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TSLB3033 Principles and Practice in English Language Teaching - Grammar-Translation Method

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Bachelor of Teaching Programme (PISMP)
Teaching of English as a Second Language (TESL)
TSLB3033 Principles and Practice in English Language Teaching
Topic 2 : ELT Approaches, Methods and Techniques
Grammar-Translation Method

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TSLB3033 Principles and Practice in English Language Teaching - Grammar-Translation Method

  1. 1. GRAMMAR-TRANSLATION METHOD TOPIC 2 ELT APPROACHES, METHODS AND TECHNIQUES TSLB3033PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHING A method of foreign or second language teaching which makes use of translation and grammar study as the main teaching and learning activities. (Richard & Schmidt, 2002) TEO WOON CHUN 2 PISMP TESL/PM (SJKC)
  2. 2. THE GRAMMAR TRANSLATION METHOD (hereafter G-T Method) • Also known as “Classical Method” • This method focuses on: • grammatical rules • memorisation of vocabulary and of various declensions and conjugations, • translations of texts, • written exercise. (Brown, 2007, p.18)
  3. 3. History • Dates back to Erasmus 1466-1536 • Originally used to teach Latin and Greek in late 19th and early 20th centuries • Earlier in 20th century, this method was used for the purpose of helping students read and appreciate foreign language literature.
  4. 4. What T-S Method for? • To learn about the grammar rules and vocabulary of the target language • To be able to read literature written in the target language • To provide students with good mental exercise which helps develop their mind (Larsen-Freeman, 2000)
  5. 5. What T-S Method for? (cont.) • To help students reading and appreciating foreign language literature • To become more familiar with the grammar of their native language through the study of the grammar of the target language • To help them speak and write their native language better (Larsen-Freeman, 2000)
  6. 6. Focal skill(s) • Vocabulary and grammar • Reading and writing are the primary skills that students work on. • There is much less attention given to listening and speaking. • Pronunciation receives little, if any, attention. (Larsen-Freeman, 2000)
  7. 7. Principles of G-T Method: • Literary language is superior to spoken language. Students’ study of the target culture is limited to its literature and fine arts. • An important goal is for language learners to be able to translate each language into the other. • The ability to communicate in the target language is not a goal of foreign language instruction. (Larsen-Freeman, 2000)
  8. 8. Principles of G-T Method (cont.): • The primary skills to be developed are reading and writing. Little attention is given to speaking and listening, and almost none to pronunciation. • The teacher is the authority in the classroom. It is very important that students get the correct answer. • It is possible to find native language equivalents for all language words. • Learning is facilitated through attention to the similarities between the target language and the native language. (Larsen-Freeman, 2000)
  9. 9. Principles of G-T Method (cont.): • It is important for students to learn about the form of the target language. • Deductive application of an explicit grammar rule is a useful pedagogical technique. • Language learning provides good mental exercise. • Student should be conscious of the grammatical rules of the target language. • Wherever possible, verb conjugations and other grammatical paradigms should be committed to memory. (Larsen-Freeman, 2000)
  10. 10. Characteristics of G-T Method: • Classes are taught in the mother tongue, with little active use of the target language. • Much vocabulary is taught in the form of lists of isolated words. • Long, elaborate explanations of the intricacies of grammar are given. • Grammar provides the rules for putting words together, and instruction often focuses on the form and inflection of words. (Prator & Celce-Murcia, 1979, p.3)
  11. 11. Characteristics of G-T Method (cont.): • Reading of difficult classical texts is begun early. • Little attention is paid to the content of texts, which are treated as exercises in grammatical analysis. • Often the only drills are exercises in translating disconnected sentences from the target language into the mother tongue. • Little or no attention given to the pronunciation. (Prator & Celce-Murcia, 1979, p.3)
  12. 12. Techniques • Deductive application of rule • Fill-in-the-blanks • Memorisation • Use words in sentences • Composition • Translation of a literary passage • Reading comprehension questions • Antonyms/ Synonyms • Cognates (Larsen-Freeman, 2000)
  13. 13. REFERENCES Brown, H. D. (2007). Teaching by principles: An interactive approach to language pedagogy (3rd ed.). United States of America: Pearson Education. Elizabeth, L. G. C., Subramaniam, V., & Norzilah bt. Mohd. Zain. (2011). Modul English language teaching methodology. Cyberjaya: Institut Pendidikan Guru Malaysia. Larsen-Freeman, D. (2000). Techniques and principles in language teaching (2nd ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.