1. NAME: KANKSHI MALAVI
PROGRAM: BA.H (LIBERAL
ARTS AND HUMAN SCIENCES)
MODULE LEADER: DR. MEGH
2. What is Representativeness Heuristic?
Because once we approximate the likelihood of something
happening premised around how close it is to a known situation,
we use the representativeness heuristic. In other words, we
compare it to an existing situation, prototype, or stereotype.
The representativeness heuristic estimates the likelihood of doing
something to fall into
a particular category
based on how closely
it reflects or is
representative of the
category's typical or
The problem with the
heuristic is that when
we have to answer
questions like "What is the chances that A relates to that from B?"
people have been not likely to account for deterministic or logical
connections that exist between A and B. Rather, we decide whether
A is representative of (or "similar to") B. To put it another way, the
representativeness heuristic employs similarity rather than more
complex probabilistic and logical explanations.
Example: Representativeness heuristic and prototypes This is because
they don`t resemble the image or stereotype of a professor you have in
Like other heuristics, making judgments based on representativeness
is intended to work as a type of mental shortcut, allowing us to make
decisions quickly. In their classic experiment, Tversky and Kahneman
gave participants a description of a person named Tom, who was
orderly, detail-oriented, competent, self-centred, with a strong moral
What the researchers found was that representativeness led people to
believe that Tom was an engineering major. In 2002, Kahneman was
awarded the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Science for his
research on factors that affect judgment and decision-making in the
face of uncertainty.
Why does the Representativeness Heuristic occur?
1. We use mental shortcuts or heuristics to solve problems. Although
heuristics yield fairly good responses, the downside is that they often
cause us to oversimplify reality.
2. We rely on categories to make sense of the world around us. These
categories are built around certain prototypes of what the average
member of the category looks like.
For example, we recognize a snake when we see one, even if we
don`t know exactly what type of snake it is.
3. Reliance on similarity leads people to ignore “base rate” information, or
how often an event occurs.
4. Why does the Representativeness Heuristic
The representativeness heuristic is pervasive and can play a major role in
many real-life decisions and judgments. In many cases, this can lead to poor
judgments that can have serious consequences.
1. Criminal justice: Jurors may make judgments about guilt based on how
closely a defendant matches their prototype of a "guilty" suspect or how
well the crime represents a certain crime category.
For example, a person accused of abducting a child for ransom may be
more likely to be viewed as guilty than someone accused of kidnapping
an adult for no ransom.
2. Healthcare: Doctors and healthcare professionals may make diagnostic
and treatment decisions based on how well a patient and their symptoms
match an existing prototype. Unfortunately, this can lead professionals to
overestimate similarity and to ignore other relevant information.
3. Interpersonal perceptions: We tend to develop ideas about how people in
certain roles should behave. A librarian, on the other hand, might be
viewed as being quiet, organized, and reserved.
4. Stereotypes: Because people are so prone to drawing on prototypes to
guide decisions, it can also lead to problems such as prejudice. The
prototypes people hold can become stereotypes, which lead people to
make prejudiced judgments of other people.6 Such stereotypes can also
lead to systemic discrimination against different groups of people.
5. How to avoid Representativeness Heuristic?
The representativeness heuristic isn`t easy to avoid, but there are some things
that you can do to help minimize its effects.
1. Increasing awareness of this tendency: According to Kahneman, once
individuals realize that they are applying the representativeness heuristic,
those who are more likely to right themselves as well as make more
2. Checking for bias through representing on ones judgements: Recently
spent a few moments pondering on how favouritism might be influencing
your options as you decide things regarding individuals or events.
3. Applying common sense to problems: When solving the problems,
attempt to think through them logically. It could not only be highly
beneficial to understand a little about considering basic for priority
thinking but also strawman arguments.
4. Requesting input from others: Since it can be challenging to determine
the application of predictive value within your own thinking, it may be
beneficial to obtain feedback from someone else. Describe your reasoning
and request them to glance for any implicit weakn
1. What do you feel or think about tattooed man?
2. Do you think a tattooed person will face problem while finding jobs? (yes/
3. Do you find them attractive or otherwise? (yes then why?)
4. Do you ever feel like getting a tattoo after watching one?
5. Does voting based on image is correct method?
6. Does voting based image affect voter?
7. Under the majority rule based on image voting in our country?
8. The image and the vote can be effected on Candidate Presentation on voter
preference what do you think?
9. What do you think about rule breaking?
10.This type of stereotypes are good for people or society?
11.Does any type of situation affected by any negative stereotypes?
12.What do you call criminal investigations?
13.What is your first reaction while see them? (Reason)
14.If someone you don’t like and you heard positive talk then how will you
reaction on that? (yes or no)
15.Does first impression is last impression what do you think? Give reason.
16.Judging people by the walk or speaking etc are good signs?
17.Do find something attractive while buying any product?
18.Do you find discounts items are good to buy them?
19.What do you feel customers are attracted towards buy one get offers?
20.What is biggest competitor in market from your point of view?