMS: Temporary teams of individuals from different departments working together to solve specific organizational problems, such as quality improvement or project teams. B] SELF MANAGED TEAMS OR AUTONOMOUS WORK GROUPS: Self- managed teams are groups of skilled individuals who work autonomously to achieve a common goal, responsible for their own decision-making in manufacturing, product development, or service teams. C] CROSS FUNCTIONAL TEAMS: Temporary groups from different departments who collaborate on specific projects, led by a project manager, to leverage diverse expertise and achieve objectives, such as new product development or process improvement. D] VIRTUAL TEAMS OR GDT (Global Distributed Teams): work remotely from different locations, often across countries and time zones, and rely on technology for communication and collaboration, such as video conferencing and online tools. Examples include software development, customer service, and project teams. TEAM PROCESSES 1 Team objectives: Clear and achievable goals aligned with organizational goals. 2 Participation: Interaction and information sharing among team members. 3 Constructive controversy: Healthy debate and disagreement for better solutions. 4 Error management: Identifying and correcting mistakes to prevent future errors. 5 Creativity & innovation: Generating new ideas through brainstorming and risk-taking. 6 Reflexivity: Reflecting on team processes, identifying areas for improvement, and recognizing success. ESSENTIALS OF EFFECTIVE TEAM 1 Clear goals and roles: Establish team
  4. 4 Jayanti R Pande email: jayantipande17@gmail.com objectives, roles, and responsibilities for direction and alignment. 2 Trust and communication: Build an environment of trust and open communication to foster sharing and idea exchange. 3 Collaboration and participation: Encourage teamwork, knowledge sharing, and participation in decision-making for better problem-solving. 4 Feedback and recognition: Provide regular feedback, recognition, and support to reinforce positive behavior and address issues. 5 Team development: Invest in training, skill development, and team-building activities to strengthen cohesion and performance. IMPORTANCE OF TEAMS 1 Increased productivity 2 Enhanced creativity and innovation 3 Improved problem-solving 4 Better decision-making 5 Increased job satisfaction and employee engagement DIFFERENCE BETWEEN GROUPS & TEAMS Groups 1.Suitable for short-term projects or tasks. 2.Limited sharing of information and expertise. 3.Members are individually accountable for their own work. 4.Focus is on individual contributions rather than group performance. 5.Roles may little concern for other members' needs or opinions. 6. overlap or be unclear. 7.Often led by an appointed leader. 8.Members may not have a shared identity or goal. 9.Examples Can be formed quickly and disbanded easily. 10.include study groups or committees. Teams 1.Suitable for long-term or complex projects. 2.Active sharing of information and expertise. 3.Members are collectively accountable for achieving team goals. 4.Focus is on group performance and achieving shared objectives. 5.Clear roles and responsibilities for each team member. 6.High level of concern for other members' needs and opinions. 7.Leadership is shared or rotates among team members. 8.Strong sense of shared identity and purpose. 9.Require time and effort to form and develop. 10.Examples include sports teams, project teams, or cross-functional teams in a company SOCIAL LOAFING Social loafing is when individuals contribute less in a group setting due to feeling their efforts are not valued, leading to reduced effort. CAUSES OF SOCIAL LOAFING 1 Lack of motivation: Individuals feel their contributions aren't essential or valued, leading to reduced effort. 2 Relaxation due to others' presence: Working in a group reduces individual accountability, resulting in reduced effort. 3 Simple tasks: When tasks are too simple, individuals believe their contributions aren't needed, leading to reduced effort. 4 Dispersion of responsibility: In larger groups, individuals feel less responsible for the task outcome, leading to reduced effort. WAYS OF REDUCING SOCIAL LOAFING 1] Individual Task Assignment: Assigning specific tasks to group members to identify their contributions. 2] Interesting and Important Tasks: Making tasks challenging and valuable to increase motivation and effort. 3] Rewarding Individual Contributions: Recognizing and rewarding individual contributions to enhance value and motivation. 4] Punishment Threats: Implementing consequences to motivate contributions and avoid negative outcomes. GROUP DECISION MAKING Group decision making is the process of making decisions collectively by a group of individuals. It involves a series of steps and techniques that help the group to reach a
  5. 5 Jayanti R Pande email: jayantipande17@gmail.com consensus or agreement on a particular course of action. GROUP DECISION-MAKING PROCESS 1 Problem identification: Identify the problem that needs to be addressed. 2 Problem diagnosis: Analyse the problem to understand its causes and effects. 3 Solution generation: Generate possible solutions to the problem. 4 Solution evaluation: Evaluate each solution based on feasibility and effectiveness. 5 Framing a decision: Make a decision based on gathered information. 6 Follow-up actions: Identify necessary follow-up actions to implement the decision. GROUP DECISION MAKING TECHNIQUES 1 Interacting groups: Members discuss and exchange ideas to generate solutions. 2 Brainstorming: Generating a large number of ideas quickly without evaluation. 3 Nominal group technique: Generating ideas independently and then discussing and evaluating them. 4 Electronic meeting: Using technology for communication and decision-making for geographically dispersed groups. ADVANTAGES OF GROUP DECISION MAKING 1 Diverse perspectives: Groups offer a range of diverse perspectives that can lead to more creative and innovative solutions. 2 Shared knowledge: Group members can share their unique knowledge and expertise, leading to better-informed decisions. 3 Increased acceptance: When group members are involved in the decision-making process, they are more likely to accept and support the decision. 4 Greater commitment: Group decision- making can lead to a greater commitment to the decision because members feel more invested in the outcome. 5 Better problem-solving: By pooling their resources and working together, groups can often come up with more effective problem- solving strategies. TEAM MORALE MORALE- refers to the level of enthusiasm, confidence, and motivation that employees have towards their work and the organization they work for. High morale indicates that employees are satisfied with their job, are committed to the organization's goals, and are motivated to perform at their best. Davis – “ Organisational morale is basically a mental condition of groups & individuals which determines their attitude.” MEASURES TO STRENGHTHEN TEAM MORALE 1 Control: Provide decision-making power and involve employees in decision-making processes 2 Communication: Regularly communicate goals, plans, and updates 3 Recognition: Recognize and reward employee efforts and achievements 4 Flexibility: Offer flexible work hours and remote work options 5 Respect: Listen to employee opinions and treat them fairly 6 Comfortable work environment: Provide comfortable furniture and proper lighting 7 Group collaboration: Foster teamwork through team-building activities and group projects IMPORTANCE OF TEAM MORALE 1 Increases productivity and efficiency 2 Improves communication and collaboration 3 Enhances employee satisfaction and engagement 4 Boosts creativity and innovation 5 Facilitates problem-solving and decision- making GROUP DYNAMICS Group dynamics refers to the interactions and processes that occur within a group or team. It encompasses the social and psychological factors that affect the behavior, attitudes, and performance of group members. DEFINITION Kurt Lewin – “ Group Dynamics deal with internal nature of groups, how they are formed, what structure and processes they adopt, how they function & affect individual members, other groups & organisations.” NATURE OF GROUP DYNAMICS 1 Continuous process: Group dynamics is an ongoing and evolving process. 2 Dynamic: Group dynamics is constantly changing and influenced by internal and external factors.
  6. 6 Jayanti R Pande email: jayantipande17@gmail.com 3 Concerned with group: It focuses on the behaviour, attitudes, and interactions of group members. 4 Rigidity or flexibility: Group dynamics can be rigid or flexible, depending on the group's goals and norms. 5 Defines effectiveness of leader: Leaders must understand and manage group dynamics to be successful. IMPORTANCE OF GROUP DYNAMICS 1 Boost productivity: Better group dynamics leads to higher productivity. 2 Improve communication: Essential for shared goals and conflict resolution. 3 Foster teamwork: Positive dynamics lead to more collaboration. 4 Manage conflicts: Identifying and resolving conflicts in the group. 5 Encourage innovation: Positive dynamics lead to increased creativity.
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