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C h a p t e r s 9 and 10 3 Name: Class: Date: 35 marksSection A: Multiple-choice Questions (11 marks)For each question, there are four possible answers, A, B, C and D. Choose the most suitableanswer and write its letter in the circle provided.1. Why was the problem of pollution less serious 100 years ago? A The world’s population was larger and people took care of the Earth. B People who lived along rivers in the past did not pollute it. C The world’s population was smaller and hence less waste was produced. C D There were fewer occurrences of volcanic eruptions.2. Which of the following is a major cause of water pollution? A Forest ﬁres B Improper disposal of sewage C Volcanic eruptions B D Dust3. How can air pollution affect human health? A It can cause asthma attacks. B It can cause hearing impairment. C It can cause food poisoning. A D It can cause dengue fever.4. How do farming activities cause land pollution? A Oil spill from tractors contaminates the soil. B Burnt vegetation left by shifting cultivation contaminates the soil. C Methane produced from farm waste contaminates the soil. D D The excessive use of pesticides contaminates the soil.5. Which of the following is a noise reduction method? A Erecting lampposts along the sides of busy roads B Building roads around the neighbourhood C Encouraging the use of public transport D D Planting trees and shrubs along the roads Self Test 3 127
6. Which of the following shows individual effort in controlling the level of pollution? A Practise the 3Rs – reduce, reuse, recycle B Enforce laws to control pollution C Pour corrosive chemicals down the sink A D Use normal light bulbs instead of ﬂuorescent lights 7. Why is the Singapore Green Plan 2012 (SGP 2012) important to us? A It shows the number of parks and park connectors Singapore has. B It allows us to attend conferences on conservation. C It helps to develop Singapore into a pleasant city to live in. C D It was presented at the World Summit in 2002. 8. Why is it important that Singapore participates in international environmental programmes? A To get other countries to solve our environmental problems B To teach other countries how to be a ‘Clean and Green City’ C To enable her people to be aware of the environmental problems faced by other countries D To share our experiences and work with other countries to overcome D environmental problems 9. Which of the following is a consequence of global warming? A Formation of acid rain B Increase in amount of CFCs in the atmosphere C Rise in sea levels C D Spread of air pollution 10. The main function of the ozone layer in the atmosphere is to . A absorb excess carbon dioxide from the Earth B block out the Sun’s harmful ultraviolet rays C prevent CFCs from entering our atmosphere B D reduce the amount of carbon dioxide escaping into outer space 11. Which of the following is an example of an individual effort to reduce global warming? A Car-pooling B Using more products with CFCs in them C Imposing laws to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases D Encouraging industries to burn more fossil fuels A128 Self Test 3
Section B: Basic Techniques (6 marks)1. Fig 1 shows the number of hotspots or areas affected by forest ﬁres in Sumatra, Indonesia, in January 2005. Study the ﬁgure and answer the questions that follow. Hotspot counts in Sumatra (January 05) 350 300 Number of hotspots in Sumatra 250 200 150 100 50 0 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 05 5 5 -0 -0 -0 -0 -0 -0 -0 -0 -0 -0 -0 n-0 n-0 n- -0 -0 Ja n Ja n Ja n Ja n Ja n Ja n Ja n Ja n Ja n Ja n Ja n Ja Ja Ja an an 1- 3- 5- 7- 9- - - - - - - - - - -J -J 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 Date Fig 1 (a) Describe the pattern of hotspot occurrence in Sumatra in January 2005. (2 marks) Hotspots began to appear from 11 January onwards. Their numbers rose and fell for the rest of the month. (b) Give two possible causes of the forest ﬁres in Sumatra. (2 marks) • Prolonged hot and dry weather conditions had caused the forests to catch ﬁre easily. • The forests were burnt to create land for agriculture. (c) Why should we be concerned with the high number of forest ﬁres in Sumatra? (2 marks) Forest ﬁres produce haze which can spread to Singapore and other neighbouring countries. Haze reduces visibility and affects people’s health by causing asthma attacks, bronchitis or difﬁculties in breathing. Self Test 3 129
Section C: Structured Questions (18 marks) Answer the following questions. 1. The photograph below shows a highly polluted coastline. Study the photograph and answer the questions that follow. (a) Identify the type of environmental pollution shown in the photograph. (1 mark) Water pollution (b) Give a possible cause of this pollution. (1 mark) • People living along the coast could have thrown their rubbish directly into the water. • Untreated sewage could have been discharged directly into the water. (Accept other plausible answers.) (c) Describe how this pollution will affect the marine life near the coast. (2 marks) Some substances found in sewage such as detergents encourage the growth of algae on the water surface. This prevents sunlight from reaching the plants beneath, causing them to die as photosynthesis cannot occur. In turn, the animals that depend on these plants for food will also be affected. (d) Describe two ways in which people living along the coast would be affected by this form of pollution. (2 marks) • The people may fall ill from eating ﬁsh contaminated by water pollutants. • As the supply of ﬁsh may be reduced due to the pollutants, the people who depend on ﬁshing for their livelihood may be affected. (Accept other plausible answers.)130 Self Test 3
2. Read the extract from the poem, A Drive On The Highway by Sasi Dharan and answer the questions that follow. Five a.m., We are on the highway; At the wheel, My trusted cabdriver, A man cheerful and careful; A seasoned rider, No anxiety there. Trafﬁc thickens: Lorries, minis, transport buses, Two wheelers, Most polluting are most, Roaring, grunting, Humming, spluttering, All kinds of noise; Noise pollution, Early morning air, Thick with smoke and noise, Smoke, dust, embers, Sparks, carbon particles, Honking, musical horns, Speeding vehicles, Vying with one another To go past; Speed is The way of the world (a) List one word in the poem that is associated with noise pollution. (1 mark) Roaring; grunting; humming; spluttering; honking (Accept any one of the above.) Self Test 3 131
(b) How would the people living near this highway be affected by the noise in the long run? (2 marks) • The people may suffer from hearing impairment or become deaf. • The people may experience increased anxiety and stress levels, which may lead to other health problems. (c) Suggest three measures the government can take to reduce noise pollution along this highway and places near it. (3 marks) • Set limits on acceptable noise level produced by vehicles. • Enforce laws that make it compulsory for all vehicles to have mufﬂers installed in the engines. • Create sound barriers by building tall wooden fences or by planting trees along the highway. (Accept other plausible answers.) 3. (a) The Kyoto Protocol is an international treaty to address the problem of the rising emissions of greenhouse gases. Despite its implementation, the efforts in reducing greenhouse gases remain a challenge. Give a reason to explain why this is so. (3 marks) This is because some developed countries did not accede to the treaty as they were concerned that the proﬁts of their industries may be affected by the strict emissions control which could lead to a loss of jobs for many of their people. (b) State three measures Singapore has taken to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases and CFCs. (3 marks) • Singapore has imposed strict laws to control the amount of air pollutants emitted by vehicles, industries and power stations. • The government is working with private companies to develop a ﬂeet of buses that run on compressed natural gas as it is a cleaner alternative source of energy. • Singapore has acceded to the Montreal Protocol and hence has banned the use of ozone-depleting substances such as CFCs. (Accept other plausible answers.)132 Self Test 3