16. Look at the label to the left. 3
of the 4 macromolecules are
(0 grams in this product)
(13 grams in this product)
(9 grams in this product)
19. SIMPLE CARBOHYDRATES
They are the main source of energy for the body !
Simple sugars Monosaccharide
Glucose, for example (Yes it IS a monomer!!), is the main
product of photosynthesis!!
C6H12O6 Atoms: C, H, O
** ALSO a glucose
**Offers the plant
** Energy storage
** Makes up cell wall
** Food source for
seeds and plant bulbs
23. Glycogen in Animals
polymer made up of
storage found in the
** Quickly broken
down into glucose
24. Complex Carbs and Energy
•Starches, Cellulose and Glycogen are broken
down by proteins called enzymes (remember
digestion in lysosomes!!??.....similar concept!)
•Broken down into their monomers Glucose
•Glucose is further broken down during cellular
respiration in the mitochondria for energy
•About 36 ATP molecules of energy per each
26. STORED ENERGY Broken down for energy
They INSULATE the body to help maintain normal body
temperature and they
CUSHION the internal organs for protection.
Include waxes, Oils
include steroids such as cholesterol and the sex
hormones estrogen and testosterone
Anabolic steroids build muscle
They waterproof surfaces of animals, plants, and fruits-
these are waxes!
THINK: Waterproof, insulate, steroids, energy, cushion…
27. Remember the cell membrane?
PhosphoLIPID bilayer of the cell membrane? The
fatty acid tails are lipids!
It’s semi-permeable, allowing only certain
molecules to diffuse across the membrane to
enter or exit the cell.
31. NOW ONTO PROTEINS
They are the major structural molecules in living things for
growth and repair : muscles, ligaments, tendons, bones, hair,
skin, nails…IN FACT ALL CELL MEMBRANES have protein in
They make up antibodies in the immune system
They make up enzymes for helping chemical reactions
They makeup non-steriod hormones which
THINK: Proteins= membranes, enzymes, antibodies, non-
steriod hormones, structural molecules, “MEANS”
• Chemical signaler protein produced in the pancreas
• Causes cells in the liver, muscle, and fat tissue to take up
glucose from blood and convert it to glycogen that can be stored
in the liver and muscles
• Diabetes is a condition when a person has high blood glucose (blood
sugar), either because insulin production is inadequate, or because the
body's cells do not respond properly to insulin, or both.
42. **Antibodies are part of the immune system.
**When something enters the body that isn’t supposed to be there,
like certain bacteria, antibodies find the invader and stick themselves
**White Blood cells destroy the invaders (hopefully)
•Speed up the rate of a chemical reaction (a catalyst) by
lowering the energy needed to begin the reaction (Below)
•Molecule specific – like a lock and key
• -Example: ONLY Lactase will break down lactose. It
will NEVER break down proteins
57. Remember How DNA and RNA Molecules are Involved in
Protein Synthesis?? Transcription and Translation?
*tRNA Brings in Amino
*Amino Acids form the
protein (a polypeptide)