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Virtual Reality and
Social Work
Lynda Joy Gerry
24th of August 2016
2
3
THE MACHINE TO BE ANOTHER:
An Empathy Machine?
4
“Empathy is created the moment we try to put ourselves in
another person’...
Machine to Be Another: Live Stream
Perspective Swapping
5
The Machine to Be Another
(MIT Media Lab)
6
The Effect: After Wearing the Headset
 “Now when we look into another person's eyes,
what we see is another person lookin...
The Potential: What Happens When
People Take Off the VR Headset
8
What is Virtual Reality?
 VR is the ability to transport and immerse yourself into another reality than
the one you’re ph...
The First HMD
The VR Hype in 80’s & 90’s 11
Overview 12
Mobile
Google
Cardboard
Samsung
Gear VR
Plastic
HMDs
Sitting
Playstation
VR
Oculus
Rift
Standing/Walking
HTC V...
Sense of Presence 13
Applications 14
• Art
• Science
• Architecture
• Construction
Visualization
• Music
• Sports
• Social Time
• Travel
Physic...
Healthcare 15
Architecture 16
E-Commerce
Immersive Gallery Art Experiences 18
AR
(5-7 years)
3D Scanning
(1-2 years)
Haptic Feedback
(3-5 years)
Future Technology
Empathic Computing (Billinghurst,
2016)
1. Recognition – systems that can
recognize your feelings and emotions
(sensors)
...
1. Recognition
 Roz Picard – MIT Media Lab
 Systems that recognize emotion
21
Example: Affectiva 22
2. Understanding: Virtual Reality
“Virtual reality offers a whole new
medium to tell stories that really
connect people an...
Project Syria (de la Peña, 2015) 24
Clouds Over Sidra (Chris Milk) 25
26
New Eyes for Students (Makropol)
 Project designed to teach the UN Development Initiatives
to Danish grade school childre...
3. Sharing: Augmented Reality
Can we develop experiences that
allow us to share what we are
seeing, hearing, and feeling ...
The Amphibian SCUBA Diving
Simulator (Dhruv Jain, MIT Media Lab)
29
Goal: Help people
understand the liberating
effects of...
Childhood (Siggraph 2015)
 Kenji Suzuki, Univesity of Tsukuba
 What does it feel like to be a child?
 VR display + move...
31Virtual Embodiment
Banakou, Groten, Slater, 2013
Examples of Avatar Effects
 Embodying a body of a different race reduces implicit racial biases
(Groom, Bailenson, and Na...
Notes on Blindness 33
34
Be My Eyes 35
36
Promoting Helping Behavior in VR 37
Ahn et al., 2015
Autumn (Tusmørke) 38
Autism: Too Much Information 39
Discussion Question
 What is the value of having these types of
experiences that allow us to see/hear/experience
the worl...
The Virtual Reality Social Cognition
Training Program
 VR can be used as a learning tool for children to:
- Teach safety ...
Autism Speaks (Daniel Yang) 42
Anxiety in Children: The Virtual
Classroom
The Virtual Kitchen
Gorini, A., Gaggioli, A., Vigna, C., & Riva, G. (2008). A Second Life for eHealth: Prospects for the U...
Treating Body Dysmorphia: Four
Doors of Different Dimensions
 Patients have to choose the door
that they believe correspo...
Perpiña and Botella (2013)
 Researchers designed tasks in virtual environments to change the
way participants thought abo...
•Virtual Food Causes the Same
Emotional Response as Real Food
Gorini, Griez, Petrova, and Riva (2010)
 Researchers compar...
Gorini, Griez, Petrova,
and Riva (2010)
Gorini, A., Griez, E., Petrova, A., & Riva, G. (2010). Assessment of the emotional...
Gorini, Griez, Petrova,
and Riva (2010)
Gorini, A., Griez, E., Petrova, A., & Riva, G. (2010). Assessment of the emotional...
What if you could show someone
the body that they think they
have?
 Imagine showing someone with body
dysmorphia the body...
VR TO REDUCE
COGNITIVE BIASES
51
Somatosensory Resonance
 Definition: We understand other’s physical and
mental states by remapping other’s body states on...
Visual Remapping of Touch 53
Fini et al., 2013
Reducing Implicit Racial Bias:
The Enfacement Illusion
54
Ahn et al., 2015
FPP Hand Movement in VEs
(Adamovich et al., 2009)
55
Painter Project: Stereo Footage with
Binaural Audio
56
Ex Nihilo: Exploring the Stimulation of Creativity and
Empathy through Embodied Experiences in Virtual
Reality
57
Gallagher et al. (2015)
Neurophenomenology of Awe and
Wonder
58
Video of Experimental Task 59
60
61
62
63
Introducing Ex Nihilo
In The Republic, Plato asks, "Will we
say, of a painter, that he makes
something?" and answers, "Ce...
“Imitated” Paintings by Subjects 65
Subject Quote
“It almost feels like collectively
discovering something that was in her
head all along. The experience all...
The Next Challenge
“We’re starting to move out of the ‘wow’
phase of this new technology and into
‘what does this mean fo...
Discussion Question
How can virtual reality help us
understand one another?
68
Thanks for your Attention!
lynda@whatisexperience.com
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Empathy+socail work sus_cutversion

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Presentation for workshop with the Social Development Centre SUS (http://www.sus.dk/) group at Sauntehus Slotshotel in Hornbæk, DK on the 24th of August, 2015.

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Empathy+socail work sus_cutversion

  1. 1. Virtual Reality and Social Work Lynda Joy Gerry 24th of August 2016
  2. 2. 2
  3. 3. 3
  4. 4. THE MACHINE TO BE ANOTHER: An Empathy Machine? 4 “Empathy is created the moment we try to put ourselves in another person’s shoes.” – Aspen Baker, TED Radio Hour “The machine to be another is designed to stimulate empathy through embodied interaction between individuals.” (Bertrand et al., 2014) To what extent can we experience and understand what it is like to be someone else?
  5. 5. Machine to Be Another: Live Stream Perspective Swapping 5
  6. 6. The Machine to Be Another (MIT Media Lab) 6
  7. 7. The Effect: After Wearing the Headset  “Now when we look into another person's eyes, what we see is another person looking back at us. Now we see another being who is just like us, another entity trapped inside the illusion of all these packages of individual differences -- body, personality, etc. – Carl Rogers 7
  8. 8. The Potential: What Happens When People Take Off the VR Headset 8
  9. 9. What is Virtual Reality?  VR is the ability to transport and immerse yourself into another reality than the one you’re physically in  You can do this to experience something new, invoke a feeling in people or simply just because its fun 9
  10. 10. The First HMD
  11. 11. The VR Hype in 80’s & 90’s 11
  12. 12. Overview 12 Mobile Google Cardboard Samsung Gear VR Plastic HMDs Sitting Playstation VR Oculus Rift Standing/Walking HTC Vive
  13. 13. Sense of Presence 13
  14. 14. Applications 14 • Art • Science • Architecture • Construction Visualization • Music • Sports • Social Time • Travel Physical Experience • Games • Movies • Music Digital Entertainment • Schools/Uni • Staff Training • Driving Schools Education/ Simulation • Virtual-Commerce • Enhance the physical shopping experience E-commerce
  15. 15. Healthcare 15
  16. 16. Architecture 16
  17. 17. E-Commerce
  18. 18. Immersive Gallery Art Experiences 18
  19. 19. AR (5-7 years) 3D Scanning (1-2 years) Haptic Feedback (3-5 years) Future Technology
  20. 20. Empathic Computing (Billinghurst, 2016) 1. Recognition – systems that can recognize your feelings and emotions (sensors) 2. Understanding – systems that help you better understand the experience of others (VR) 3. Sharing – systems that help you better share the experience of others (AR) 20
  21. 21. 1. Recognition  Roz Picard – MIT Media Lab  Systems that recognize emotion 21
  22. 22. Example: Affectiva 22
  23. 23. 2. Understanding: Virtual Reality “Virtual reality offers a whole new medium to tell stories that really connect people and create an empathic connection.” - Nonny de la Peña http://www.emblematicgroup.com 23
  24. 24. Project Syria (de la Peña, 2015) 24
  25. 25. Clouds Over Sidra (Chris Milk) 25
  26. 26. 26
  27. 27. New Eyes for Students (Makropol)  Project designed to teach the UN Development Initiatives to Danish grade school children, especially cultural diversity, global sustainability issues, and perspective taking  Transports student to Africa, where a little girl guides audience on a tour through her world and talks about her life  Unique design that allows for a “you” relation where audience feels present and like the little girl is talking to them. 27
  28. 28. 3. Sharing: Augmented Reality Can we develop experiences that allow us to share what we are seeing, hearing, and feeling with someone else? 28
  29. 29. The Amphibian SCUBA Diving Simulator (Dhruv Jain, MIT Media Lab) 29 Goal: Help people understand the liberating effects of disabilities, which Jain (who is deaf) likens to the experience of being underwater.
  30. 30. Childhood (Siggraph 2015)  Kenji Suzuki, Univesity of Tsukuba  What does it feel like to be a child?  VR display + moved cameras + hand restrictors 30
  31. 31. 31Virtual Embodiment Banakou, Groten, Slater, 2013
  32. 32. Examples of Avatar Effects  Embodying a body of a different race reduces implicit racial biases (Groom, Bailenson, and Nass, 2009)  Embodying a tall avatar increases self-confidence in negotiation tasks (Yee and Bailenson, 2007)  Embodying an attractive avatar increases self-disclosure (Yee and Bailenson, 2007)  Embodying a stressful posture in a virtual body can increase stress even though physical body is not in that posture/position (Bergström, Kilteni, and Slater, 2013)  Embodying a child avatar body causes subjects causes an overestimation in object sizes 32
  33. 33. Notes on Blindness 33
  34. 34. 34
  35. 35. Be My Eyes 35
  36. 36. 36
  37. 37. Promoting Helping Behavior in VR 37 Ahn et al., 2015
  38. 38. Autumn (Tusmørke) 38
  39. 39. Autism: Too Much Information 39
  40. 40. Discussion Question  What is the value of having these types of experiences that allow us to see/hear/experience the world as another? 40
  41. 41. The Virtual Reality Social Cognition Training Program  VR can be used as a learning tool for children to: - Teach safety skills (Self et al., 2007; Josman et al., 2008) - Hold their interest (Cobb et al., 2002; Max & Burke, 1997) - Monitor eye gaze (Lahiri et al., 2011) - Aid learning of pretend play (Herrera et al., 2008) - Interpret emotions of avatars accurately (Moore et al., 2005; Cheng and Ye 2010) Ex: Use virtual simulations of a bus/café to teach social skills. 41
  42. 42. Autism Speaks (Daniel Yang) 42
  43. 43. Anxiety in Children: The Virtual Classroom
  44. 44. The Virtual Kitchen Gorini, A., Gaggioli, A., Vigna, C., & Riva, G. (2008). A Second Life for eHealth: Prospects for the Use of 3-D Virtual Worlds in Clinical Psychology. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 10(3). doi:10.2196/jmir.1029
  45. 45. Treating Body Dysmorphia: Four Doors of Different Dimensions  Patients have to choose the door that they believe corresponds exactly to their width. This is aimed to improve awareness of body image distortion. Socratic questioning is used during exposure in order to help patients draw appropriate conclusions from the experience (Riva et al., 1998).
  46. 46. Perpiña and Botella (2013)  Researchers designed tasks in virtual environments to change the way participants thought about their body size and appearance  While wearing a virtual reality headset, participants see a virtual representation of an avatar with their own body proportions.  In one setting, participants have to manipulate a 3D human figure until it represents their own body, which is shown nearby as a translucent 2D image. Marco, J. H., Perpiñá, C., & Botella, C. (2013). Effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy supported by virtual reality in the treatment of body image in eating disorders: One year follow-up. Psychiatry Research, 209(3), 619-625. doi:10.1016/j.psychres.2013.02.023
  47. 47. •Virtual Food Causes the Same Emotional Response as Real Food Gorini, Griez, Petrova, and Riva (2010)  Researchers compared the effects of the exposure to real food, virtual food and photographs of food  Sample: 10 anorexic, 10 bulimic and 10 control participants (all women)  Conditions: 6 real high-calorie foods placed on a table in front of them, Slideshow of the same foods, and VR computer-generated diner where they could interact with the virtual version of the same 6 items  Measures: heart rate, skin conductance, psychological stress  Results: Virtual stimuli are as effective as real ones, and more effective than static pictures, in generating emotional responses in eating disorder patients Gorini, A., Griez, E., Petrova, A., & Riva, G. (2010). Assessment of the emotional responses produced by exposure to real food, virtual food and photographs of food in patients affected by eating disorders. Ann Gen Psychiatry Annals of General Psychiatry, 9(1), 30. doi:10.1186/1744-859x-9-30
  48. 48. Gorini, Griez, Petrova, and Riva (2010) Gorini, A., Griez, E., Petrova, A., & Riva, G. (2010). Assessment of the emotional responses produced by exposure to real food, virtual food and photographs of food in patients affected by eating disorders. Ann Gen Psychiatry Annals of General Psychiatry, 9(1), 30. doi:10.1186/1744-859x-9-30
  49. 49. Gorini, Griez, Petrova, and Riva (2010) Gorini, A., Griez, E., Petrova, A., & Riva, G. (2010). Assessment of the emotional responses produced by exposure to real food, virtual food and photographs of food in patients affected by eating disorders. Ann Gen Psychiatry Annals of General Psychiatry, 9(1), 30. doi:10.1186/1744-859x-9-30
  50. 50. What if you could show someone the body that they think they have?  Imagine showing someone with body dysmorphia the body that they think they have, and use embodied simulations in virtual reality to allow them to experience being in that body to reveal the difference between their altered body image and reality.
  51. 51. VR TO REDUCE COGNITIVE BIASES 51
  52. 52. Somatosensory Resonance  Definition: We understand other’s physical and mental states by remapping other’s body states onto our own sensorimotor system  Through the visual remapping of touch, synchronous touch stimuli applied to one’s own face and the face of an outgroup member results in a decrease in implicit biases. 52
  53. 53. Visual Remapping of Touch 53 Fini et al., 2013
  54. 54. Reducing Implicit Racial Bias: The Enfacement Illusion 54 Ahn et al., 2015
  55. 55. FPP Hand Movement in VEs (Adamovich et al., 2009) 55
  56. 56. Painter Project: Stereo Footage with Binaural Audio 56
  57. 57. Ex Nihilo: Exploring the Stimulation of Creativity and Empathy through Embodied Experiences in Virtual Reality 57
  58. 58. Gallagher et al. (2015) Neurophenomenology of Awe and Wonder 58
  59. 59. Video of Experimental Task 59
  60. 60. 60
  61. 61. 61
  62. 62. 62
  63. 63. 63
  64. 64. Introducing Ex Nihilo In The Republic, Plato asks, "Will we say, of a painter, that he makes something?" and answers, "Certainly not, he merely imitates." 64
  65. 65. “Imitated” Paintings by Subjects 65
  66. 66. Subject Quote “It almost feels like collectively discovering something that was in her head all along. The experience allowed this completely different way of connecting to someone that doesn’t rely on facial expressions or anything.” 66
  67. 67. The Next Challenge “We’re starting to move out of the ‘wow’ phase of this new technology and into ‘what does this mean for humanity?’” – Chris Milk 67
  68. 68. Discussion Question How can virtual reality help us understand one another? 68
  69. 69. Thanks for your Attention! lynda@whatisexperience.com

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