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Battle of antietam powerpoint presentation

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Battle of antietam powerpoint presentation

  1. 1. Battle of Antietam The Bloodiest Single Day of the Civil War. The casualties on September 17, 1862 amounted to 23,000 casualties Antietam National Cemetery
  2. 2. Why did Robert E. Lee and Jefferson Davis decide to attack the North? <ul><li>If the South won a battle in the North, the North may offer them a peace treaty. </li></ul><ul><li>If the South won a significant battle in the North, European Countries may recognize the Confederacy as an independent nation, which would boost trade or help them to gain allies or foreign assistance. </li></ul>Jefferson Davis, C.S.A. President
  3. 3. General Perspective of Robert E. Lee’s Road to Antietam
  4. 4. September 5, 1862- Lee’s Position and Battle Plans <ul><li>Lee dispatched “Stonewall” Jackson and A.P. Hill to attack Harper’s Ferry. James Longstreet was sent just over South Mountain to Boonsboro and D.H. Hill was ordered to protect the wagon and artillery trains. </li></ul>Harper’s Ferry, Virginia
  5. 5. Finding of Lee’s Special Orders <ul><li>The front of the Federal Troops skirmished with the rear of the Confederate troops at Frederick, Maryland. After the Confederates retreated, a Union private searched an abandoned tent and found Lee’s “Special Orders No. 191” which was wrapped around 3 cigars. This Union private gave Lee’s Orders to George B. McClellan who said that, “Here is the paper with which if I cannot whip Bobbie Lee, I will be willing to go home.” </li></ul>George B. McClellan
  6. 6. McClellan’s Orders once Lee’s Special Orders were found <ul><li>-Union Commander George B. McClellan sent Cavalry to the South Mountain passes to possibly attack D.H. Hill and James Longstreet. </li></ul><ul><li>Union Reinforcements were sent to Harper’s Ferry to protect it from A.P. Hill and “Stonewall” Jackson’s attack. </li></ul><ul><li>The rest of McClellan’s forces would march west of D.C. to split the difference between Boonsboro and Harper’s Ferry, ending up at Antietam Creek </li></ul>
  7. 7. McClellan’s Caution shows through again <ul><li>McClellan overestimated the amount of troops that Robert E. Lee had around the South Mountain passes under D.H. Hill and figured that James Longstreet would reinforce Hill if he was attack, but Longstreet was now around 13 miles ahead of D.H. Hill. </li></ul>James Longstreet Daniel Harvey (D.H.) Hill
  8. 8. Harper’s Ferry is surrendered by the Union, Jackson heads to Antietam Creek <ul><li>“ Stonewall” Jackson is late in moving to Antietam due to the Union surrendering on September 15 and Jackson had to negotiate terms of the surrender. “Stonewall” Jackson left for Antietam the night of September 15 and A.P. Hill was to follow him after finishing the negotiations for the surrender of these 12,000 Union troops at Harper’s Ferry. </li></ul>Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson Ambrose Powell (A.P.) Hill
  9. 9. Battlefield Arrangements on the Dawn of September 17 at Antietam Creek <ul><li>For the Confederacy, James Longstreet and D.H. Hill held the right and the center. “Stonewall” Jackson and J.E.B. Stuart held the left. </li></ul><ul><li>For the Union, General Joseph Hooker and Major General Joseph Mansfield on the Union Right, while Major General Edwin Sumner’s corps were in the center. Major General Ambrose Burnsides’ troops were the Union left. </li></ul>
  10. 10. McClellan’s Battle Plans for Antietam <ul><li>The initial attack would be with Union Maj. Gen. Joseph Mansfield’s troops attacking the Confederate left flank, occupied by “Stonewall” Jackson. This attack would be followed by an attack by Burnsides on the Confederate right flank, and then finally, an attack on the Confederate Center, with reinforcements making up the most of these attacking forces. </li></ul>Union Major General Joseph Mansfield Union Major General Ambrose Burnside
  11. 11. Fighting in the Center with Union General Edwin Sumner versus Confederate General D.H. Hill <ul><li>Around 10 A.M. fighting ensued between Sumner’s Divisions and D.H. Hill’s. </li></ul><ul><li>After a considerable amount of casualties occurred to both sides, the Confederates retreated and reformed 600 yards away. The area of fighting in the center of the battlefield and the 600 yards that the Confederates traveled in their retreat was named “Bloody Lane” for the mass amounts of death that occurred in this area. </li></ul>“ Bloody Lane” at the Center of Antietam Battlefield
  12. 12. “ Bloody Lane” at Antietam
  13. 13. More Pictures of “Bloody Lane”
  14. 14. Burnside gains control of the Antietam Creek Bridge <ul><li>Burnside replenished ammunition for 2 + hours and moved his troops to the west bank rather than pushing on and attacking the confederacy like he should have. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Burnside moves forward towards Confederate Brigadier General David R. Jones’ division of 2,500 troops. <ul><li>Union saw their reinforcements approaching, when in fact it was A.P. Hill’s confederate division marching in Union garb they got from Harper’s Ferry. Burnside was shocked when Hill’s troops began to charge at them. Burnside’s troops retreated and the fighting was over. </li></ul>VS. Union Maj. General Ambrose Burnside A.P. Hill’s troops dressed in Union uniforms
  16. 16. Union “Victory” as Lee withdrew from Antietam back to VA on Sep. 18 th <ul><li>Lee was outnumbered 2 to 1 at Antietam and still fought the Union to a standstill, but decided there was nothing else to gain, especially since Maryland refused to join the confederacy. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Overall Losses at Antietam: <ul><li>Confederates- 45,000 Total troops at Antietam, 11,172 Lost </li></ul><ul><li>Union- 87,000 Total troops at Antietam, 12,410 Lost </li></ul>
  18. 18. REVIEW TIME! What time is it?