Se ha denunciado esta presentación.
Utilizamos tu perfil de LinkedIn y tus datos de actividad para personalizar los anuncios y mostrarte publicidad más relevante. Puedes cambiar tus preferencias de publicidad en cualquier momento.

Summary of topic 7.3

IB Diploma Environmental Systems

  • Sé el primero en comentar

  • Sé el primero en recomendar esto

Summary of topic 7.3

  1. 1. Topic 7 Climate change and energy production 7.3 Climate change – mitigation and adaptation
  2. 2. Mitigation • ‘An action to reduce the severity or seriousness of an unpleasant situation’ • In terms of climate change this refers to actions to reduce/stabilise emissions of greenhouse gases or remove them from the atmosphere
  3. 3. Mitigation • Greenhouse gases may be reduced by: – Reducing energy consumption – Reducing emissions of NOx (fertilisers) and methane (cow farts) in agriculture – Using alternatives to fossil fuels – Using biomass as a fuel (carbon neutral) – Geo-engineering – Reducing deforestation/encouraging aforestation
  4. 4. Geo-engineering • ‘Large-scale engineering interventions in the Earth’s natural systems to try to counteract climate change’ • Examples include: – Orbiting mirrors to reflect solar energy – Artificial ‘trees’ to absorb CO2 – Ocean fertilisation to create phytoplankton blooms – Exposing minerals such as calcium oxide to absorb CO2 http://edroness.blogspot.mx/2014/03/blog-post.html
  5. 5. Pollution Management Strategies to Reduce Global Warming (Policy) • Control the release of greenhouse gases • Reduce the rate of deforestation • Increase tree planting programmes • Develop renewable energy resources • Reduce car use and improve public transport • Set national limits on carbon emissions • Use carbon credits and carbon trading to offset CO2 emissions • Develop methods to sequester carbon from the atmosphere (biological and chemical)
  6. 6. Pollution Management Strategies to Reduce Global Warming (Individuals) • Grow your own food • Buy locally grown produce • Use energy efficient products (e.g. light bulbs) • Reduce heating your house/ improve insulation • Use less electricity and unplug appliances • Turn off lights when not in use • Reduce use of air conditioning and refrigerants • Don’t waste water (take showers instead of baths) • Walk and use a bike/ use cars less/ use public transport • Use biofuels • Eat less meat • Get involved in public education/ activism United Nations Programme on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (UNREDD)
  7. 7. The Kyoto Protocol • In 1997, 183 countries signed this agreement to try to keep global greenhouse gases at a stable level • It came into force in 2005 • Each country’s emissions were divided into credits and they were allowed to buy and sell them • Countries are also able to offset their emissions by planting trees (an alternative to buying carbon credits) • The US and Australia signed but refused to ratify the Kyoto Protocol • Canada signed and ratified it, but has since withdrawn from its obligations
  8. 8. The Future of the Kyoto Protocol • The original agreement was due to end in 2012 • Representatives of the signatories met in December 2012 to discuss its future • It was extended until 2020. Richer nations agreed in principle to compensate poorer nations • The Paris Accords (2015) strengthened nations’ commitment to climate change mitigation and was signed by the U.S. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NAsGnGWZS1M&list=PLITAq0aJinsQLtj9dV3Q1tHoSIK76sczW http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xpiM2LuK4O4&list=PLITAq0aJinsQLtj9dV3Q1tHoSIK76sczW
  9. 9. Adaptation • ‘The action or process of changing something to suit a new purpose or situation’ • In terms of climate change, this means accepting that climate change will affect our quality of life and therefore changing our lifestyles as a result
  10. 10. Adaptation • Prevent flooding (dikes, ditches, coastal defenses) – The US Navy is building protection for its bases at the Washington Naval Yard and US Naval Academy • If flooding can’t be prevented, then flood-proof or floating buildings could be constructed • Some locations may have to be evacuated if there are no other options – e.g. Tuvalu Rise in sea level
  11. 11. Adaptation • Change in freshwater availability – Less precipitation in some areas – Loss of glacial water (1 billion people depend on freshwater from Himalayan glaciers) – Salinisation of water due to seawater ingress • Increased transportation of potable water • Desalinisation of seawater • Abandonment of some settlements • Conflict • Freshwater trading Freshwater
  12. 12. Adaptation • Changing crop locations as a result of biome shift • Changing crop types in order to adapt to increasing temperatures – e.g. replacing wheat with sorghum • Changing agricultural methods in response to changing water availability or soil quality – e.g zero-til agriculture • Accepting a decreased availability of some produce (at least seasonally) Agriculture

    Sé el primero en comentar

IB Diploma Environmental Systems

Vistas

Total de vistas

595

En Slideshare

0

De embebidos

0

Número de embebidos

51

Acciones

Descargas

22

Compartidos

0

Comentarios

0

Me gusta

0

×