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Presented by:
Name: Krishna
M.F.Sc. 2nd Sem.
Dept. of Aquaculture
College of fisheries,
(JAU), Veraval - 362265
BACTERIAL ...
INTRODUCTION
 A disease is a particular abnormal condition, a disorder of a structure or function, that
affects part or a...
 Viral infections
 Bacterial infections, such as Pseudomonas fluorescens leading to fin rot and
fish dropsy
 Fungal inf...
BACTERIA
 Bacteria are not visible to the naked eye.
 These microorganisms are of very small dimensions, usually between...
BACTERIAL DISEASES IN FISH
 Fish are susceptible to a wide variety of bacterial pathogens.
 Many of these bacteria capab...
COMMON BACTERIAL DISEASES AND PATHOHEN
S. No. Diseases Causative agent Species affected Treatment
1. Columnaris Disease Fl...
S. No. Diseases Causative agent Species affected Treatment
11. Filamentous Bacterial
Disease
Leucothrix sp., Thiothrix
sp....
 lethargic swimming
 Loss of appetite
 Respiratory distress
 Jumping from the water
 Colour of gill changed
 Fins be...
BACTERIAL DISEASES IN
FINFISHES
COLUMNARIS DISEASE
Causative agent:
Flavobacterium columnare.
Species affected:
Ayu, tilapia, Common carp, channel catfish...
CONT…
Diagnosis:
Columnaris disease can be presumptively diagnosed from disease signs on the skin
and gills of the host an...
EDWARDSIELLOSIS
Causative agent:
Edwardsiella tarda
Species affected:
Tilapia, channel catfish, mullet, carp etc.
Gross si...
CONT…
Diagnosis:
 The bacterium is easily isolated from muscle and internal organs of clinically
diseased fish on most ge...
VIBRIOSIS
Causative agent:
Vibrio alginolyticus, V. anguillarum and V. vulnificus.
Species affected:
Grouper, rabbitfish, ...
CONT…
Diagnosis:
 Squash preparations of kidney, liver, spleen, necrotic muscle tissue and other
organs reveal the bacter...
MOTILE AEROMONAD SEPTICEMIA
Causative agent:
Aeromonas hydrophila, A. caviae, and A. sobria.
Species affected:
Tilapia, mi...
CONT…
Diagnosis:
 Squash preparation of the kidney is useful when searching for the etiological agent
of the disease.
 T...
PSEUDOMONAD SEPTICEMIA OR RED SPOT DISEASE
Causative agent:
Pseudomonas fluorescens, P. anguilliseptica, and P. chlororaph...
CONT…
Diagnosis:
 The organisms can usually be isolated from the kidney and other internal organs of
affected fish, as we...
STREPTOCOCCAL INFECTION
Causative agent:
Streptococcus sp.
Species affected:
Seabass (Lates calcarifer), tilapia (Oreochro...
CONT…
Diagnosis:
 The pathogen grows easily on tryptic soy agar supplemented with 0.5% glucose.
 Colonies develop after ...
MYCOBACTERIOSIS OR PISCINE TUBERCULOSIS
Causative agent:
Mycobacterium marinum, M. fortuitum and M. chelonae
Species affec...
CONT…
Diagnosis:
 Primary isolation of fish mycobacteria is best achieved using Ogawa and
Lowenstein-Jensen media.
 All ...
EYE DISEASE
Causative agent:
Aeromonas liquifaciens
Species affected:
Catla (Catla catla)
Gross signs:
 The eye ball get ...
DROPSY
Causative agent:
Aeromonas hydrophila
Species affected:
Catla catla, Labeo rohita and Cirrhinus mrigala
Gross signs...
ULCER DISEASE
Causative agent:
Species of Aeromonas and Pseudomonas.
Species affected:
IMC, Exotic carp and cat fishes
Gro...
FIN ROT AND TAIL ROT
Causative agent:
A. hydrophila and Pseudomaonas fluorescens
Species affected:
IMC, Exotic carp and ca...
BACTERIAL DISEASES IN
SHELLFISHES
FILAMENTOUS BACTERIAL DISEASE
Causative agent:
Leucothrix sp., Thiothrix sp., Flexibacter sp., Cytophaga sp., Flavobacteri...
CONT…
Diagnosis:
Direct microscopic examination of wet mounts of larvae or postlarvae, appendages
and gill filaments excis...
SHELL DISEASE, BROWN/BLACK SPOT
Causative agent:
Vibrio, Aeromonas, and Pseudomonas groups.
Species affected:
Penaeus mono...
CONT…
Diagnosis:
 Diseased penaeids are examined for appearance of multifocal melanized cuticular
lesions on the cuticle ...
LUMINOUS BACTERIAL DISEASE
Causative agent:
Vibrio harveyi and V. splendidus
Species affected:
Penaeus monodon, P. merguie...
CONT…
Diagnosis:
 The disease may be detected by bacteriological, histological, serological,
fluorescent antibody techniq...
NON-LUMINOUS VIBRIOS
Causative agent:
Vibrio parahaemolyticus, V. alginolyticus, V. anguillarum, V. vulnificus,V. damsela,...
CONT…
Diagnosis:
Infection may be detected by bacteriological, serological, slide agglutination, FAT
and ELISA, and by Pol...
SEPTIC HEPATOPANCREATIC NECROSIS
Causative agent:
Vibrio parahaemolyticus, V. alginolyticus, V. anguillarium, V. vulnificu...
SUMMERY
 Fish and crustaceans that are not weakened by poor environmental conditions,
or by other causes, such as parasit...
Bacterial disease in finfish and shellfish
Bacterial disease in finfish and shellfish
Bacterial disease in finfish and shellfish
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Bacterial disease in finfish and shellfish

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Bacterial disease in finfish and shellfish

  1. 1. Presented by: Name: Krishna M.F.Sc. 2nd Sem. Dept. of Aquaculture College of fisheries, (JAU), Veraval - 362265 BACTERIAL DISEASES IN FISH AND SHELLFISH
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION  A disease is a particular abnormal condition, a disorder of a structure or function, that affects part or all of an organism.  The study of disease is called pathology which includes the study of cause.  It may be caused by external factors such as pathogens, or it may be caused by internal dysfunctions particularly of the immune system such as an immunodeficiency, or a hypersensitivity including allergies and autoimmunity.  The appearance and development of a fish disease is the result of the interaction among pathogen, host and environment.
  3. 3.  Viral infections  Bacterial infections, such as Pseudomonas fluorescens leading to fin rot and fish dropsy  Fungal infections  Water mould infections, such as Saprolegnia sp.  Metazoan parasites, such as copepods  Unicellular parasites, such as Ichthyophthirius multifiliis leading to ich  Certain parasites like Helminths for example Eustrongylides. PATHOGENS WHICH CAN CAUSE FISH DISEASES
  4. 4. BACTERIA  Bacteria are not visible to the naked eye.  These microorganisms are of very small dimensions, usually between 0.5 and 10 microns (μm).  But, when bacteria multiply in great numbers on a solid medium, they form visible colonies representing millions or billions of individual cells.  The cells can be seen only under a microscope from a smear stained with a dye on a microscope slide.  Bacteria differ from other cells in that they are prokaryotic (lacking a nuclear membrane).  All its genetic material is linked in a single chromosome.  The cytoplasm is densely packed with RNA and is finely granular because of the presence of ribosome.
  5. 5. BACTERIAL DISEASES IN FISH  Fish are susceptible to a wide variety of bacterial pathogens.  Many of these bacteria capable of causing disease are considered by some to be saprophytic in nature.  This bacteria only become pathogens when fishes are physiologically unbalanced, nutritionally deficient, or there are other stressors, i.e., poor water quality, overstocking, which allow opportunistic bacterial infections to proceed.  Some of these bacterial pathogens of fishes are fastidious and require special growth media for laboratory culture. Others grow at different temperatures, dependent upon the aquatic environmental temperature of the fish.
  6. 6. COMMON BACTERIAL DISEASES AND PATHOHEN S. No. Diseases Causative agent Species affected Treatment 1. Columnaris Disease Flavobacterium columnare Ayu, tilapia, carp, channel catfish, goldfish, rohu etc. Copper sulfate Oxytetracycline 2. Edwardsiellosis Edwardsiella tarda Tilapia, channel catfish, mullet, carp etc. Oxytetracycline Improve water quality 3. Vibriosis Vibrio alginolyticus, & V. vulnificus. Grouper, rabbitfish, milkfish, seabass etc. Oxytetracycline nitrofurazone 4. Aeromonad Septicemia Aeromonas hydrophila & A. caviae Tilapia, milkfish, catfish, snakehead etc. Avoid overcrowding of fish in holding facilities. 5. Red Spot Disease Pseudomonas fluorescens Milkfish, goldfish, tilapia Maintain proper stock, ensure water quality. 6. Streptococcal Infection Streptococcus sp. Seabass, tilapia, rabbitfish, ayu etc. Avoid overcrowding erythromycin 7. Mycobacteriosis Mycobacterium marinum Siamese fighting fish Apply chloramine B or T 8. Eye Disease A. liquefacience Catla catla Treatment with KMnO4 9. Dropsy A. hydrophila Catla, rohu and mrigal Treatment with KMnO4 10. Ulcer Disease Aeromonas and Pseudomonas sp. IMC, exotic carp & catfish Treatment with KMnO4, Sulphadiazine, Terramycin & chloramphenicol
  7. 7. S. No. Diseases Causative agent Species affected Treatment 11. Filamentous Bacterial Disease Leucothrix sp., Thiothrix sp. etc. Penaeus monodon, P. merguiensis, P. indicus Cutrine Plus, copper 12. Shell Disease, Brown/Black Spot Vibrio, Aeromonas, and Pseudomonas Penaeus monodon, P. merguiensis, P. indicus Minimize handling and overcrowding, Induce molting 13. Luminous Bacterial Disease Vibrio harveyi and V. splendidus Penaeus monodon, P. merguiensis, and P. indicus Use immune prophylaxis 14. Non-luminous Vibrios Vibrio parahaemolyticus, V. alginolyticus etc. Penaeus monodon, P. vannamei, P. japonicus Minimize handling and overcrowding Apply antibiotics and antibacterial 15. Septic Hepatopancreatic necrosis Vibrio sp. P. monodon Maintain water quality and habitat Cont…
  8. 8.  lethargic swimming  Loss of appetite  Respiratory distress  Jumping from the water  Colour of gill changed  Fins become frayed COMMON SYMPTOMS
  9. 9. BACTERIAL DISEASES IN FINFISHES
  10. 10. COLUMNARIS DISEASE Causative agent: Flavobacterium columnare. Species affected: Ayu, tilapia, Common carp, channel catfish, goldfish, rohu. Gross signs:  The appearance of a white spot on some part of the head, gills, fin or body.  A zone with a distinct reddish tinge usually surrounds this.  On the gills, the lesions are more necrotic  On the skin, they develop into hemorrhagic ulcers. Effects on host:  F. columnare is an opportunistic pathogen widely distributed in the water.  F. columnare attacks fish primarily through the gills or abraded epidermal areas.
  11. 11. CONT… Diagnosis: Columnaris disease can be presumptively diagnosed from disease signs on the skin and gills of the host and from squash preparations made from scrapings of the affected areas. Prevention and control:  copper sulfate dip at 40 mg/L for 20 min or 500 mg/L for 1 min  oxolinic acid dip at 1 mg/L for 24 h  sulphamerazine and oxytetracycline at 220 mg/kg/day for 10 days followed by 50 to 75 mg/kg/day for 10 days.
  12. 12. EDWARDSIELLOSIS Causative agent: Edwardsiella tarda Species affected: Tilapia, channel catfish, mullet, carp etc. Gross signs:  Edwardsiella tarda infection manifests itself by the presence of small, 3-5 mm cutaneous or skin lesions located dorsolaterally on the body.  The skin loses pigmentation.  A foul smelling gas is emitted when the skin is incised.  Internally, there is generalized hyperemia and enlargement of the liver and kidney. Effects on host:  E. tarda infection usually occurs during the warm, summer months.  Affected fish lose mobility of the caudal or tail portion of the body.  E. tarda infection may cause lesions in the dermis, musculature and visceral organs of the host.
  13. 13. CONT… Diagnosis:  The bacterium is easily isolated from muscle and internal organs of clinically diseased fish on most general-purpose media such as brain heart infusion agar (BHIA) and tryptic soy agar (TSA).  Small punctate colonies develop in 24-48 h on inoculated media. Prevention and control:  Improve water quality;  Reduce stocking density;  Apply oxytetracycline at 55 mg/kg fish for 10 days.
  14. 14. VIBRIOSIS Causative agent: Vibrio alginolyticus, V. anguillarum and V. vulnificus. Species affected: Grouper, rabbitfish, milkfish, seabass, sea bream etc. Gross signs:  The first signs of the disease are usually anorexia or loss of appetite, with darkening either of the whole fish or of particular areas of the dorsum or back.  Other common signs of vibriosis are hemorrhagic spot on different parts of the body including necrotic fins, eye opacity and exophthalmia. Effects on hosts:  Vibriosis usually occurs in the warm summer months, especially when the stocking densities are high.  When an outbreak occurs, mortalities of 50% or higher can be observed in young fish.  When harvested, fish may have large necrotic lesions in the middle of the muscle mass.
  15. 15. CONT… Diagnosis:  Squash preparations of kidney, liver, spleen, necrotic muscle tissue and other organs reveal the bacterium.  The pathogen can usually be isolated from infected organs in pure culture using standard bacteriological media. Prevention and control:  Maintain good water quality, good husbandry procedures and lower stocking densities.  Apply oxytetracycline at 77 mg/kg of fish or nitrofurazone at 56 mg/kg of fish for 10 days.  Vaccinate.
  16. 16. MOTILE AEROMONAD SEPTICEMIA Causative agent: Aeromonas hydrophila, A. caviae, and A. sobria. Species affected: Tilapia, milkfish, goldfish, catfish, snakehead, climbing perch, gourami, mullet etc. Gross signs:  External signs of motile aeromonad disease vary from darkening in color,  The ulcers are usually shallow and the surface may go brown as it necrotizes or decays.  Other disease signs are scale loss, mouth sores, exophthalmia, and eye opacity. Effects on host:  The organisms are usually transmitted through the mouth but may also enter through the skin or gill abrasions.  Mortality as high as 80% may occur among physically stressed, nutritionally deficient, anoxious or injured young fish.
  17. 17. CONT… Diagnosis:  Squash preparation of the kidney is useful when searching for the etiological agent of the disease.  The organisms appear as rod-shaped bacteria, usually in single or pairs but rarely in short chains or filaments. Prevention and control:  Avoid overcrowding of fish in holding facilities.
  18. 18. PSEUDOMONAD SEPTICEMIA OR RED SPOT DISEASE Causative agent: Pseudomonas fluorescens, P. anguilliseptica, and P. chlororaphis. Species affected: Milkfish (Chanos chanos), goldfish (Carassius auratus), tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) Gross signs:  The disease causes small hemorrhages in the skin around the mouth and opercula and along the ventral or abdominal surfaces.  The body surface may ooze blood and slime in severe cases but there is no reddening of the fins and anus. Effects on host:  Pseudomonas spp. enters the host either through the oral route or through broken or abraded skin and damaged gills.  The bacteria and their toxin destroy body tissues, organs and functions.  Dysfunctions of the different body organs may lead to mortality of up to 70%.
  19. 19. CONT… Diagnosis:  The organisms can usually be isolated from the kidney and other internal organs of affected fish, as well as from the lesion.  They grow well on most common laboratory media such as BHIA, TSA and NA. Prevention and control:  Maintain proper stock management procedures, ensure water quality and reduce stocking density.  Transfer in a tank and raise temperature to 26-27°C and maintain for about 2 weeks.
  20. 20. STREPTOCOCCAL INFECTION Causative agent: Streptococcus sp. Species affected: Seabass (Lates calcarifer), tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), rabbitfish (Siganus guttatus), ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis) etc. Gross signs: Erratic swimming, darkening of body color, unilateral or bilateral exopthalmia, corneal opacity, hemorrhages on the opercula and the bases of the fins and ulceration of body surface are the most common clinical signs. Effects on host:  Infected fish have difficulty ventilating, and lose the ability to orient themselves in the water.  The eye becomes opaque and necrotic, conditions that can result to blindness.  Fish swim in a spiraling motion.
  21. 21. CONT… Diagnosis:  The pathogen grows easily on tryptic soy agar supplemented with 0.5% glucose.  Colonies develop after 24-48 h of incubation at 20-30°C. Prevention and control:  Avoid overcrowding, overfeeding and unnecessary handling or transport.  Remove and slaughter promptly all moribund fish in ponds or net cages at early stage of infection to prevent outbreak or reduce severity of disease.  Apply erythromycin at 25-50mg/kg body weight of fish for 4-7 days.
  22. 22. MYCOBACTERIOSIS OR PISCINE TUBERCULOSIS Causative agent: Mycobacterium marinum, M. fortuitum and M. chelonae Species affected: Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens) Gross signs:  Listlessness, anorexia, emaciation, exopthalmia, skin discoloration and external lesions ranging from scale loss to nodules, ulcers and fin necrosis are signs of advancing infection. Effects on host:  Initially the pigment will fade, and the fish appear sluggish with loss of appetite.  Skin ulcers will develop.  Fin and tail rot and loss of scale may also be seen.  Mortalities will then be observed.
  23. 23. CONT… Diagnosis:  Primary isolation of fish mycobacteria is best achieved using Ogawa and Lowenstein-Jensen media.  All fish mycobacterium have been cultured at 20-30°C for 2 to 30 days.  The isolates are strongly acid-fast, rod-shaped, weakly gram-positive, cord forming, non-motile and non-spore forming. Prevention and control:  Sanitation, disinfection, and destruction of carrier fishes are the primary methods of controlling mycobacteriosis.  Avoid feeding fish with contaminated fish products. Pasteurize food before use.  Apply chloramine B or T at 10 mg/l for 24 h.
  24. 24. EYE DISEASE Causative agent: Aeromonas liquifaciens Species affected: Catla (Catla catla) Gross signs:  The eye ball get putrified leading to the death of fish. Treatment:  Treatment with Potassium permanganate @ 1mg/PL and maintaining high dissolve oxygen content in the medium are helpful in checking the spread of the disease.
  25. 25. DROPSY Causative agent: Aeromonas hydrophila Species affected: Catla catla, Labeo rohita and Cirrhinus mrigala Gross signs:  There is accumulation of water in the body cavity or in scale pockets thereby making the scale loose.  The abdomen of the fish gets distended.  Mild ulceration may occur due to secondary infection. Effect on host:  Very often due to secondary infection scales fall off and ulceration become deep with necrosis. Treatment:  The water body is treated with 1mg/PL Potassium permanganate.  Application of Potassium permanganate @ 5mg/L is recommended for containing the disease
  26. 26. ULCER DISEASE Causative agent: Species of Aeromonas and Pseudomonas. Species affected: IMC, Exotic carp and cat fishes Gross signs:  Initially small pimple like reddish areas appear on the body. Effect on host:  The epidermal cells as well as the scales are lost and lesions become prominent.  In advanced cases large scale cutaneous haemorrhages occur. Treatment:  Pond treatment with Potassium permanganate @ 5mg/L.  Sulphadiazine application in feed @ 100mg/kg of feed.  Terramycin treatment @ 70-80mg/kg body weight with feed for 10-12 days.
  27. 27. FIN ROT AND TAIL ROT Causative agent: A. hydrophila and Pseudomaonas fluorescens Species affected: IMC, Exotic carp and cat fishes Gross signs:  Erosion and disintegration of fin and tails.  As the lesion develops the outer fin margin becomes frayed and disintegration of soft tissues between fin rays starts. Treatment:  Give dip treatment to the infected fish with copper sulphate (CuSO4) for 1-2 minutes at a concentration of 2 mg/ lit.  This may be followed by feeding tetracycline to the infected fish along with feed at a concentration of 10-15 mg/ kg body weight of fish.
  28. 28. BACTERIAL DISEASES IN SHELLFISHES
  29. 29. FILAMENTOUS BACTERIAL DISEASE Causative agent: Leucothrix sp., Thiothrix sp., Flexibacter sp., Cytophaga sp., Flavobacterium sp. Species affected: Penaeus monodon, P. merguiensis, P. indicus Gross signs: Presence of fine, colorless, thread-like growth on the body surface and gills as seen under a microscope. Effects on host:  Infected eggs show a thick mat of filaments on the surface.  In larvae and postlarvae, normal respiration, feeding, locomotion, and molting may be seriously impaired, resulting in slower growth rates.  Frequent molting does not allow adequate time for the bacteria to accumulate on the exoskeleton.  Mortality is due to hypoxia.
  30. 30. CONT… Diagnosis: Direct microscopic examination of wet mounts of larvae or postlarvae, appendages and gill filaments excised from juvenile or adult shrimp, and of filamentous organisms attached to external surfaces of the cuticle. Prevention and control:  Maintain good water quality with optimum dissolved oxygen and low organic matter levels.  Apply Cutrine Plus at 0.15 ppm copper in 24 h flowthrough treatments  Apply 0.5 ppm copper in 4 to 6-h static treatments for PL 2 and older.
  31. 31. SHELL DISEASE, BROWN/BLACK SPOT Causative agent: Vibrio, Aeromonas, and Pseudomonas groups. Species affected: Penaeus monodon, P. merguiensis, P. indicus Gross signs:  The disease manifests itself as brownish to black, single or multiple, eroded areas on the general body cuticle, appendages, and gills.  In larval and post larval stages, the affected appendage shows a cigarette butt-like appearance. Effects on host:  Infection usually starts at sites of punctures or injuries caused by the telson or rostrum.  The bacteria produce extracellular lipases, proteases, and chitinases, which together erode the multiple-layered cuticle, resulting in the development of the disease.
  32. 32. CONT… Diagnosis:  Diseased penaeids are examined for appearance of multifocal melanized cuticular lesions on the cuticle or the general body surface, the appendages, or the gills.  Diagnosis may also be made by bacteriological (isolation, purification and identification) and serological (slide agglutination) methods. Prevention and control:  Maintain good water quality and use nutritionally adequate diets.  Keep organic load of the water at low levels by removing sediments  Minimize handling and overcrowding and reduce other forms of stress.  Avoid injuries to the exoskeleton of the shrimps
  33. 33. LUMINOUS BACTERIAL DISEASE Causative agent: Vibrio harveyi and V. splendidus Species affected: Penaeus monodon, P. merguiensis, P. indicus Gross signs:  Shrimps become weak and opaque-white.  Affected shrimps often swim to the pond surface and edges.  Heavily infected shrimps in tanks and ponds show a continuous greenish glow when observed in total darkness. Effects on host:  The hepatopancreas is the target organ of infection.  These lesions affect the digestive function of the organ as the necrotic parts become non-functional.  Total necrosis and dysfunction lead to death, while partial dysfunction causes slow growth as not all tubules function in digestion, absorption and storage.
  34. 34. CONT… Diagnosis:  The disease may be detected by bacteriological, histological, serological, fluorescent antibody technique (FAT) and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using specific antibodies] methods. Prevention and control:  Disinfect incoming water and use filtration equipment to prevent entry of luminous bacteria into the hatchery system.  Use immune prophylaxis or vaccination.  Monitor bacterial population and diversity in the intake and rearing waters of the shrimp pond.  Apply antibiotics and other antibacterial substances only as the last resort.
  35. 35. NON-LUMINOUS VIBRIOS Causative agent: Vibrio parahaemolyticus, V. alginolyticus, V. anguillarum, V. vulnificus,V. damsela,V. fluvialis andV. penaeicida. Species affected: Penaeus monodon, P. vannamei, P. japonicus Gross signs:  Affected shrimp may show erratic or disoriented swimming alternating with periods of lethargy.  There is loss of appetite. General signs of severe stress include opaqueness of abdominal muscle, anorexia and expansion of chromatophores. Effects on host:  Mortality in some instances is nearly 100% of affected population.  Majority of cases of vibriosis is secondary in nature, occurring as a result of other primary conditions, including other infectious diseases, nutritional diseases, extreme stress, wounds, etc.
  36. 36. CONT… Diagnosis: Infection may be detected by bacteriological, serological, slide agglutination, FAT and ELISA, and by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Prevention and control:  Maintain good water quality and use nutritionally adequate diets.  Minimize handling and overcrowding; reduce effects of other forms of stress.  Perform immune prophylaxis or vaccination.  Apply antibiotics and antibacterial substances only as a last resort.
  37. 37. SEPTIC HEPATOPANCREATIC NECROSIS Causative agent: Vibrio parahaemolyticus, V. alginolyticus, V. anguillarium, V. vulnificus, V. fluvials Species affected: Penaeus monodon Gross signs:  Certain portion in the hepatopancreas turn black and are degenerated. Prevention and control:  Vibriosis is associated with the associated with water quality of the culture area of shrimp.  Treatment of vibriosis must always involve improving the habitat.  The best management practices should be adopted.
  38. 38. SUMMERY  Fish and crustaceans that are not weakened by poor environmental conditions, or by other causes, such as parasitic infestation, nutritional deficiency, handling stress, or chemical intoxication, are more resistant to bacterial infections.  This is due to the presence of a large amount of bactericidal substances in the blood, which helps overcome infections.  So, the best precaution against the occurrence of bacterial infections is to provide the fish with optimum environ-mental conditions, adequate amounts of the right kinds of food and avoidance of stress, including overcrowding.  Vaccination/ immunization and genetic manipulation (i.e., the development of specific pathogen resistant fry) are also some ways of preventing bacterial diseases.  The use of antibiotics should always be an option of the last resort.
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This power point show all the points related to bacterial diseases and its control in aquaculture.

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