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An Introduction to the Internet of Things

As an introduction to the different aspects of the Internet of Things, this presentation covers everything from terminology and history to applications and explanation of different layers of IoT.
This was presented on July 27th 2016 at Monenco Iran.

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An Introduction to the Internet of Things

  1. 1. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016Internet of Things, an Intro Monenco Iran, July 2016
  2. 2. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 Presentation Organization o Terminology o A brief history o Trend analysis o Consumer .vs Industrial IoT o Application areas o Predictions about the future of IoT o Top adopters of IoT o Where is the money? o Stages of IoT maturity o Explanation as layers o IoT Hardware Internet of Things, an Intro Monenco Iran, July 2016
  3. 3. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 Presentation Organization (cont.) o IoT Network: communication models o LPWA Networks o IoT Platforms o Messaging protocols o IoT Enablers o New business models o Big data and IoT o Concerns about IoT o Conclusion
  4. 4. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 Terminology IoE IoT IoS IoP M2M IoD IIoT IoH
  5. 5. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 Terminology IoX * * Replace the X with your preferred letter!
  6. 6. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 Terminology IoM Internet of Monenco?!
  7. 7. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 Terminology Internet of Everything (IoE) Defined by Cisco, Internet of Everything (IoE) brings together people, process, data, and things to make networked connections more relevant and valuable than ever before.
  8. 8. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 Terminology Internet of Things (IoT) Connecting everyday objects we interact with in an information network so that they can communicate and exchange data. Every object must have a unique identifier, but having internet connectivity is not mandatory.
  9. 9. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 Terminology Internet of Digital (IoD) Very close to the concept of Traditional Internet, IoD refers to “Digital-First” objects like smartphones, tablets, laptops and smart TVs connecting to the Internet for exchanging data.
  10. 10. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 Terminology Internet of Human (IoH) Refers to the interactions that human users have with the IoT and IoD subsystems. These interactions can be both direct (e.g. manual) and indirect (e.g. automated, ambient tracking of human activity)
  11. 11. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 Terminology
  12. 12. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 Terminology Machine to Machine (M2M) The technology that allows wireless or wired devices to have a point to point connection to other devices of the same type.
  13. 13. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 Terminology Industrie 4.0 A term introduced by German government referring to the 4th industrial revolution after the invention of steam engine, mass production and automation. It takes the idea of Industrial Internet further to computerization of manufacturing industry.
  14. 14. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 Terminology Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) The same as the definition of Industrie 4.0, but not limited to a specific country. It is introduced by an international consortium and unlike Industrie 4.0 that covers manufacturing, IIoT is a general concept covering every industry. It is defined as the integration of complex machinery with networked sensors and software.
  15. 15. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 Terminology Internet of Everything Internet Web of Things Internet of Things Industrie 4.0 Machine to Machine Industrial Internet Terms Disambiguation Virtual World Physical World
  16. 16. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 A brief history 1929 Robert Bureau launched the first radiosonde, a device that used wireless telemetry, converted to Morse code, to transmit temperature and barometric pressure from a weather balloon.
  17. 17. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 A brief history UCLA and Stanford Research Institute connect over ARPANET, the forerunner to the Internet, introducing packet switching 1969 UCLA and Stanford Research Institute connect over ARPANET
  18. 18. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 A brief history 1978 First service trial of Bell Labs-developed cellular system is conducted in Chicago.
  19. 19. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 A brief history 1981Hayes AT modem command set automates dialing and control of communications links.
  20. 20. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 A brief history 1982 What is believed to be the first Internet- connected device was created when graduate students at Carnegie Mellon University’s School of Computer Science installed micro switches in the department’s Coke machine so they could monitor inventory from their computers.
  21. 21. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 A brief history 1984 The first handheld wireless cell phone—the Motorola DynaTAC 8000X—was purchased for $3,995.
  22. 22. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 A brief history 1990 Internet pioneers John Romkey and Simon Hackett connect a toaster to the Internet, allowing it to be turned on and off online.
  23. 23. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 A brief history 1992The first mass-produced GSM digital cell phone, the Nokia 1011, became commercially available.
  24. 24. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 A brief history 1995 The Internet goes commercial with Amazon and Echobay (Ebay)
  25. 25. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 A brief history 1998 Internet connected fountain Mark Weiser constructed a water fountain outside his office whose flow and height mimicked the volume and price trends of the stock market.
  26. 26. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 A brief history 1999 Kevin Ashton introduced “Internet of Things”
  27. 27. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 A brief history 2000LG announces 1st Internet refrigerator Plans
  28. 28. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 A brief history 2002 The Ambient Orb is created by an spin-off of MIT Media Lab. The Orb monitors the Dow Jones, personal portfolios, weather and other data sources and changes its color based on the dynamic parameters.
  29. 29. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 A brief history 2005 ITU published it’s 1st report on IoT
  30. 30. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 A brief history 2008 IPSO Alliance was launched for deploying IP for “Smart Object” communication
  31. 31. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 A brief history 2009Cisco: Internet of Things is born The point in time when more “things or objects” were connected to the Internet than people.
  32. 32. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 A brief history 2010 Google’s self-driving car hit the road
  33. 33. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 A brief history 2011 IPv6 public launch 340,282,366,920,938,463,463,374,607,431,768,211,456 addresses
  34. 34. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 Trend analysis Internet of Things
  35. 35. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 Trend analysis Internet of Everything
  36. 36. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 Trend analysis Industrial Internet
  37. 37. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 Trend analysis Industrie 4.0
  38. 38. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 Did you know that? 87% of people have never heard of the term IoT!
  39. 39. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 Consumer .vs Industrial IoT Everyone’s talking about IoT applications these days
  40. 40. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 Consumer .vs Industrial IoT Data Generation Security Privacy Connectivity Device Lifespan
  41. 41. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 Consumer .vs Industrial IoT Data Generation Industries are the main producers of BIG DATA 230 million active users 80GB of daily data 6,000 sensors 2.5 TB of daily data
  42. 42. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 Consumer .vs Industrial IoT Security Although average consumers want their smart devices to be secure, but they don’t pay much for that! Eye-watering figures being invested to protect against breaches in industries.
  43. 43. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 Consumer .vs Industrial IoT Privacy Consumers are just concerned about their personal information and habits shared with public. It is of great importance for industries to make sure their data do not get into unwanted hands.
  44. 44. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 Consumer .vs Industrial IoT Connectivity For consumers, connectivity means a slow browsing experience or drop of a call, reducing productivity For industries 24/7/365 uptime is a must. If an engineer loses connectivity in the middle of drilling operations an oil spill is very likely to happen.
  45. 45. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 Consumer .vs Industrial IoT Device Lifespan A couple year of lifespan is sometimes enough for a consumer product. Industry assets often need to work day in, day out for up to 35 years So, more time, effort and resource need to be invested into the maintenance, repair and security of industry devices and machinery
  46. 46. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 Consumer .vs Industrial IoT Consumer IoT is just a showcase Consumer IoT Industrial IoT
  47. 47. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 Application areas Human Home & Office Retail FactoriesCities Vehicles Worksites
  48. 48. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 Application areas: Human Healthcare
  49. 49. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 Application areas: Human Fitness
  50. 50. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 Application areas: Human Smartwatch
  51. 51. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 Application areas: Human Smartwatch David Rose (MIT Media Lab): A big mistake is the effort to make existing devices and applications just smaller.
  52. 52. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 Application areas: Human Productivity
  53. 53. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 Application areas: Home and Office Smart Appliances
  54. 54. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 Application areas: Home and Office Energy Management
  55. 55. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 Application areas: Home and Office Security, lighting and more…
  56. 56. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 Application areas: Retail Warehouse optimization
  57. 57. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 Application areas: Retail Customer behavior analysis
  58. 58. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 Application areas: Factories Predictive Maintenance Fleet Management Worker Productivity Optimization Energy Management
  59. 59. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 Application areas: Cities Smart Lighting Smart Grid Smart Waste Management Traffic Control Smart Parking Air & Water Quality Monitoring
  60. 60. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 Application areas: Worksites Oil & Gas Drilling Facilities Mining
  61. 61. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 Application areas: Vehicles
  62. 62. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 Predictions about the future of IoT 2025Perspective 3.9 to 11.1 trillion $ potential value Impact on 11% of world economy
  63. 63. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 Too optimistic expectations? 2020Perspective Gartner Cisco Intel IDC 26 billion 50 billion 200 billion212 billion Predictions about the future of IoT
  64. 64. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 Cisco: By 2018: IP Traffic reached 1.6zettabytes 57% of Traffic will come from devices other than PCs Predictions about the future of IoT
  65. 65. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 Predictions about the future of IoT Advanced 89% Developing 11% Human Value created by different economies
  66. 66. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 Predictions about the future of IoT Advanced 87% Developing 13% Home Value created by different economies
  67. 67. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 Predictions about the future of IoT Advanced 71% Developing 29% Retail Value created by different economies
  68. 68. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 Predictions about the future of IoT Advanced 57% Developing 43% Factories Value created by different economies
  69. 69. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 Predictions about the future of IoT Advanced 59% Developing 41% Cities Value created by different economies
  70. 70. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 Predictions about the future of IoT Advanced 63% Developing 37% Vehicles Value created by different economies
  71. 71. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 Predictions about the future of IoT Advanced 54% Developing 46% Worksites Value created by different economies
  72. 72. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 Predictions about the future of IoT Advanced 62% Developing 38% Total Value created by different economies
  73. 73. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 Predictions about the future of IoT Human 5% Home & Office 8% Retail 12% Factories 36%Vehicles 6% Worksites 5% Cities 28% Total Value created by different economies
  74. 74. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 Industrial IoT .vs SCADA • SCADA is a system that monitor and control industrial, infrastructure, and facility-based processes that exist in the physical world. • Industrial Internet of Things is much more related to long time data storage for analysis • SCADA usually refers to centralized systems, different of the decentralized nature of Internet of Things elements • IIoT can be used instead of SCADA as long as it provides security and accuracy required by SCADA standards.
  75. 75. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 Top adopters of IoT Devices online per 100 people
  76. 76. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 Where is the money? 3% 20% 77% Hardware Connectivity Value Added Services Larger share will go to software than hardware
  77. 77. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 Where is the money? Value is created by making sense of Data Wisdom Understanding Knowledge Information Data Less Important More Important
  78. 78. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 Gartner Hype Cycle
  79. 79. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 Gartner Hype Cycle
  80. 80. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 Emerging Technologies Hype Cycle: 2012
  81. 81. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 Emerging Technologies Hype Cycle: 2013
  82. 82. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 Emerging Technologies Hype Cycle: 2014
  83. 83. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 Emerging Technologies Hype Cycle: 2015
  84. 84. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 Stages of IoT Maturity Monitoring Control Optimization Autonomous
  85. 85. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 Explanation as layers Solution Application Network Device
  86. 86. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 IoT Hardware
  87. 87. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 IoT Network: communication models Device to Device Device to Cloud Device to Gateway Back-end data sharing
  88. 88. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 IoT Network: communication models Device to Device Sensor Network ZigBee, BLE, Z-Wave Device 1 Device 2 Two devices get connected without server interaction
  89. 89. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 IoT Network: communication models Device to Cloud Cloud Service Device 1 Device 2
  90. 90. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 IoT Network: communication models Device to Gateway Cloud Service Device 1 Device 2 Gateway
  91. 91. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 IoT Network: communication models Back-End Data Sharing Cloud Service 2 Cloud Service 3 Cloud Service 1 Device 1
  92. 92. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 WSN Network Topologies Point to Point Star Mesh Cluster Tree
  93. 93. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 WSN Network Topologies Point to Point Sensor Gateway
  94. 94. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 WSN Network Topologies Star Sensor Gateway Sensor Sensor Sensor Sensor
  95. 95. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 WSN Network Topologies Mesh Sensor Gateway Sensor Sensor Sensor Sensor Sensor Sensor Sensor Sensor
  96. 96. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 WSN Network Topologies Cluster Tree Sensor Gateway Sensor Sensor Sensor Sensor Sensor Sensor Sensor Sensor Gateway Gateway Coordinator Sensor Sensor Sensor Sensor Sensor
  97. 97. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 Did you know that? There are search engines for IoT!
  98. 98. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 LPWA Networks Coverage Bandwidth RFID/ NFC Bluetooth 802.11a 802.11b 802.11g 802.11n 802.11ad WBAN 802.15.3 ZigBee 802.15.4 LPWAN VSAT 802.11ah 3G 4G 5G
  99. 99. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 WSN Protocols: BLE • Bluetooth is one of the most widely used short range radios • Widely used in commercial products specially wearables • BLE has targeted WSN and IoT market • Very low power, offering years of battery life • Redesigned for small packet data transfer • 4.2 Core Specification defines BLE connectivity to IP and 6LoWPAN
  100. 100. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 WSN Protocols: ANT+ • Open Access • Very similar to BLE, working in 2.4GHz band • Each node can act as Master/Slave or Repeater • Simpler that BLE, but supports all network topologies • Up to 1Mbps data rate • Specially designed for interacting with sensors and is widely used in health monitoring applications
  101. 101. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 WSN Protocols: ZigBee • Initially designed for industrial applications, but widely used in consumer applications too • Different protocols offered bt ZigBee Alliance like Zigbee PRO and Zigbee Remote Control • Sits on top of 802.15.4 • Mostly used at 2.4GHz band, but sub-GHz modules with long range coverage are also available • Provides high security, low power, scalability and support of many nodes.
  102. 102. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 WSN Protocols: ZigBee
  103. 103. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 WSN Protocols: Wi-Fi • Mostly used for Home/Office applications where Wi-Fi connectivity is available • Currently 802.11n is widely used which in power-hungry! • 802.11ah is being approved by IEEE to meet IoT applications (may be late 2016) • 802.11ah is a sub-GHz technology and offer up to 100kbps data rates
  104. 104. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 WSN Protocols: Z-Wave • Designed for smart home applications • Operates at sub-GHz band • Uses Mesh topology • No need for Coordinator as compared to ZigBee technology • 232 nodes can be used in a single network • Hardware is only provided by a single manufacturer
  105. 105. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 WSN Protocols: 6LoWPAN • The idea is that every sensor or actuator support IP and can be addressed • PHY can be implemented on 802.15.4, Wi-Fi or Ethernet • Uses Header Compression and Packet Capsulation • Can be used in sub-GHz bands • Uses Mesh topology • Routers are also used for coverage
  106. 106. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 WSN Protocols: 6LoWPAN
  107. 107. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 WSN Protocols: Thread • Based on 6LoWPAN, but aims Smart Home applications only • Supports 250 nodes in a network • High level of encryption is used • Uses 802.15.4 as PHY • Can be easily used in 802.15.4 networks with a firmware upgrade
  108. 108. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 WSN Protocols: Sigfox • Coverage is something between Wi-Fi and Cellular networks • Is low power, low data rate and long range • Uses ISM bands • 10bps to 1kbps data rate uses UBN technology • 50μW transceiver power consumption (20+ years on a 2.5Ah battery) • 3 to 10KM coverage in urban areas
  109. 109. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 WSN Protocols: LoRa • Similar to SIGFOX and used for M2M and IoT applications • Supports millions of nodes in a network • 300bps to 50kbps data rate • With The Things Network (TTN) movement, gateway costs will be dropped
  110. 110. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 WSN Protocols: Weightless • Uses White Space in UHF band (470MHz to 790 MHz) • Up to 100kbps data rate • 20 to 30 mA power consumption • 2KM coverage • Developed and adopted by Neul team • Nwave has offered a free SDK for implementing WEIGHTLESS
  111. 111. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 WSN Protocols: Waviot • Better performance that aforementioned protocols in terms of Link Budget and Coverage • Operates at 868.8MHz and has 166dB Link Budget • Uses Star topology • 16KM coverage in urban areas (865KM2 area) with a single gateway • 1,350,000 nodes can be defined in a network • 10bps to 100bps data rate
  112. 112. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 LPWA Protocols: Waviot
  113. 113. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 LPWA Protocols: Waviot Serial Modem
  114. 114. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 LPWA Protocols: Waviot Radio Modules
  115. 115. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 LPWA Protocols: Waviot Base Stations
  116. 116. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 IoT Network: Operator’s Role in IoT Selling Connectivity Selling 3rd Party Products Selling Own Products Providing M2M services
  117. 117. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 It’s Demo Time If you have data connectivity, just visit http://illumina.ir
  118. 118. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 It’s Demo Time How did I implement that?
  119. 119. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 It’s Demo Time 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 Ms. Kalantar's Room Weather! Temperature Humidity
  120. 120. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 IoT Platform 44 Billion Terabytes, annual data created in 2020 This is where data storage, action management and analysis becomes very important
  121. 121. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 IoT Platform Hardware Communication Software Backend Application Software 4 components of IoT from Data perspective
  122. 122. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 IoT Platform Hardware • This is where data is created • Includes sensors, actuators, processor and communication interfaces
  123. 123. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 IoT Platform Communications • This is where data is transferred • Different protocols are introduces to ensure data is correctly reaches the platform from hardware
  124. 124. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 IoT Platform Software Backend • This is where data is managed • All the devices and networks are managed here • This layer acts as the interface between other systems
  125. 125. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 IoT Platform Application Software • This is where data creates value • Users interact with this layer • Usually installs on smartphones, tablets or computers
  126. 126. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 IoT Platform Platform is actually the Software Backend where all data-related stuff is happening It is the core component of IoT architecture that can connect physical and virtual world and connectivity between devices
  127. 127. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 IoT Platform Components of an IoT Platform Additional Tools Data Visualization Data processing and Action management Device Management ConnectivityandNormalization External Interfaces Database Data Analysis
  128. 128. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 IoT Platform ConnectivityandNormalization • As different parts of the system use different protocols and message formatting, this layer is used to integrate data and provide a software interface. • Seems simple, but one of the most complicated parts.
  129. 129. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 IoT Platform Device Management • Ensure that devices in the network work correctly • Provides remote firmware upgrade for devices • Also offers remote configuration
  130. 130. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 IoT Platform Database • Provides data storage • Usually implemented in cloud • Is common between all the layers • Must be scalable for Big Data applications
  131. 131. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 IoT Platform Data processing and Action management • The stored and normalized data is processed here • Based on IFTTT rules, actions are triggered or messages are sent to the user or the device
  132. 132. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 IoT Platform Data Visualization • Visualization gives an overall look of the data • Very useful if implemented • Linear, stacked or pie charts used to demo data in 2D or 3D
  133. 133. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 IoT Platform Data Analysis • In many applications involving Big Data, platform goes beyond simple decision making IFTTT rules. • When big data is involved, machine learning algorithms are used to turn data to useful information
  134. 134. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 IoT Platform Additional Tools • Some platforms offer tools like user access control and different kinds of reports
  135. 135. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 IoT Platform External Interfaces • As stated in McKinsey report, connectivity between different platforms and businesses can make 40% more value in IoT • APIs, SDKs and Gateways are the main three interfaces for data exchange between platforms
  136. 136. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 Did you know that? 63 new devices get connected every second!
  137. 137. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 Top IoT Platform Providers
  138. 138. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 Top IoT Platform Providers • The leading platform for IoT • Acquired by PTC for 112 million $ in 2013 • Offers complete functionality with data analysis tools
  139. 139. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 Top IoT Platform Providers • AWS IoT Provides connectivity to AWS platform • AWS offers very powerful features that can be used in IoT apps • Supports Device Shadowing
  140. 140. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 Top IoT Platform Providers • Designed for connecting appliances and sensors to the cloud • Supports connectivity to other platforms and social networks • Defines different access levels for different users • THNGSHUB can be used for protocol compatibility
  141. 141. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 Top IoT Platform Providers • Provides connectivity, storage, monitoring, data analysis and trigger management • Supports HTTP, MQTT, WebSockets, TCP, UDP and CoAP • Supports commercial hardware including ESP8266, Arduino, Raspberry Pi, Electric Imp, MOVE, fitbit, hue, LIFX, … • 2$/device/year
  142. 142. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 Top IoT Platform Providers • Based on cellular networks • Has worldwide coverage (except Iran and some others!) • Supports both SMS and Data connectivity • Pay as you go and Monthly plans are offered • Does not provide advanced analytic tools
  143. 143. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 Top IoT Platform Providers • Is a PaaS, offering variety of features • Supports device management (remote firmware upgrade) • IFTTT rules can be defined for triggering • Offers customized panels for different users • REST is used for data exchange with the server
  144. 144. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 Top IoT Platform Providers • Specifically designed for gathering data from sensors • Provides data acquisition, real-time monitoring and storage • Different APIs are offered in order to use services in software apps
  145. 145. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 Top IoT Platform Providers • A free and very simple, but efficient platform for connecting devices • Idea inspired from Twitter, but for connecting physical objects • Every object could have parameters and attributes • Data can be sent to and received from the server using simple URLs • Storage is also offered if you pay for that
  146. 146. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 Top IoT Platform Providers • Is a universal platform and provides the whole chain • Any device that can have internet connectivity can use this platform • Uses REST APIs • Guarantees end-to-end security using TLS
  147. 147. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 Top IoT Platform Providers Famous IaaS Providers
  148. 148. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 Messaging protocols Application Layer Communication Model Server-Client Publish-Subscribe
  149. 149. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 Messaging protocols Sever-Client • Uses request-reply method • Any node needing data sends a request to the sever and a data packet containing the needed data is sent back to the client • Usually used in computer networks, not optimized for IoT • Compatibility with RESTful web services is the main advantage
  150. 150. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 Messaging protocols Publish-Subscribe • Every message is a subset of a Topic • There are some message publishers and some topic subscribers • Serve’s role is to route the message according to the Topics • Very useful in applications where there are huge number of content creators and consumers
  151. 151. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 Messaging protocols DDS AMQP MQTT JMS REST CoAP XMPP
  152. 152. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 Messaging protocols DDS MQTT AMQP JMS REST CoAP XMPP Comm. Model Pub/Sub Pub/Sub Pub/Sub Pub/Sub Req/Rep Req/Rep Pub/Sub Architecture Global Data Space Message Broker Message Broker Message Broker Server/C lient Server/C lient XMPP Server Centricity Data Message Message Message Message Message Message QoS stages 22 3 3 3 - 2 - Interoperability ✓ ✓/x ✓ x ✓ ✓ ✓ Rela-time operation ✓ x x x x x x Transfer Layer Protocol UDP TCP TCP TCP TCP UDP TCP Coding Binary Binary Binary Binary Text Binary Text 6LoWPAN support ✓ ✓ depends depends ✓ ✓ x Automatic Recognition ✓ x x x x ✓ ✓
  153. 153. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 Messaging protocols • Lightweight, open, easy to implement and simple • Sits over TCP/IP • Uses Pub/Sub utilizing Broker • Invented at IBM in 1999 for connecting oil pipelines over satellite connection where bandwidth as well as power is limited Message Queueing Telemetry Transport
  154. 154. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 Messaging protocols • Facebook Messenger, EVRYTHNG, Amazon IoT and many others use MQTT • Some of the verbs used: Connect, Disconnect, Subscribe, Unsubscribe, Publish
  155. 155. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 Messaging protocols • Topics are strings separated with “/” e.g: Iran/Tehran/Region3/Monenco/10thFloor/Yaghoot/temperature • Clients subscribe to topics. They may use specific topics or use wildcards. Single Level: myhouse/+/temperature Multi Level: myhouse/#
  156. 156. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 Messaging protocols Publish Subscribe Pattern
  157. 157. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 Messaging protocols Pub/Sub Decoupling Space Time Synchronization
  158. 158. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 IoT Enablers IPv6 Cheap Sensors Cheap Bandwidth Big Data Wireless Coverage Smartphones Cheap Processing
  159. 159. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 New business models IaaS PaaS SaaS Sensor as a Service
  160. 160. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 New business models Charging by usage
  161. 161. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 Big data and IoT High Volume High Velocity Multiple Data Sources
  162. 162. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 Big data and IoT Employees Users Things! Who makes the data?
  163. 163. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 Big data and IoT 2.5 Quintillion Bytes of Data Created Daily
  164. 164. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 Big data and IoT Big Data tools are readily available and used today, but not widely in IoT
  165. 165. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 Concerns about IoT Lack of Interoperability Security Concerns Privacy Concerns IP Concerns Uncertain RIO Legacy Equipment
  166. 166. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 Concerns about IoT: Interoperability Many devices focus on proprietary technology and interfaces because they view themselves as the only game in town, and thus they themselves will set the standards.
  167. 167. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 Concerns about IoT: Interoperability Mckinsey: 40 percent of the value of the Internet of Things is on IoT interoperability
  168. 168. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 Concerns about IoT: Interoperability Open Interconnect Consortium with the collaboration of manufactures is working on an open specification for interoperability on IoT
  169. 169. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 Concerns about IoT: Secuirty
  170. 170. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 Concerns about IoT: Secuirty
  171. 171. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 Concerns about IoT: Secuirty
  172. 172. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 Concerns about IoT: Secuirty
  173. 173. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 Concerns about IoT: Secuirty
  174. 174. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 Concerns about IoT: Secuirty
  175. 175. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 Concerns about IoT: Secuirty HP tested 10 IoT devices from Security point of view:  6 of them didn’t use encryption during firmware upgrade  9 of them sent some sort of personal information to the cloud  7 of them didn’t use encryption in the authentication process
  176. 176. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 Concerns about IoT: Privacy
  177. 177. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 Concerns about IoT Privacy A story of failing customer behavior analysis
  178. 178. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 Concerns about IoT: Uncertain RIO CEOs are really uncertain about the IoT ROI, but they don’t want to be another Kodak!
  179. 179. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 Concerns about IoT: Intellectual Property Important question: Who the data belongs to?
  180. 180. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 And just a brief wrap-up • The Internet of Things promises to deliver a step change in individuals’ quality of life and enterprises’ productivity. • A concerted effort is required to move the industry beyond the early stages of market development towards maturity. • Industry is where IoT can really create value, current consumer products are just a showcase. • Security and privacy are the main concerns for individuals and enterprises • There are too optimistic predictions about IoT!
  181. 181. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 Any questions?
  182. 182. Internet of Things, an introduction to Monenco Iran, July 2016 Thanks for your attention

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