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1. What is International Relations?
International Relations is the study of how the system of states could be made to work more effectively to enhance the power of law, peacefully
manage interstate affairs, preserve order and minimize the prospects of war.
2. Which assumptions does Realism make?
Realism makes several important assumptions.
It assumes that the international system is anarchic, in the sense that there is no authority above states capable of regulating their
interactions, which is to say that states must arrive at relations with other states on their own, rather than being dictated to by some
higher entity (i.e., no true authoritative world government exists).
Realism also assumes that sovereign states, rather than international institutions, non-governmental organizations, or multinational
corporations, are the primary actors in international affairs. Each state is seen as a rational actor who always pursues self-interest,
and the primary goal of each state is to ensure its own security. In the pursuit of that security, states will attempt to amass resources,
and relations between states are determined by their relative level of power in terms of military and economic capabilities. Military
capabilities must be at least sufficient to deter attack, and strategic planning should be along lines of the worst-case scenario.
3. What are similarities and differences between Realism and Neorealism?
Similarities between Realism and Neorealism
Actors (states / countries) will act competitively.
The assumption of continuous competition and conflict in realism
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The international system is anarchic. There is no authority above states capable of regulating their interactions. States must arrive at relations
with other states on their own.
Differences between Realism and Neorealism
- Power-oriented strategies with power as
- Certainty leads to war since rational
pursuit of power simplifies calculations
for war. Additionally, since bipolarity
gives more certainty than multipolarity,
multipolarity leads to peace.
- Security-oriented strategies based on the need
to compete for security.
- Certainty leads to peace since with balance of
power shifts, the world is made more
anarchic and states tend to take more diastic
measures (such as peace) to avoid
miscalculation and reduce insecurity.
4. What does Liberalism believe? (4 points)
Peace can best be secured through the spread of democratic institutions on a world-wide basis.
A natural harmony of interests (the “invisible hand”) will ensure people and states make rational calculations which make national interest and
international interest one and the same.
If disputes occur, they should be settled by established judicial procedures under the rule of law.
Collective security would replace notions of self-help.
5. What does Neoliberalism say?
Neoliberalism is institutional liberalism that distinguishes itself by contrast and/or selective inclusion with the ideas of "commercial" liberalism (the
linking of free trade with peace),"republican" liberalism (the linking of democracy and peace),and "sociological" liberalism (theories of international
States consistently act according to values more than power concerns. Neoliberalism seeks to expand the notion of self-interest to include the moral
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6. What is a war? What are causes for a war? How to prevent a war?
War is the result of a national entity wishing to improve the standard of living for its people. War is a conflict involving the organized use of
weapons and physical force by states or other large-scale groups.
The causes for a war:
To show your power over another country. Country thinks it helps answer their problems and solve political issues. No one really knows why
country's start war with another country when they are aware themselves that it will create a big destruction in both countries.
When a nation perceives a possible reduction in a current standard of living and fights to protect what it already has.
How to prevent a war:
Educate yourselfon the issues.
To stop terror and avoid war, we must first understand what causes it, and what approaches have, and haven't, been successfulin the past.
Don't be afraid to speak out, and to listen: talk with your neighbors, your friends, relatives, co-workers,classmates.
Take your case to the community.
Set up community forums, teach-ins and panels, to educate the public, to air out differing opinions and to force politicians to go on the record
with their beliefs.
Participate in or create visible public events for the same goals.
Work the media, or be the media.
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War is evil! I Hate War! You Hate War! Let us start doing our own part to prevent future wars and create a war free generation for our
children. If we don’t put an end to war,the war will put an end to us all.
7. What is the establishment of APEC, ASEM, ASEAN and WTO? Give some information on
Vietnam in these organizations.
Standard ASEAN APEC ASEM WTO
Association of South-
East Asian Nations
Asia Pacific Economic
Asia Europe Meeting
On August 8th 1967 in
on November 6th 1989 in
On March 1996 in
On January 1st 1995 in
On July 28th 1995 in
In November,1998 1996 On January 11st 2007
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53 partners: 51
countries and 2
160 members since 26
Vietnam in ASEAN
Vietnam has become a full member of ASEAN in 1995 and held an important role in ASEAN.
Vietnam and ASEAN have been developing bilateral and multilateral contacts at a rapid rate.
Vietnam helped to admit Laos, Myanmar and Cambodia to ASEAN. Vietnam has created changes in both quality and quantity in
Vietnam has helped to maintain ASEAN solidarity, cooperation and strengthen and developed the position of the Association
during difficult time such as the economic and financial crisis.
In the economic aspect, Vietnam has achieved the high economic growth rates and always determined the responsibility in the
fulfillment of commitments. Vietnam has overcome the difficult period and entered the market economy with some
achievements. Vietnam is also the fastest country in escaping the poverty in this region.
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Vietnam in APEC
With fundamental changes in the way of thinking and awareness of the world situation, Viet Nam has made important
adjustments in its external relations and economic development strategies, paying special attention to expanding external
relations and international economic integration.
In that spirit, right after becoming the official member of APEC, Viet Nam has actively joined in APEC’s cooperation program
and projects, taking advantage of support and assistance in terms of investment, science, technology, human resource training
for socio-economic development, poverty reduction, industrialization and modernization. For Viet Nam, APEC plays an extremely
important role in politics, economy and social security.
On trade, statistics in recent years showed that Viet Nam’s trade export turnover to APEC economies accounted for more than
70 percent of its total export value. After 15 years as an APEC member, due to trade and investment liberalization and business
facilitation, Viet Nam’s commodities have met with less barriers when exported to APEC market.
Apart from the financial support, APEC has also assisted Vietnam in policy making through exchanging information and
experience with other members in open dialogues and regular contacts. Thanks to the participation in APEC, Vietnam has
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chance to proactively join in solving regional and international issues, accelerating the process of integration into the world
economy of the country.
Vietnam also finds it easier to call for assistance as well as for cooperation from other partners. As a member of APEC, Vietnam
gradually upholds its position on the international arena with the successful hosting of APEC 2006 being the most marked
Vietnam in ASEM
Vietnam is one of the founding members of ASEM. In recent years, cooperation between Vietnam and ASEM member countries
in various fields has achieved positive development.
Since 1996, ASEM has played an important role in the economic integration of Vietnam. ASEM market has created more
opportunities for Vietnam in attracting FDI and increasing the volume of trade with the ASEM partners.
As a founding member of ASEM, Vietnam has made significant contributions in the activities of the organization. Vietnam has
been actively involved from the beginning in the effort to establish Cooperation Forum Asia - Europe Meeting (ASEM), which are
prepared on a bilateral and multilateral framework of ASEAN. Despite the difficulty, but with the active support of the
international community, Vietnam had to fulfill the responsibilities of an active member countries since ASEM was formed in
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In the field of politics: Vietnam has participated fully and effectively in the political activities of ASEM. Attended by the leaders
of Vietnam in the period of Summit, has demonstrated the Vietnam attaches great importance to the ASEM.
In the political dialogue, Vietnam has actively contributed to the joint efforts peacekeeping and combat the risk of war and the
arms race, the principle of respect for international law, national sovereignty, non-interference interfering in the internal affairs
of other countries, enhance understanding and mutual trust, equality and cooperation for mutual benefit, peace, stability,
prosperity in the region and the world, build order political, economic, democratic international fair.
In cooperation on culture, Vietnam has actively participated and carried out many activities in the framework of ASEM, such
proactive initiatives proposed "Preservation and promotion of cultural heritage in ASEM countries"
In the education sector, Vietnam has actively responded to the cooperative program of education and human resource
development initiatives supporting lifelong learning ASEM, the ASEM dual Scholarship Program
Vietnam in WTO
The joining of Vietnam into the World Trade Organisation (WTO) is attracting great attention from the local people as well as
WTO members. For Vietnam, admission to WTO manifests the country’s integration into the world economy and the
international market. However, along with opportunities, there are challenges for Vietnam in its joining the global trade
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Vietnam joins the WTO to avoid being solitary in the business world. It is in conformity with the current trend of international
trade and Vietnam’s interests of national construction and economic development.
Thanks to the removal of tariff barriers and quotas, Vietnam can have access to latest technological advances for national
modernisation and industrialisation.
For Vietnam now, promoting exports is the decisive factor for the success of industrialisation and modernisation. Exports bring
home capital to import advanced equipment and technologies and other products of a intellectual-based economy. Being
admitted to the WTO, the tariff barriers will be removed or reduced, so as the quotas. These are very important for Vietnam
Those products that Vietnam has advantages such as textiles and garments, footwear, coffee, rubber, processed seafood,
furniture, electronics appliances will have more opportunities on the world market.
However, once Vietnam has become a WTO member, the country will also have to face difficulties and challenges. Therefore,
to overcome those challenges, Vietnam needs to make active and careful preparations for effective integration in the WTO.
Then, why did Vietnam join the WTO? From a political economy theoretical approach and based on
semi-structured interviews with Vietnam’s economic and political elites, this paper tries to
provide an explanation for Vietnam’s entry into the WTO. The government may have used WTO
accession to lock-in internal reforms, to increase internal political support from export-
oriented sectors, and to send a signal of stability and compromise with economic
liberalization to international markets and foreign investors.