• The word ostomy means an opening which is made
during surgery that brings a piece of the bowel
(intestines) to the outside of the abdomen, i.e. on
the belly ( Certified wound, Ostomy, Continence
•A Colostomy may be temporary or permanent.
•Most permanent colostomies are “ end
•While many temporary colostomie bring the
side of the colon up to an opening in the
abdomen (Johns Hopkins Medicine, 2012).
• Birth defect eg: an imperforate anus
• Serious infection, such as diverticulitis
• Inflammatory bowel disease
• Injury to the colon or rectum
• Partial or complete intestinal or bowel blockage
• Rectal or colon cancer
• Wounds or fistulas in the perineum.
TYPES OF COLOSTOMY
• Loop colostomy
• End colostomy
• Double barrel colostomy
• a loop of colon is pulled through a small incision in your
• The loop is opened up and both pieces are stitched to the
• This is done so both pieces are close together.
• The end still attached to your small intestine will discharge
food waste from your body and the end still attached to the
bottom end of your colon will discharge mucous.
• A loop colostomy is usually done for temporary
• The end of the colon still attached to the upper part
of the gastrointestinal tract is pulled through a small
incision in your abdomen.
• It is stitched to the surrounding skin.
• The other end of the colon is sealed and left inside
• End colostomies are usually permanent
DOUBLE BARREL COLOSTOMY
• This colostomy involves the creation of two separate
stomas on the abdominal wall.
• The proximal (nearest) stoma is the functional end
that is connected to the upper gastrointestinal tract
and will drain stool
ACCORDING TO DURATION
• There are also three types of colostomy. Which one you
have will depend on which part of the colon is used to
create the stoma. The types are:
• Ascending colostomy - created using the ascending colon
and usually located on right side of abdomen. The stool will
be liquid or semi-liquid
• Descending colostomy - created using the ascending colon
and usually located on the right side of the abdomen. Stool
will be soft
• Sigmoid colostomy - created using the last part of the colon
known as the sigmoid colon and is usually located on the
left side of the abdomen. Stool can be soft or firm.
PRE OPERATIVE CARE
• Psychological preparation : Assure the patient that 'Ostomy' can be
care for without it interfering with daily activities and social life
• Nutrition : Alow residue diet is given for at least 1 - 2 days prior to
• Care of bowel : “Sterilization” of the bowel prior to surgery to
reduce bacterial flora can achieved through administration of poorly
absorbed antiboitics such as neomycin 1gm 4 hourly for 1 - 3 days ;
laxatives and enema may be done ( Lyerly, 2013).
POST OPERATIVE CARE
• Skin care : Assess the skin for sign of irritation, or
breakdown ; apply skin barrier paste.
• Psychosocial Adaptation : The nurse should help the patient
to accept the colostomy and teach the neccesary care and
• Nutrition : The colostomatew is started on a light, low
residue diet (Patel, 2012).
• Patient Health Education : Provide written, verbal and
psychomotor instruction on colostomy care , pouch
management, skin care and irrigation for the client.
• Medications : Some medications or nutritional supplements
may change the colour, odor or consistency of stool just like
• Patient education and post medication observation are
• Control of Odor : Control odor by a clean odor free, well -
fitting appliance ; regular change of bag, cleaning and use
• Applying an ostomy appliance : The stoma must be
measured so that the right size appliance can be chosen.
The pouch attaches over the stoma sand is fastened unto
PURPOSE OF STOMA CARE
• Skin protection and care
• Receptacle for drainage
• Patient acceptance and self care
• For cleanliness and control odour
• Empty fecal contents
• Prepare bowel for surgery or diagnostic procedures
• Regular cycle of stool examination
• Prevents accidental emptying of bowel
• A clean tray containing :
• Kidney tray or paper bag
• Pair of clean gloves
• Bed pan
• NS or Basin with warm water
• Dressing swab
• Gauze pad
• Pen or Pencil
• Colostomy bag
• Stoma measuring guide
• Skin barrier paste
• Gather equipment.
• Encourage the client to look at the stoma.
• Explain the procedure to the patient.
• Provide privacy.
• perform hand hygiene and wear gloves.
• Spread makintosh and draw sheet.
• Remove clamp and empty the content into bed pan.
• Rinse the pouch with tepid water or NS.
• Discard the disposable pouch in paper bag.
• Assess the stoma for colour, swelling, trauma, and
healing. Stoma should be moist and pink.
• Cover the stoma with a gauze piece.
• Clean peristomal region gently with warm tap water
using gauze pad. dry by patting the skin.
• DON'T SCRUB THE SKIN.
• Remove gauze and clean stoma with dressing swab.
• Problems breathing
• Reactions to medications
• Bleeding inside your belly
• Damage to nearby organs
• Development of hernia at the site of the surgical cut
• falling of the stoma (prolaps of the colostomy)
• Infecion, especially in the lungs, urinary tract or belly
• Narrowing or blockage of the colostomy opening (stoma)
• Skin irritation
• Wound breaking open ( Johns Hopkins Medicin, 2012)
• Record the procedure with following details :
• Date & Time
• Coonsistency of faecal matter
• Sign of any infection
• A colostomy is a lifesaving surgery that nables a
person to enjoy a full range of activities, including
travelling, sports, family life and work.
• Colostomy is performed for many different diseases
and conditions and therefore can be temporary or
• Proper education pre and post surgery, help
improves clients quality of life.
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