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The Honest Truth About Dishonesty Part 3 (with polleverywhere embeds)

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Descripción

Part 3/3 with polls included in-slide.

Briefly, this slideshow covers:

—The Cheating Bug. (And is it contagious?)
—How to avoid getting ethically ill.
—Do we cheat more when we're together?
—Remember your mortality.
—Conflicts of interest.
—Prioritizing values, and would you let innocent people die to avoid telling a lie?
—The most important command.
—Biblical themes.

Transcripción

  1. 1. How We Lie to Everyone—Especially Ourselves.
  2. 2.  Adding/matrix task:  People can usually solve 4. If able to cheat, will claim solved 6.  Cheating comes from everyone cheating a little, not one person cheating a lot.  If money involved, people will cheat a little more if it's a little. Will cheat 0 if it's a lot.  Told average person solves 8. (Fear of standing out.) How many solved? Still just 6. Not fear of standing out, but our own sense of
  3. 3.  SMORC-Israeli tests  The Fudge Factor-6 pack vs 6 dollars  Further Way from our Sins  -Give me X tokens vs X dollars...token had 200% more cheating  Understand how dishonesty increases, can avoid it.
  4. 4.  Self-deception. (What you come to believe; math test, etc...)  Lie differences: self-interest vs not hurting others.  Creativity kills.  Lying for justice! (86% of people stole when annoyed.)
  5. 5.  The 10 Commandments at UCLA  450, 1/2 10 command, 1/2 books as kid. 0 cheating with 10.  Blinded by motivations...dentists. Doctors.  Worn down willpower. Write essay without x or z, without a or n.  Real vs fake.  Sunglasses. Then matrix text. 30 vs 71%.
  6. 6. The cheating bug. (Does it spread?) How to avoid getting ethically ill. Do we cheat together?
  7. 7. Memento Mori. Conflicts of Interest. Prioritizing Values The Most Important Command
  8. 8. The Matrix test, again. But now let’s throw in Bernie Madoff. He completes the test in an impossibly short time. He then shreds his test, takes all the money, and leaves.
  9. 9. Instead of solving the average of 7 (for this test, out of 20), people claimed to solve an average of 15! 1 Cor 15: 32 If the dead are not raised, “Let us eat and drink, for tomorrow we die.” 33 Do not be deceived: “Bad company ruins
  10. 10.  Same test, but David only asks, “Doesn’t this make it possible to cheat? What happens if I cheat like crazy?” The proctor answers lazily, “You can do whatever you want,” and goes back to her book.  David then proceeds to not cheat.  Now we can tell if the cheating was due to David, or due to knowing that they
  11. 11.  Cheating actually went down to LOWER than if David had cheated, and lower even than the “shredder condition.”  When we are made to look dishonesty in the eye, out in the open, we tend to become more honest. The importance of asking hard questions, then, is important.  Note: if the person who is the Madoff is from a rival group, this also increases our honesty.
  12. 12.  The Broken Windows Theory  The Bible often talks about this.  2 Tim 3 [16] All scripture is given by inspiration of God, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness: [17] That the man of God may be perfect, thoroughly furnished unto all good works.
  13. 13.  Joshua 7-9 and Achan’s theft.  Immediately after the triumph at Jericho, the Israelites fight against the city of Ai, but are unable to take it. God tells Joshua that Israel lost because of God's anger. One of the Israelites has kept some of the "devoted things" from Jericho for himself instead of destroying them. Therefore, Israel herself has become a "devoted thing," which will be destroyed unless the sinner is punished and the stolen objects destroyed (Joshua 7:12).
  14. 14.  Jennifer the CPA. (“I don’t like these numbers. Please gather your team and get me a revised version by next Wednesday.”)  GAAP  1 rule is “the principle of sincerity,” accountant’s report should reflect the company’s financial status “in good faith.”
  15. 15. What happens if more than 1 person makes the decision to cheat? Altruistic cheating. (Robin Hood!) The money basket for drinks at the psychology department:
  16. 16. Collaborative but unknown. (Color and number, find.) Combine scores, don’t talk, take to proctor. What happens?
  17. 17. Collaborative and kinda known. Meet each other, you go first, she goes second. Combine, take to proctor together. What happens to cheating? Altruism supervision
  18. 18. Collaborative and well known. Meet each other, chat, hang out, take test together. What happens to cheating? Altruism supervision
  19. 19. Long-term relationships. Your doctor and dentist. Analyzed millions of
  20. 20. Few aggressive cheaters. Many small-time cheaters. ◦Common in business. Cheaters cause cheating to spread. Aggressive cheaters cause other people to become aggressive cheaters.
  21. 21. Which culture cheated most? The Israelis, the Americans, the Chinese, the Italians, or the British? Who cheats more, bankers
  22. 22.  From confessing to Yom Kippur to Sabbath.  Eccl 4: 9 Two are better than one because they have a good return for their labor. 10 For if either of them falls, the one will lift up his companion. But woe to the one who falls when there is not another to lift him up. 11 Furthermore, if two lie down together they keep warm, but how can one be warm alone? 12 And if one can overpower him who is alone, two can resist him. A cord of three strands is not quickly torn apart.
  23. 23.  Do preferences drive our behaviors, or vice versa?  Do we do it because we like it, or do we like it because we are doing it?  Like building something.  Involvement increases investment.  In Sanhedrin 105b, a Jewish rabbinical text, there is deep appreciation of the self- signaling feedback loop: “A person should always engage in Torah and its precepts even if not with sincerity, because insincere behavior leads to sincere behavior.”
  24. 24.  Conducting experiments are in the Bible.  For example, in Judges 6, Gideon tries to answer the question, “How can I know for sure that something’s true— that I’m not just believing what I want to believe?”* Gideon’s experiment was to test whether it was indeed God who spoke to him and wanted him to lead a rebellion, or whether it was just a voice in his head. On the first night Gideon was contemplating this question, he asked God to make the morning dew land only on a piece of wool fleece and not on the ground around it. The next night, he wanted to make sure that this dew-falling pattern of data was not due to chance or particular weather conditions. So he set a control condition, and asked God to do the exact opposite: keep the fleece dry, but surround it with dewy ground. When he saw both patterns of data confirmed, he was satisfied that God was indeed on his side, and the rebellion started.
  25. 25.  Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar created a conflict of interest among the Jews. He took the best and brightest (including Daniel) and brought them to the palace, using incentives to shift their loyalty.  Pharma reps do this. Lobbyists do it. Men who like hot women do it. Gifts change our perceptions and make us want to reciprocate. (Recall that people preferred art from the gallery which was indirectly
  26. 26.  Daniel and 3 of his friends were tops, but refused the things that the king tried to lavish on them.  From this, we learn to try as hard as we can not to accept things which can sway our judgment.  Exodus 23:8 “Take no bribes, for a bribe makes you ignore something that you clearly see. A bribe makes even a
  27. 27.  Is there a thing as too much honesty?  There are many competing values— honesty, preservation of life, peace in the family. Sometimes they may seem incompatible.  In Judaism, sometimes one value was seen as trumping another. This is in opposition to, say, 18th century philosopher Immanuel Kant’s view.
  28. 28.  Kant famously put forward the idea that one should never compromise when it comes to honesty. Kant believed that honesty was a mark of rationality, and that rationality was the foundation of human dignity. One critique challenges Kant’s premise with the following scenario: Imagine that somebody wants to murder your friend, and you’ve hidden your friend in your house. The would- be murderer asks you whether your friend is hiding in your house. Even then, Kant says,
  29. 29.  After Rahab hid the Israelite spies on her roof among the stalks of flax (Joshua 2:6), she told the messengers of the King of Jericho (who were pursuing the Israelites) that the men in question had already left, and exactly where they went she did not know (2:4-5). However, (1) the Israelites had not left, and (2) she knew exactly where they were. In fact, after speaking to the king’s men, she went back up to the roof to speak with them and to help them safely escape
  30. 30.  How can “lying lips” be “an abomination to the Lord” (Proverbs 12:22), while at the same time God spared Rahab from the destruction of Jericho (Joshua 2:9-21; 6:22-25). How is it that “all liars shall have their part in the lake which burns with fire and brimstone” (Revelation 21:8), and yet Rahab be commended twice by New Testament writers?
  31. 31.  By faith the harlot Rahab did not perish with those who did not believe, when she had received the spies with peace (Hebrews 11:31).  [W]as not Rahab the harlot also justified by works when she received the messengers and sent them out another way (James 2:25)?
  32. 32.  Are all sins equal? Is there a little sin? A big sin?  Consider that Moses said to Aaron, “What did this people do to you, that you have brought such great sin upon them?” (Exodus 32:21)  And that the LORD said, "The outcry against Sodom and Gomorrah is so
  33. 33.  Killing an entire race of people is intuitively worse than stealing a candy bar; raping your neighbor's child is far worse than fibbing and telling a coworker that you like her new hair.  Sins may be equal in their ability to separate, but some are far worse and more far-reaching in their ability to influence other souls negatively.
  34. 34.  Exo 20:16 says not to bear false witness.  Not just about lying.  Later on, in Deuteronomy 19:15–21, there is a description of a scene in which the judges start to doubt a witness. In such a case, the text instructs, the judges should make a thorough investigation of the witness’s testimony, and if they find the witness to be lying: “then do to the false witness as that witness intended to do to the other party. You must purge the evil from among you. The rest of the people will hear of this and be afraid, and never again will such an
  35. 35.  Why such a strong stance?  Because false testimony can have a devastating effect on innocent people.  But as we learned from the “bad apple” experiment, one outright cheater/liar in public can cause a plague of dishonesty.  It also interferes with good governance.
  36. 36.  Restore your moral energy.  Rules and self-control, too. The more decisions we have to make, the less our self control.  In this case, the decisions are made for you.  Studies performed showed that smokers had less cravings on the Sabbath.
  37. 37.  Good moral rules need to be simple. (AA, 10 C)  They need to be precise.  They have to link back to a larger meaning.  If the rule is set in an arbitrary way (exercise for thirty minutes, three times a week; eat two pieces of fruit and up to two thousand calories a day), the rule itself, and breaking it, is going to be relatively meaningless. But if the rules link us to other people (we are all doing this together), to some other larger purpose (this is what good people do), or to a deep belief (God’s commandments), breaking the rule is more difficult and less likely to happen. In AA, for example, everything is linked to a sense of surrender to a “higher power.”
  38. 38.  There are many stories in the Bible that relate to the questions raised in this book. There is the story of Zacchaeus and how forgiveness gave him the opportunity to start fresh (related to Part 1); the question of the fudge factor and Abraham’s not-so- white lies (Part 2); of how Daniel and his friends resolved their conflict of interest (Part 3); of how the Sabbath helps us
  39. 39.  of Rahab the prostitute possibly changing the course of her life with one act of goodness that led to other kind acts (Part 5); of self-deception and idolatry (Part 6); of King Solomon’s creativity and social connections leading him to cheat more and more (Part 7 and 8); of Jacob and Rebekah’s collaborative cheating (Part 9); and many, many more.
  40. 40.  Honesty and timelines—the period before, during, and after cheating.  Which is the best time to prevent it?  Our society relies on after-effects.  But remember, we found out that the SMORC isn’t what happens in real life, so rationally considering punitive things doesn’t happen.
  41. 41.  In contrast, the general approach of Christianity is to deal directly with the period before we cheat and the period in which we have the opportunity to cheat. First, Christianity attempts to influence our mind- set before we are tempted, by creating moral education and—let’s not forget—guilt. The basic understanding is that if we want to curb dishonesty, we need to think about education and calibrating the moral compass, rather than threatening punishment after the fact
  42. 42.  Second, Christianity attempts to influence our mind-sets in the moment of temptation by incorporating different moral reminders into our environment. Here, the basic idea is that once we have a moral compass, it’s a good idea to keep it in good working order, with appropriate adjustments in real time, if we expect it to operate at full capacity.

Notas del editor


  • Poll Title: A person wearing your team colors completes a test that you're also taking in an impossibly short time—what happens to cheating?
    https://www.polleverywhere.com/multiple_choice_polls/9PgWq5X14PUe5JP7KZzsh

  • Poll Title: A person wearing your team colors makes it clear to everyone that you can cheat on a test wildly and not get caught, but does not explicitly cheat himself. What happens to cheating?
    https://www.polleverywhere.com/multiple_choice_polls/0Md8C9MpKaPJ2qNIEJez4

  • Poll Title: A person wearing your rivals' team colors obviously cheats on a test in front of everyone. The proctor doesn't seem to care. What happens to cheating?
    https://www.polleverywhere.com/multiple_choice_polls/PyNWhSiq8mlvX2eGUp7VH

  • Poll Title: A voluntary donation basket (for shared drinks) is used for 10 weeks. For 5 weeks, a sign asking to pay for what you take has staring eyes. For 5 weeks it has flowers. What happens?
    https://www.polleverywhere.com/multiple_choice_polls/CFnZhSVlEJSMRNPfoaXyM

  • Poll Title: You complete the matrix test and have to combine your anonymous answers with someone you don't know. What happens with cheating?
    https://www.polleverywhere.com/multiple_choice_polls/DFWdF4mb9f51ag9WT18VV

  • Poll Title: You complete the matrix test while your unknown partner sits next to you and watches you. What happens to cheating?
    https://www.polleverywhere.com/multiple_choice_polls/ehBhdnLox67uDbl0sFUWI

  • Poll Title: You take the test with someone that you get to know beforehand. Cheating...
    https://www.polleverywhere.com/multiple_choice_polls/Pi1wckZKu3gF3Buysh6CM

  • Poll Title: You form a long-term, lasting relationship with your dentist/doctor, based on his honesty. Over time...
    https://www.polleverywhere.com/multiple_choice_polls/YmTabwFVmtunVeQ65Phas

  • Poll Title: Which group cheats more on the matrix test?
    https://www.polleverywhere.com/multiple_choice_polls/Dye8yQ46qhHcGetK7JsLj

  • Poll Title: You are hiding a Jew under your floor in WWII. Nazis ask you if you are hiding any Jews. How do you answer?
    https://www.polleverywhere.com/multiple_choice_polls/si2tZis7J9m4j0uo2Jnxg

  • Poll Title: Are all sins equal?
    https://www.polleverywhere.com/multiple_choice_polls/1fJprjOz4ULfJ2PaAcSrl

  • Poll Title: Many Rabbis say that the greatest of the 10 Commandments is...
    https://www.polleverywhere.com/multiple_choice_polls/iCyzoRfCVSQzX5LSOFCn3
  • Descripción

    Part 3/3 with polls included in-slide.

    Briefly, this slideshow covers:

    —The Cheating Bug. (And is it contagious?)
    —How to avoid getting ethically ill.
    —Do we cheat more when we're together?
    —Remember your mortality.
    —Conflicts of interest.
    —Prioritizing values, and would you let innocent people die to avoid telling a lie?
    —The most important command.
    —Biblical themes.

    Transcripción

    1. 1. How We Lie to Everyone—Especially Ourselves.
    2. 2.  Adding/matrix task:  People can usually solve 4. If able to cheat, will claim solved 6.  Cheating comes from everyone cheating a little, not one person cheating a lot.  If money involved, people will cheat a little more if it's a little. Will cheat 0 if it's a lot.  Told average person solves 8. (Fear of standing out.) How many solved? Still just 6. Not fear of standing out, but our own sense of
    3. 3.  SMORC-Israeli tests  The Fudge Factor-6 pack vs 6 dollars  Further Way from our Sins  -Give me X tokens vs X dollars...token had 200% more cheating  Understand how dishonesty increases, can avoid it.
    4. 4.  Self-deception. (What you come to believe; math test, etc...)  Lie differences: self-interest vs not hurting others.  Creativity kills.  Lying for justice! (86% of people stole when annoyed.)
    5. 5.  The 10 Commandments at UCLA  450, 1/2 10 command, 1/2 books as kid. 0 cheating with 10.  Blinded by motivations...dentists. Doctors.  Worn down willpower. Write essay without x or z, without a or n.  Real vs fake.  Sunglasses. Then matrix text. 30 vs 71%.
    6. 6. The cheating bug. (Does it spread?) How to avoid getting ethically ill. Do we cheat together?
    7. 7. Memento Mori. Conflicts of Interest. Prioritizing Values The Most Important Command
    8. 8. The Matrix test, again. But now let’s throw in Bernie Madoff. He completes the test in an impossibly short time. He then shreds his test, takes all the money, and leaves.
    9. 9. Instead of solving the average of 7 (for this test, out of 20), people claimed to solve an average of 15! 1 Cor 15: 32 If the dead are not raised, “Let us eat and drink, for tomorrow we die.” 33 Do not be deceived: “Bad company ruins
    10. 10.  Same test, but David only asks, “Doesn’t this make it possible to cheat? What happens if I cheat like crazy?” The proctor answers lazily, “You can do whatever you want,” and goes back to her book.  David then proceeds to not cheat.  Now we can tell if the cheating was due to David, or due to knowing that they
    11. 11.  Cheating actually went down to LOWER than if David had cheated, and lower even than the “shredder condition.”  When we are made to look dishonesty in the eye, out in the open, we tend to become more honest. The importance of asking hard questions, then, is important.  Note: if the person who is the Madoff is from a rival group, this also increases our honesty.
    12. 12.  The Broken Windows Theory  The Bible often talks about this.  2 Tim 3 [16] All scripture is given by inspiration of God, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness: [17] That the man of God may be perfect, thoroughly furnished unto all good works.
    13. 13.  Joshua 7-9 and Achan’s theft.  Immediately after the triumph at Jericho, the Israelites fight against the city of Ai, but are unable to take it. God tells Joshua that Israel lost because of God's anger. One of the Israelites has kept some of the "devoted things" from Jericho for himself instead of destroying them. Therefore, Israel herself has become a "devoted thing," which will be destroyed unless the sinner is punished and the stolen objects destroyed (Joshua 7:12).
    14. 14.  Jennifer the CPA. (“I don’t like these numbers. Please gather your team and get me a revised version by next Wednesday.”)  GAAP  1 rule is “the principle of sincerity,” accountant’s report should reflect the company’s financial status “in good faith.”
    15. 15. What happens if more than 1 person makes the decision to cheat? Altruistic cheating. (Robin Hood!) The money basket for drinks at the psychology department:
    16. 16. Collaborative but unknown. (Color and number, find.) Combine scores, don’t talk, take to proctor. What happens?
    17. 17. Collaborative and kinda known. Meet each other, you go first, she goes second. Combine, take to proctor together. What happens to cheating? Altruism supervision
    18. 18. Collaborative and well known. Meet each other, chat, hang out, take test together. What happens to cheating? Altruism supervision
    19. 19. Long-term relationships. Your doctor and dentist. Analyzed millions of
    20. 20. Few aggressive cheaters. Many small-time cheaters. ◦Common in business. Cheaters cause cheating to spread. Aggressive cheaters cause other people to become aggressive cheaters.
    21. 21. Which culture cheated most? The Israelis, the Americans, the Chinese, the Italians, or the British? Who cheats more, bankers
    22. 22.  From confessing to Yom Kippur to Sabbath.  Eccl 4: 9 Two are better than one because they have a good return for their labor. 10 For if either of them falls, the one will lift up his companion. But woe to the one who falls when there is not another to lift him up. 11 Furthermore, if two lie down together they keep warm, but how can one be warm alone? 12 And if one can overpower him who is alone, two can resist him. A cord of three strands is not quickly torn apart.
    23. 23.  Do preferences drive our behaviors, or vice versa?  Do we do it because we like it, or do we like it because we are doing it?  Like building something.  Involvement increases investment.  In Sanhedrin 105b, a Jewish rabbinical text, there is deep appreciation of the self- signaling feedback loop: “A person should always engage in Torah and its precepts even if not with sincerity, because insincere behavior leads to sincere behavior.”
    24. 24.  Conducting experiments are in the Bible.  For example, in Judges 6, Gideon tries to answer the question, “How can I know for sure that something’s true— that I’m not just believing what I want to believe?”* Gideon’s experiment was to test whether it was indeed God who spoke to him and wanted him to lead a rebellion, or whether it was just a voice in his head. On the first night Gideon was contemplating this question, he asked God to make the morning dew land only on a piece of wool fleece and not on the ground around it. The next night, he wanted to make sure that this dew-falling pattern of data was not due to chance or particular weather conditions. So he set a control condition, and asked God to do the exact opposite: keep the fleece dry, but surround it with dewy ground. When he saw both patterns of data confirmed, he was satisfied that God was indeed on his side, and the rebellion started.
    25. 25.  Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar created a conflict of interest among the Jews. He took the best and brightest (including Daniel) and brought them to the palace, using incentives to shift their loyalty.  Pharma reps do this. Lobbyists do it. Men who like hot women do it. Gifts change our perceptions and make us want to reciprocate. (Recall that people preferred art from the gallery which was indirectly
    26. 26.  Daniel and 3 of his friends were tops, but refused the things that the king tried to lavish on them.  From this, we learn to try as hard as we can not to accept things which can sway our judgment.  Exodus 23:8 “Take no bribes, for a bribe makes you ignore something that you clearly see. A bribe makes even a
    27. 27.  Is there a thing as too much honesty?  There are many competing values— honesty, preservation of life, peace in the family. Sometimes they may seem incompatible.  In Judaism, sometimes one value was seen as trumping another. This is in opposition to, say, 18th century philosopher Immanuel Kant’s view.
    28. 28.  Kant famously put forward the idea that one should never compromise when it comes to honesty. Kant believed that honesty was a mark of rationality, and that rationality was the foundation of human dignity. One critique challenges Kant’s premise with the following scenario: Imagine that somebody wants to murder your friend, and you’ve hidden your friend in your house. The would- be murderer asks you whether your friend is hiding in your house. Even then, Kant says,
    29. 29.  After Rahab hid the Israelite spies on her roof among the stalks of flax (Joshua 2:6), she told the messengers of the King of Jericho (who were pursuing the Israelites) that the men in question had already left, and exactly where they went she did not know (2:4-5). However, (1) the Israelites had not left, and (2) she knew exactly where they were. In fact, after speaking to the king’s men, she went back up to the roof to speak with them and to help them safely escape
    30. 30.  How can “lying lips” be “an abomination to the Lord” (Proverbs 12:22), while at the same time God spared Rahab from the destruction of Jericho (Joshua 2:9-21; 6:22-25). How is it that “all liars shall have their part in the lake which burns with fire and brimstone” (Revelation 21:8), and yet Rahab be commended twice by New Testament writers?
    31. 31.  By faith the harlot Rahab did not perish with those who did not believe, when she had received the spies with peace (Hebrews 11:31).  [W]as not Rahab the harlot also justified by works when she received the messengers and sent them out another way (James 2:25)?
    32. 32.  Are all sins equal? Is there a little sin? A big sin?  Consider that Moses said to Aaron, “What did this people do to you, that you have brought such great sin upon them?” (Exodus 32:21)  And that the LORD said, "The outcry against Sodom and Gomorrah is so
    33. 33.  Killing an entire race of people is intuitively worse than stealing a candy bar; raping your neighbor's child is far worse than fibbing and telling a coworker that you like her new hair.  Sins may be equal in their ability to separate, but some are far worse and more far-reaching in their ability to influence other souls negatively.
    34. 34.  Exo 20:16 says not to bear false witness.  Not just about lying.  Later on, in Deuteronomy 19:15–21, there is a description of a scene in which the judges start to doubt a witness. In such a case, the text instructs, the judges should make a thorough investigation of the witness’s testimony, and if they find the witness to be lying: “then do to the false witness as that witness intended to do to the other party. You must purge the evil from among you. The rest of the people will hear of this and be afraid, and never again will such an
    35. 35.  Why such a strong stance?  Because false testimony can have a devastating effect on innocent people.  But as we learned from the “bad apple” experiment, one outright cheater/liar in public can cause a plague of dishonesty.  It also interferes with good governance.
    36. 36.  Restore your moral energy.  Rules and self-control, too. The more decisions we have to make, the less our self control.  In this case, the decisions are made for you.  Studies performed showed that smokers had less cravings on the Sabbath.
    37. 37.  Good moral rules need to be simple. (AA, 10 C)  They need to be precise.  They have to link back to a larger meaning.  If the rule is set in an arbitrary way (exercise for thirty minutes, three times a week; eat two pieces of fruit and up to two thousand calories a day), the rule itself, and breaking it, is going to be relatively meaningless. But if the rules link us to other people (we are all doing this together), to some other larger purpose (this is what good people do), or to a deep belief (God’s commandments), breaking the rule is more difficult and less likely to happen. In AA, for example, everything is linked to a sense of surrender to a “higher power.”
    38. 38.  There are many stories in the Bible that relate to the questions raised in this book. There is the story of Zacchaeus and how forgiveness gave him the opportunity to start fresh (related to Part 1); the question of the fudge factor and Abraham’s not-so- white lies (Part 2); of how Daniel and his friends resolved their conflict of interest (Part 3); of how the Sabbath helps us
    39. 39.  of Rahab the prostitute possibly changing the course of her life with one act of goodness that led to other kind acts (Part 5); of self-deception and idolatry (Part 6); of King Solomon’s creativity and social connections leading him to cheat more and more (Part 7 and 8); of Jacob and Rebekah’s collaborative cheating (Part 9); and many, many more.
    40. 40.  Honesty and timelines—the period before, during, and after cheating.  Which is the best time to prevent it?  Our society relies on after-effects.  But remember, we found out that the SMORC isn’t what happens in real life, so rationally considering punitive things doesn’t happen.
    41. 41.  In contrast, the general approach of Christianity is to deal directly with the period before we cheat and the period in which we have the opportunity to cheat. First, Christianity attempts to influence our mind- set before we are tempted, by creating moral education and—let’s not forget—guilt. The basic understanding is that if we want to curb dishonesty, we need to think about education and calibrating the moral compass, rather than threatening punishment after the fact
    42. 42.  Second, Christianity attempts to influence our mind-sets in the moment of temptation by incorporating different moral reminders into our environment. Here, the basic idea is that once we have a moral compass, it’s a good idea to keep it in good working order, with appropriate adjustments in real time, if we expect it to operate at full capacity.

    Notas del editor


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