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4th GLOBAL CONFERENCE on
LINGUISTICS and FOREIGN
LANGUAGE TEACHING (LINELT-
2016). Ephesus, Aydin – Turkey
Miguel Zapata Ros
People learn at different rates and have different learning needs.
However, schools are organized to teach a specific, predetermined set of contents in
a period of time that is pre-established and the same for everyone involved.
As a result, slower students are forced to move on to the next learning point before
they have mastered content.
Nowadays, students who do not have the appropriate level of mastery are passed on.
At the same time, gifted students become bored and frustrated, and they waste
valuable learning time as they wait for the group to move ahead. People from both of
these groups often give up and quit.
This represents a considerable waste of talent for our
communities and companies at a time when knowledge is
a basic commodity. In addition, it can be the root of
frustration at the personal level.
The dominant paradigm of education, with its
production and learning standards, is
unsustainable, especially considering that we
have available the technological means and
environments to offer alternatives.
However, there is strong resistance. The
present-day educational paradigm may
actually be one of the disruptive changes
taking place within the system that is
causing the most resistance.
The emergence of a technological world and a knowledge-based society
• Knowledge networks and social networks
• Disruptive businesses
… plagued with questions and uncertainties
… and with potential
• Knowledge and learning no longer take place only at schools and universities
• Are teachers prepared?
• Are schools prepared? And what about educational systems?
• He has universities professional and life performances? and the education ?
• Disruptive innovations
• Learning based on achievement, not on
• Individual and institutional adaptability
• Democratization of access to knowledge and employment
1) The web
2) Learning Management Systems,
3) OER/MOOCs, and digital texts
4) Mobile devices
5) Social media
6) Smart Learning Environments
The main characteristics of transformation in educational
1. access to rich and powerful interactive resources,
2. many and varied ways of communicating and
3. instant access to knowledge,
4. open practices
Exploitation of digital technologies
Teachers lack the digital literacy needed to
exploit the full potential of digital technologies
New approaches for instructional
design based on learning theories
and pedagogy to use digital
Analysis of data associated with
LMS to understand better how
students are learning
Instructional design Learning analytics
Instructional design theory
It is a tool with two purposes:
Facilitation of learning and human development facilitation
of human development alongside improved learning is
It is a situational theory: The learning methods and
situations are essential for learning to take place effectively.
It is a series of principles to organize teaching within a
complex framework of elements that are becoming
smaller and smaller. Closer to individual
comprehension, they are later used to scaffold
Instructional design methods involve a continuous
cycle and formative evaluation that enable
improvements in the process to be introduced as part
of the educational program design without the need to
Learning analytic and SMART
Research on mobile and social communication environments
has developed detection technologies.
It has also led to the creation of environments that are
sensitive to the ubiquitous and social learning contexts and
that are capable of detecting the state of student learning in
the real world and in situational contexts.
They can be used to provide individual students the appropriate
information at the right place and at the right time.
However, this is not enough. Other factors must be considered.
These are, fundamentally, the same principles that rule over
instructional design and efficiency in learning.
Instruction using technology should
extend learning quality and efficiency to
Both universal principles and specific situations exist.
Empirically demonstrated principles can be applied
universally to all teaching situations.
Specific methods enable each principle to be
implemented but their application should be varied
from one situation to another.
Important aspects to reach all
A) Universal methods of instruction
Prescriptive instructional principles, “fundamental
principles,” which improve the quality of teaching in
all situations ( Merrill, 2007 , 2009 ) cover:
• The centrality of the task,
B) Organization and evaluation
Teaching should always be organized using strategies that
focus on the task and enabling a progression of
complete tasks that become increasingly complex.
Instruction should provide a demonstration of the skill.
The demonstration should be consistent with the skill
that the student is expected to acquire in terms of
• the type of skill,
• how it is done, and
• what happens when it is used.
Key ideas in the post-industrial
paradigm of instruction
Post-industrial education highlights contrasts
A focus on learning vs. a focus on selection
of individuals (central, recurring and epitomic
Organization of teaching focused on the
student vs. Instruction focused on the teacher.
“Learning by doing” vs. “learning through
Progress based on achievement vs. progress
based on time.
Personalized instruction vs. standardized
New key roles for the new
paradigm I: Teachers
Designer of student work,
Facilitator of the learning process
A new kind of mentor: anywhere and anytime.
New key roles for the new
paradigm II Students
Autonomous students and
New key roles for the new
paradigm III Technology
Storage of student learning registers that offer
inventories of standards, personal achievements
and personal characteristics.
Planning of student learning, which involves
helping students, parents and teachers to identify
and decide on long-term objectives. And the roles
of teachers and parents and the personal learning
Organization of teaching. Learning technology
We need to transform our educational systems.
They were designed to select students through
their structure, functions and nature.
With the help of technology we can now design
other, different systems to maximize learning and
We need to move away from systems that
measure student progress based on time to
others based on their achievements.
This transformation will require progress in theory
and in technology to organize teaching and
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