59. In the drawing, one cycle is shaded in color. The amplitude A is the maximum excursion of a particle of the medium from the particles undisturbed position. The wavelength is the horizontal length of one cycle of the wave. The period is the time required for one complete cycle. The frequency is related to the period and has units of Hz, or s -1 .
66. LONGITUDINAL SOUND WAVES The area of condensation is the region of compression with increased air pressure The area of rarefaction is the region behind the condensation with decreased air pressure
92. THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS: THE LAW OF ENTROPY Heat flows spontaneously from a substance at a higher temperature to a substance at a lower temperature and does not flow spontaneously in the reverse direction.
95. 4 types of thermal processes An isobaric process is a process that occurs at constant pressure. An isochoric process is a process that occurs at constant volume. An isothermal process is a process that occurs at constant temperature. An adiabatic process is a process during which no energy is transferred to or from the system as heat at.
143. Conceptual Example 4 On the Inside Looking Out A swimmer is under water and looking up at the surface. Someone holds a coin in the air, directly above the swimmer’s eyes. To the swimmer, the coin appears to be at a certain height above the water. Is the apparent height of the coin greater, less than, or the same as its actual height? Light rays are refracted AWAY from the normal when going from a higher index of refraction to a lower index of refraction. When it is the opposite, the light bends TOWARD the normal
171. Example 3 The Binding Energy of the Helium Nucleus Revisited The atomic mass of helium is 4.0026u and the atomic mass of hydrogen is 1.0078u. Using atomic mass units, instead of kilograms, obtain the binding energy of the helium nucleus.