3. ORAL CAVITY:-
Oral cavity or mouth is part of the oral region.
The oral cavity consists of accessory structures (the
salivary glands), projecting structures (the teeth & the
tongue) & the walls enclosing the oral cavity.
It lies interior to the nasal cavities & has roof, floor &
The roof of the oral cavity includes both the hard & soft
The laterals walls of the oral cavity include the cheeks as
well as the retromolar region.
4. The oral cavity also contains three pairs of major salivary glands:-
The oral cavity is divided into the two parts by the upper & the
These arches consists of teeth & the alveolar bones that support
The oral cavity also has a respiratory function, where it can be
used for ventilation due to it opening into the pharynx, which is a
common pathway for food & air.
7. DENTAL CAVITIES:-
Dental cavities, also known as a dental caries happen when your
tooth or teeth decay & start to break down.
Cavities are the result of tooth decay the erosion of the tooth
Tooth decay can affect either the enamel (the outer layer of the
mouth), or the dentin (the inner layer of the tooth).
There are three types of tooth cavities:-
1. Smooth surface cavities, which appear on the surface of the
8. 2. Pit & fissure cavities, these appear on the bumpy surface on the
top of the teeth
3. Root cavities, which appear in the roots of your teeth, below the
Symptoms:- Some common symptoms include toothache, tooth
sensitivity, mild to sharp pain when eating or drinking, visible
holes or pits in the infected tooth, & black brown or white strain
on the tooth’s surface.
Common Cavity Treatments:-
Cavity treatment may vary depending upon the severity of the
Filling:- if the decay is not extensive.
9. Crown:- if the decay is more severe.
Root Canal or Extraction:- if the decay reaches the roots of the
Regular brushing & flossing (at least twice a day)
Using a fluoride toothpaste
Limit your intake of sugary drinks
Clove:- Due to its antinflammatory, analgesic, & antibacterial
properties, clove can help alleviate pain & prevent the cavity.
Salt:- Salt can also be used to treat cavities due to its antiseptic &
10. BLEEDING GUMS:-
The main cause of bleeding gums is the buildup of plaque at the
gum line. This will lead to a condition called gingivitis or inflamed
Plaque that is not removed will harden into tartar. This will lead to
increased bleeding & more advanced form of gum disease known
Other causes of bleeding gums includes:-
• Any bleeding disorder
• Brushing too hard
• Improper flossing
• Infection, which can be either in a tooth
or the gum
• A vitamin deficiency
11. Sign & symptoms:-
• Gums that easily bleed when brushing or flossing
• Swollen, red or tender gums
• Persistent bad breath or bad taste in mouth
• Visible pus surrounding the teeth & gums
• Sharp or dull pain when chewing foods.
Treatment:- The best bleeding gums treatment is to remove from
your teeth the plaque bacteria that causes gum disease.
• Seeking bleeding gums treatment at the first sign of a problem
can help reverse gingivitis & help prevent peridontal disease.
Prevention:- Rinse & if your gums are bleeding use an antimicrobial
rinse such as Listerine or a herbal rinse.
12. • Brush your teeth, tongue & gums to remove plaque & food debris.
• Floss your teeth before your brush them every time you brush
Use Clove oil:- It helps to reduce the inflammation of gums &
stops the gums from bleeding to a larger extends.
Use Aloe Vera:- It helps to reduce the inflammation, making
bleeding less likely.
13. MOUTH ODOR:-
Bad breath, which is also known as Halistosis, is a problem in
which a person’s breath has an unpleasant odor.
Halitosis is the third most common reason that people seek dental
care, after tooth decay & gum disease.
Causes of bad breath include food, tobacco products, poor dental
hygiene, health problems, dry mouth, oral infections, dental
problems, or medications.
Symptoms of bad breath include unpleasant odor or taste in the
mouth, dry mouth or white coating on the tongue.
Treatment for bad breath include proper dental hygiene,
mouthwash, sugar free gum, quitting smoking & changing bad
14. Bad breath can usually be prevented by proper tooth brushing,
quitting smoking & avoiding foods that causes bad breath odors.
Funnel:- Act as an excellent mouth freshener, & also contains
Cinnamon:- Reduces the amount of bacteria in your mouth &
also covers up bad breath.
15. TOOTH SENSITIVITY:-
Tooth sensitivity also known as dentin hypersensitivity – affects
the tooth or exposed root surfaces.
This occurs when the enamel that protects our teeth gets thinner,
or when gum recession occurs, exposing the underlying surface,
the dentin, thus, reducing the protection the enamel & gums
provide to the tooth & root.
Causes:- Thinning of enamel due to over brushing or erosion.
• Dental Decay
• Poor oral hygiene
• Gum disease with possible recession & root exposure.
• Cracked tooth.
Treatments may involve using a fluoride rinse or brushing with
desensitizing toothpaste. Fluoride varnishes over the root surface,
filling to cover the exposed roots, or the use of plastic resin or
Preventions:- By properly brushing with soft-bristled, toothbrush,
reducing the consumption of acidic & sugary foods, prevent
recession of gums.
17. Mouth sores:-
Mouth sores are painful ulcers found on the cheeks, lips, gums,
tongue, bottom of the mouth, & the soft palate.
Common mouth sores causes include: biting your tongue, lips, or
cheeks, burning your mouth when attempting to eat hot food or
beverages, or tissue trauma from braces & other potentially sharp
The most common sores of the mouth include canker & cold
Treatment:- Most mouth sores heal
without treatment in 10-14 days, but
there are variety of over the counter
medications, like Oracoat H-B12 Mellts.
18. Home remedies for mouth sores are: Gargle salt water,
• Create paste of baking soda & water & apply to ulcer.
• Avoid triggers like hot, spicy, salty, or acidic food & beverages.
• The gradual loss of the normally hard surface of the tooth due to
chemical, acids from bacteria.
• Most common cause of erosion is by acidic foods and drinks such
as sodas & juices, tooth erosion may also be caused by digestive
problems such as vomiting, as stomach acid is highly corrosive.
Treatments: Drink more water throughtout the day if you have a dry
• Use fluoride toothpaste.
• Brushing with a soft bristled toothbrush
after eating & drinking.
• Tooth discoloration, or yellowish of the
teeth, is a condition in which the teeth
become stained or discolored.
• Causes for yellowing including excess
fluoride, plaque or tartar buildup, aging
smoking, & certain types of foods.
20. • Yellowing may be prevented by avoiding certain foods that are
acidic or foods that are high in tannins.
• Pain that radiates from the teeth is called a toothache.
• Toothache is commonly caused by an inflammation of the pulp
called pulpitis. Pulpitis is a result of tooth decay & cavities.
• Toothache may also be caused by other problems, such as a
wisdom tooth erupting, gum infections, or cracked or otherwise
• Treatment for toothache: Filling, root canal, an antibiotic may be
prescribed, phototherapy with a cold laser may also be used to
reduce the pain & inflammation associated with toothache.
21. Common ingredients for dental products:-
Fluorides:- It is a mineral that helps strengthen the enamel on your
teeth, making them less susceptible to cavities.
Glycerol:- This keeps toothpaste from drying out, gives a consistent
texture & helps it glide smoothly from the tube.
Sorbitol:- It plays two parts: along with glycerol, it helps hold the
toothpaste together, & it’s also a sweetening agent.
Calcium carbonate:- This common abrasive helps remove plaque
debris & surface stains.
Sodium Bicarbonate:- This is used in toothpaste as an abrasive & in
mouthwash products for its antiseptic properties.
Aloe Vera oil:- Natural oil with humectant, antibacterial properties.