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PCR AND ITS TYPES
CONTENTS
• PCR Definition
• PCR history
• PCR procedure
• PCR types
• PCR applications
• Conclusion
• References
• POLYMERASE CHAIN
REACTION
Pcr
PCR STEPS
PCR STEPS
PCR STEPS
Cycling conditions for amplifying longer PCR products
Step Time/cycles Temperature
Initial activation step 2 min 95°C
3-st...
PCR
PCR TYPES
PCR TYPE
• Overlap-extension PCR or Splicing by overlap
extension (SOEing) :
• Genetic engineering technique
• used to splice toget...
• Nested PCR
• This PCR increases the sensitivity
• Two sets of primers,
• A double process of amplification .
• The first...
• Semi quantitative PCR
• An approximation to the relative amount of
nucleic acids present in a sample,
• The markers comm...
• Multiplex PCR
• Multiplex PCR is an adaptation of PCR which
allows simultaneous amplification of many
sequences.
• This ...
PCR TYPES
Applications of PCR and impact on
science
• PCR and its different variations are highlighted
as the most commonly used in ...
• MEDICINE
• identification of microorganisms
assurance of blood
• Forensic
• As a basic procedure to investigate Deaths
•...
AGRICULTURE
• As conventional PCR or qPCR have also
facilitated research in
• Detection of pathogens in plants, animals,
a...
• Selective DNA isolation
• Isolation of DNA fragments from genomic DNA
by selective amplification of a specific region of...
PCR AND ITS TYPE
PCR AND ITS TYPE
PCR AND ITS TYPE
PCR AND ITS TYPE
PCR AND ITS TYPE
PCR AND ITS TYPE
PCR AND ITS TYPE
PCR AND ITS TYPE
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PCR AND ITS TYPE

pcr (polymerase chain reaction) is the technique used to amplify the part of DNA

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PCR AND ITS TYPE

  1. 1. PCR AND ITS TYPES
  2. 2. CONTENTS • PCR Definition • PCR history • PCR procedure • PCR types • PCR applications • Conclusion • References
  3. 3. • POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION
  4. 4. Pcr
  5. 5. PCR STEPS
  6. 6. PCR STEPS
  7. 7. PCR STEPS
  8. 8. Cycling conditions for amplifying longer PCR products Step Time/cycles Temperature Initial activation step 2 min 95°C 3-step cycling Denaturation 10 s 94°C Annealing 1 min 50–68°C* Extension 1 min/kb Number of cycles 40 cycles 68°C End of PCR cycling Indefinite 4°C
  9. 9. PCR
  10. 10. PCR TYPES
  11. 11. PCR TYPE
  12. 12. • Overlap-extension PCR or Splicing by overlap extension (SOEing) : • Genetic engineering technique • used to splice together two or more DNA fragments OR complementary sequences. • It is the technique enables creation of specific and long DNA constructs. • It can also introduce deletions, insertions or point mutations into a DNA sequence.
  13. 13. • Nested PCR • This PCR increases the sensitivity • Two sets of primers, • A double process of amplification . • The first set of primers allow a first amplification. The product of this PCR is subjected to a second PCR using the second set of primers. • Primers used in the second PCR are specific to an internal amplified sequence in the first PCR. specificity of the first PCR product is verified with the second one.
  14. 14. • Semi quantitative PCR • An approximation to the relative amount of nucleic acids present in a sample, • The markers commonly used are • Apo A1 and B actin. • Amplification product is separated by electrophoresis
  15. 15. • Multiplex PCR • Multiplex PCR is an adaptation of PCR which allows simultaneous amplification of many sequences. • This technique is used for diagnosis of different diseases • Multiplex PCR can detect different pathogens in a single sample.
  16. 16. PCR TYPES
  17. 17. Applications of PCR and impact on science • PCR and its different variations are highlighted as the most commonly used in laboratories and research institutes. • Thus, these have contributed to identification • characterization of several organisms and understanding of physiopathology of diverse • diseases in human, animal and plants.
  18. 18. • MEDICINE • identification of microorganisms assurance of blood • Forensic • As a basic procedure to investigate Deaths • (paternity testing) • Evidence from minimal samples of saliva, semen or other tissue debris
  19. 19. AGRICULTURE • As conventional PCR or qPCR have also facilitated research in • Detection of pathogens in plants, animals, and the environment; understanding of their • Epidemiology and, development of new diagnostic tests, treatments or vaccines.
  20. 20. • Selective DNA isolation • Isolation of DNA fragments from genomic DNA by selective amplification of a specific region of DNA. • This use of PCR augments many methods, such as generating hybridization Probes and DNA cloning which require larger amounts of DNA, representing a specific DNA region. • PCR supplies these techniques with high amounts of pure DNA, enabling analysis of DNA samples Possible.

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