Se ha denunciado esta presentación.
Utilizamos tu perfil de LinkedIn y tus datos de actividad para personalizar los anuncios y mostrarte publicidad más relevante. Puedes cambiar tus preferencias de publicidad en cualquier momento.

Young, qualified and jobless: how EU unemployment is defining the Millennial generation

731 visualizaciones

Publicado el

These are the slides for the International Journalism Festival's panel that took place in Perugia on 18 aprile 2015. You can see the panel here http://www.journalismfestival.com/programme/2015/young-qualified-and-jobless-how-europes-unemployment-is-defining-the-millennial-generation

with Mariangela Paone, Peggy Corlin, quote from Jon Henley.

Millennials have their rules: they read news on their smartphones, live on social media, move between different countries regularly. Also, most European young people are facing the highest unemployment since the ’70s, while many of those with a job are commonly known as the “working poor”. We still don’t know what the future consequences of this will be. But we can already see that this defining factor is changing a generation’s lifestyle and social habits (as we know them). Shared houses during adulthood, impossibility of getting a mortgage, migration. Owning a car (or not), getting married (or not), having children (or not): all of these things are now rapidly changing. And the EU Youth Guarantee programme seems to be ineffective. This session will consider these issues with journalists from Spain, Greece, UK, France and Italy.

Publicado en: Economía y finanzas
  • Inicia sesión para ver los comentarios

  • Sé el primero en recomendar esto

Young, qualified and jobless: how EU unemployment is defining the Millennial generation

  1. 1. #ijf15 | @micheleazzu | @mapaone | @peggycorlin
  2. 2. Ho lavorato come baby sitter ogni mattina svegliandomi alle 5.30 per essere a lavoro alle 7.00. Staccavo alle 15.00, tornavo a casa, cibo, studio e alle 18.00 a lezione fino le 21.30. A quel punto tornare a casa e preparare la cena, doccia, chiamare il mio ragazzo che vive in Sardegna (lui è tornato a casa dei suoi per poter lavorare riuscendo a mettere qualcosa da parte) o la famiglia e poi a letto. E di nuovo, tutto da capo. Dopo cinque anni di studi e numerose esperienze lavorative ancora non riesco a farmi pagare per un servizio fotografico. #ijf15 | @micheleazzu | @mapaone | @peggycorlin
  3. 3. “Lo stage è segnalato all’università, quindi credo tu abbia dei crediti”. Ah, sì. I 3 crediti che ho già ottenuto al primo anno, con un seminario di un’ora a settimana. Insomma, per quei tre crediti che già ho dovrei recarmi a dieci chilometri da casa, cambiando i programmi della famiglia (perché la patente ce l’ho, ma l’auto no). E spendere più di 70 euro al mese in abbonamenti per Milano. E, quindi, alla fine, la settimana di prova resta una prova. #ijf15 | @micheleazzu | @mapaone | @peggycorlin
  4. 4. “Io avrei voluto davvero non farli ‘sti 30 giorni di malattia, ho provato a rifiutarli ma per legge sono obbligato a non andare al lavoro”, spiega. Il fatto, spiega Mario, mentre continua a parlare, è che essendo il suo primo anno di lavoro in quell’azienda, e conoscendo le dinamiche di quel posto, teme che questo mese di fermo obbligatorio possa costargli il posto, al rinnovo del contratto fra pochi mesi. “C’è una mole di lavoro impressionante e io li lascio così… spero davvero che non influisca ma sono un po’ preoccupato“, mi dice. #ijf15 | @micheleazzu | @mapaone | @peggycorlin
  5. 5. È come avere una doppia vita. I weekend non esci per lavorare, non hai un giorno libero. Delle volte, dopo 8 ore di lavoro, torni a casa e ti metti sui libri. Anche in fila al centro per l’impiego mi ero portata da studiare. Alla fine sono quasi contenta di aver perso il lavoro, perché non mi era mai capitato di poter fare solo la studentessa. Certo… e se fra qualche mese non riesco a trovare lavoro? E con quanti mesi di ritardo mi versano l’Aspi? #ijf15 | @micheleazzu | @mapaone | @peggycorlin
  6. 6. Mi propongono un contratto full time per il quale avrei percepito quasi lo stesso stipendio del precedente part time. C’era poco da discutere: avevo bisogno di quel lavoro. Sono tornata a Roma senza un soldo, avendo perso la stagione estiva fidandomi della promessa di un contratto, senza un lavoro e con un affitto da pagare. Ora, nove mesi dopo ancora invio curriculum – non so quante centinaia ne ho inviati finora – in cerca di un lavoro. #ijf15 | @micheleazzu | @mapaone | @peggycorlin
  7. 7. World’s “Ticking bomb” • Commons International Development Committee (IDC) report: 600 million young people competing for a predicted 200 million jobs over the next decade” • ILO: The challenge of bringing unemployment back to pre-crisis levels “now appears as daunting a task as ever” #ijf15 | @micheleazzu | @mapaone | @peggycorlin
  8. 8. • ILO director general, Guy Ryder, said: “More than 61 million jobs have been lost since the start of the global crisis in 2008 and our projections show that unemployment will continue to rise until the end of the decade • By 2019, more than 212 million people will be out of work, up from 201 million now, according to the ILO’s report, World Employment and Social Outlook – Trends 2015 #ijf15 | @micheleazzu | @mapaone | @peggycorlin
  9. 9. Not EU • US - The nation is poised to lose $18 billion in wages over the next decade due to high youth unemployment, according to a Bloomberg Brief from Senior Economist Joseph Brusuelas. Brusuelas estimated that about 1.3 million 16- to 24-year-olds have been unemployed for six months or more. He came to the $18 billion figure using earlier research (…) Still, the problem of lost wages due to unemployment could actually be much worse, Brusuelas told The Huffington Post. It isn’t just low-skill jobs that account for the 16.8% underemployment rate for young college graduates. (10% YU general) #ijf15 | @micheleazzu | @mapaone | @peggycorlin
  10. 10. EU 2007 to 2013 • Between 2007 and 2013, youth unemployment reached record highs across Europe, dramatically increasing from 15.7% to 23.4% according to Eurostat #ijf15 | @micheleazzu | @mapaone | @peggycorlin
  11. 11. EU • Over 5 million young people (under 25) were unemployed in the EU-28 area in the second quarter of 2014. • This represents an unemployment rate of 21.7% (23.2% in the euro area). This is more than twice as high as the adult unemployment rate (9.0%). • 7.5 million young Europeans between 15 and 24 are neither in employment, nor in education or training (NEETs). • 12% of the 18-24 year old population are early school leavers. • In the last four years, the overall employment rates for young people fell three times as much as for adults. • The gap between the countries with the highest and the lowest jobless rates for young people is extremely high. There is a gap of nearly 50 percentage points between the EU country with the lowest rate of youth unemployment (Germany at 7.8% in July 2014) and with the EU country with the highest rate, Spain (53.8% in July 2014). Spain is followed by Greece (53.1% in May 2014), Italy (42.9%), Croatia (41.5%), Portugal (35.5%) and Cyprus (35.1% in June 2014). (source: EU Commission) #ijf15 | @micheleazzu | @mapaone | @peggycorlin
  12. 12. #ijf15
  13. 13. #ijf15
  14. 14. #ijf15
  15. 15. We don’t know • FMI: "Despite the increasing policy focus on youth unemployment, there is relatively little analysis of the nature and drivers of this phenomenon”. • UK Parliament: “Measuring young people’s participation in the labour market is particularly difficult because of the complex way in which education and the labour market interact ” #ijf15 | @micheleazzu | @mapaone | @peggycorlin
  16. 16. Stock factor • "Youth unemployment rates are, on average, almost three times as sensitive to output growth as adult unemployment rates. This relationship holds true in every country, notwithstanding wide variations in employment dynamics across countries" #ijf15 | @micheleazzu | @mapaone | @peggycorlin
  17. 17. Flow factor • "Our analysis confirms that higher labor costs— that is, a larger tax wedge and/or minimum wages relative to the median wage—are associated with higher youth and adult unemployment rates” #ijf15 | @micheleazzu | @mapaone | @peggycorlin
  18. 18. Duality • (IMF) “The unequal distribution of unemployment and its unusual concentration among youth in some countries in part reflects dysfunctional labor market institutions, namely the dual employment protection systems. This is why the IMF has recommended the reduction of duality in a number of countries, particularly Italy, Portugal, and Spain" #ijf15 | @micheleazzu | @mapaone | @peggycorlin
  19. 19. “Statistical tricks” • IMF: The trends look worrisome, no matter how youth unemployment is measured. Some have argued that is merely a statistical artifact due to the smaller size of the youth labor force that occurs because younger people dip in and out of the labor force while pursuing their education. Indeed, the headline numbers do vary significantly depending on whether the incidence of unemployment is measured as a share of the youth labor force (the unemployment rate) or total population. And the NEET rates also paint a worrisome picture. #ijf15 | @micheleazzu | @mapaone | @peggycorlin
  20. 20. TEMP • Flexible type of contracts that have mushroomed during the recession: part-time and temporary jobs increased by 4 and 3 percentage points respectively, bringing the first to 46% and the second 59% between 2008 and 2012 on average for the EU. In 2012, the reports stresses, “over half of hirings across all occupational groups (except ‘legislators and managers’) were on temporary contracts and even over 70% in ‘elementary occupations’”. (European Vacancy and Recruitment Report 2014, EU Commission) #ijf15 | @micheleazzu | @mapaone | @peggycorlin
  21. 21. NEET • Although we understand the significant issues which confront many of the young people characterised as NEET, we find the term ambiguous and at times unhelpful, because of the broad scope of young people it encompasses (UK Parliament, EU committee) #ijf15 | @micheleazzu | @mapaone | @peggycorlin
  22. 22. #ijf15
  23. 23. UNDEREMPLOYMENT • We note that highly skilled young people who are ‘underemployed’ can create a blockage to entry-level jobs for other young people. • We recommend that the UK Government use some of the European Social Fund to introduce ways of assisting highly skilled young people to access the labour market, for example, through improved careers advice or support for entrepreneurship. This would complement their use of the majority of government and EU funding to target those disadvantaged young people who may be harder-to-reach. (UK Parliament, EU committee) #ijf15 | @micheleazzu | @mapaone | @peggycorlin
  24. 24. Social consequences • migration of skilled labour • hysteria effects • social resistance to reforms • foster crime • erode social cohesion and institutions • lower job expectations and wages … All of this cause (even) less growth prospects. (IMF) #ijf15 | @micheleazzu | @mapaone | @peggycorlin
  25. 25. Social consequences • Birth rate • Marriages • House • Wages #ijf15 | @micheleazzu | @mapaone | @peggycorlin
  26. 26. Birth rate • Natalità in calo in Europa: Italia, Germania, Grecia e Portogallo sono i paesi dove si fanno meno bambini (8.5 ogni 1.000 abitanti). Dal 2012 al 2013 l'UE è passata da una media di 10.4 neonati ogni mille abitanti a 10 ogni mille. I tassi più elevati in Francia, UK, Svezia, Lussemburgo (dove hanno leggi su paternità e maternità e forte welfare con asili, tate, e bonus). • Ma INSEE (Istituto statistico francese) dice che per la prima volta dal 2000 il tasso di natalità in Francia è sceso sotto la soglia di 2 bambini per donna (1,99). (Eurostat) #ijf15 | @micheleazzu | @mapaone | @peggycorlin
  27. 27. Italia • Nel 2013 sono stati iscritti in anagrafe per nascita 509.000 bambini, quasi 25mila in meno rispetto al 2012 (nel 2013 erano 514.000). Dal 2008 ad oggi sono oltre 62mila le nascite in meno. È il dato più basso dall'unità d'Italia. (Istat) #ijf15 | @micheleazzu | @mapaone | @peggycorlin
  28. 28. Telegraph
  29. 29. Best quote • "This data makes my fertile friends look like the demographic equivalent of a two-headed unicorn" Eleanor Robertson (Guardian AUS) #ijf15 | @micheleazzu | @mapaone | @peggycorlin
  30. 30. Lower wages • Taking into account wages alone, 22-to-29-year- olds saw a 12.5% fall between 2009 – the year before the coalition took office – and 2014. There were declines for every age group over the five- year period, but the decline was most muted for the over-60s, who had a decline of 3.7% in wages according to the thinktank’s analysis. #ijf15 | @micheleazzu | @mapaone | @peggycorlin
  31. 31. Marriages • Marriage rates have fallen dramatically in most major European countries over the past decade, as austerity, generational crisis and apathy towards the institution deter record numbers of young people from tying the knot. France, Spain, Italy, Ireland, Poland and Portugal - according to national and European data - Greece, Denmark, Hungary, the Netherlands and Britain. Marriages have halved since 1965. (Guardian) #ijf15 | @micheleazzu | @mapaone | @peggycorlin
  32. 32. Italia • Nel 2013 sono stati celebrati 194.057 matrimoni - 13.081 in meno rispetto al 2012. Negli ultimi 5 anni la tendenza resta in calo, con circa 53mila nozze in meno (Istat) • Antonio Golini (Istat): “There are also economic causes because marriage means (…) big and costs a lot. So in a time of crisis people live together in an [unmarried] cohabitation." #ijf15 | @micheleazzu | @mapaone | @peggycorlin
  33. 33. • "The lack of stable jobs and absence of credit have become disincentives to forming a family," said Teresa Castro-Martin, professor of research in the department of population studies at the CSIC, a government research institute in Spain. The average age of newlyweds in Spain is now 37.2 years for men – almost 10 years higher than it was in the 1980s. #ijf15 | @micheleazzu | @mapaone | @peggycorlin
  34. 34. House • Almost half of Europe's young adults are living with their parents. One of the most comprehensive social surveys of 28 European countries reveals that the percentage of people aged 18-30 who were still living with their parents had risen to 48%, or 36.7 million people, by 2011, in tandem with levels of deprivation and unemployment that surged during five years of economic crisis. The data from EU agency Eurofound (obtained by the Guardian) shows that few countries are immune and that the phenomenon is not exclusive to the debt-laden Mediterranean rim. Rises in the number of stay-at-home twentysomethings in Sweden, Denmark, France, Belgium and Austria. In Italy, nearly four-fifths (79%). (Eurofound) #ijf15 | @micheleazzu | @mapaone | @peggycorlin
  35. 35. • Nove mesi e mezzo per vendere una casa, prezzi sostanzialmente fermi o leggermente in calo, così come stabili attorno al 16% si confermano gli 'sconti' che gli acquirenti riescono a spuntare sul prezzo iniziale di un'abitazione. (Banca d’Italia). • Home ownership rates for 25-year-olds have halved in two decades. (UK insititute fiscal studies) #ijf15 | @micheleazzu | @mapaone | @peggycorlin
  36. 36. So what? • One of the Eurofound report's authors, Anna Ludwinek, said: "The situation of youth has really fundamentally changed. And it looks different from the situation of their parents and grandparents". #ijf15 | @micheleazzu | @mapaone | @peggycorlin
  37. 37. Youth Guarantee • According to the International Labour Organisation (ILO), an efficient Youth Guarantee at a European level would cost €21 billion. According to the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions, the cost of supporting the 7.5 million young people aged 15-24 who are not employed, training or studying, and the loss of their productivity will cost the EU €150 billion per year. • Economists have derided the scheme as a public relations exercise. #ijf15 | @micheleazzu | @mapaone | @peggycorlin
  38. 38. • The quality of employment available for young people has been largely overlooked. The 'any job is a good job' is turning into a new mantra. Speaking at the European Parliament on Monday (7 April 2014), the vice president of the European Youth Forum, Lloyd Russel-Moyle, said that the youth guaranteed is is open to abuse, because it doesn't exclude unpaid internships. (European Youth Forum) #ijf15 | @micheleazzu | @mapaone | @peggycorlin
  39. 39. RESULTS • Officials from the European Court of Auditors (ECA) responsible for screening the flagship Youth Guarantee initiative have admitted that they have yet to see a single young person who has found a job through it. On 24 Mar ECA published its 1st report. Iliana Ivanova, the ECA member responsible for the report said: “The court doesn’t know how much of the €12.7 billion has been used so far. 9 member states have not provided any information about their commitments, while the remaining countries have done so in varying degrees of detail”. The countries not reported Estonia, Spain, Finland, Ireland, Luxembourg, Malta, Poland, Sweden and the UK. #ijf15 | @micheleazzu | @mapaone | @peggycorlin
  40. 40. MORE MONITORING • Claire Courteille, director of the International Labour Organisation in Brussels: “YG needs more monitoring”. • EU Youth Forum: “It is extremely difficult to follow the implementation process. Furthermore, it is very disappointing to see the lack of transparency in the Commission’s monitoring. It is very difficult to access Member States’ implementation plans. Up until now, we know from our member organisations across Europe, that engagement with young people has been haphazard, superficial and sometimes non-existent”. #ijf15 | @micheleazzu | @mapaone | @peggycorlin
  41. 41. Doubt 1 18-25 or 30 years old? Laszlo Andor: “Spalmare le risorse rischierebbe di vanificare i risultati, applichiamo il programma alla fascia d’età al di sotto dei 25 anni e poi, se funziona, coinvolgiamo eventualmente anche i trentenni”. #ijf15 | @micheleazzu | @mapaone | @peggycorlin
  42. 42. Doubt 2 Long or short term? • UK Parliament: “This is an important consideration because it dictates the appropriate policy solutions. For a short-term problem, a large injection of funds may be enough to stimulate the youth labour market, whereas the resolution for a long-term problem may require a greater focus on structural change”. • FMI: historically high, increasingly long term #ijf15 | @micheleazzu | @mapaone | @peggycorlin
  43. 43. Doubt 3 Are internships and apprenticeships quality jobs? UK Parliament: “We are concerned about the proliferation of schemes being identified as apprenticeships but whose quality and applicability to the labour market is questionable. We believe that it is important to ensure that internships enable young people to access the labour market, and are not offered as a substitute for employment. We therefore endorse the European Commission’s attempts to create a common understanding of what constitutes EU”. #ijf15 | @micheleazzu | @mapaone | @peggycorlin
  44. 44. 3 CONFLITTI 1. GENERAZIONALE 2. DI CLASSE (unpaid internships) 3. POLITICO #ijf15 | @micheleazzu | @mapaone | @peggycorlin
  45. 45. A political problem • Mario Draghi (2012): “The European social model has already gone when we see the youth unemployment rates prevailing in some countries.” • “The divide between the democratic institutions in Europe, representatives and political parties on the one hand, and Europe’s young citizens on the other hand is growing” #ijf15 | @micheleazzu | @mapaone | @peggycorlin
  46. 46. • “European elections [in 2014] have shown that there is still a high level of youth absenteeism, with only 28% of young people under 25 who actually voted,” Johanna Nyman, President of the European Youth Forum. #ijf15 | @micheleazzu | @mapaone | @peggycorlin
  47. 47. #ijf15
  48. 48. Erasmus needs
  49. 49. #ijf15 | @micheleazzu | @mapaone | @peggycorlin Grandi assenti • Università • Sindacati
  50. 50. DOMANDE QUESTIONS #ijf15 | @micheleazzu | @mapaone | @peggycorlin

×