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Muhammad Javed Iqbal
IER University of the Punjab
thinking or the
feeling of a
person at a
There are tow main types of emotion:
1. Positive emotion
2. Negative emotion
These emotions are very helpful and
essential in the normal development
of an individual.
amusement, curiosity, joy or
First month reflex response
By 6 weeks the social smile
By 7 months smiles toward people;
encourages interaction and bonding
By 3 to 4 months during
activities (i.e., playing)
By 1 year response to unexpected
By 2 years response to own
behavior or attempting to make
Reflexive Smile in a
Social Smile in an
These emotions are harmful to the
development of an individual’s
(Fear, anger, jealously,
◦ Generalized distress
Newborns hunger, pain,
◦ Anger and/or sadness
2 months visible facial
expression matches situation
◦ Fear and/or distress
6-7 months to 2 years stranger
7 to 12 months fear of novel
toys, noises, sudden movements
8 to 15 months separation anxiety
Emotional development refers to a child's
growing ability to regulate and control
emotions and to form secure
There are four main stages of
1. During infancy
2. During childhood
3. During adolescence
4. During adulthood
Right from the time of the birth, the
infant cries and his bodily movement seem
to give evidence of the presence of
emotional element in him. what are the
specific emotion, if any, he experiences at
this stage is a difficult to be answered.
Truly speaking Mrs. Hurlock puts it, “At
birth and shortly afterword the first sign
of emotional behavior in general excitement
to strong stimulation. There are no
indications of clear-cut definite emotional
pattern that can be recognized and
identified as specific emotional state.
The stage of undifferentiated
excitement is over in a very short
time when the general excitement
becomes differentiated into simple
response that suggests pleasure and
displeasure. Stimuli like sudden loud
noise, wet, cold, and objective
applied to the baby skin feeling
hungry, and uncomfortable etc
During childhood, peer group
relationships and school atmosphere and
other environmental factors influencing
his emotional behaviour. His emotion get
linked with the new experiences and
interests and his emotional behaviour
get linked with new stimuli. At the same
time he does not react to various old
stimuli. For example he does not show
any anger during bathed, or dressed and
In later childhood, the child tries
to express his behaviour through
reasonable means and result of many
In childhood child is in position to
express his feeling through language.
Emotions during this stage change
very frequently and quickly.
It makes them moody.
In very short time they could switch
between being happy or extremely sad.
A person can be called
emotionally mature if he is able to
display his emotion and control
1. Hereditary factors
It has been seen that some similarities are found
between the emotional development of parents as well
As the child develops mentally, he also gets
emotionally matured. It has been proved through
experiments by psychologists that development of
emotions of the child depends upon the level of
maturation the child.
Watson has proved that children learn through
conditioning. He did an experiment on a nine months-
old baby. The baby was shown a rat and in the
background a loud sound was made. After some time it
has seen that the baby started crying at the sight of
Thus it was proved that young
children's emotions are influenced by
conditioning. Through experiments, it
was seen that children start getting
scared of the things with which their
mothers feels frightened when the
parents expresses affection he also
starts responding in the same manner.
If there is expression of physical
love in the family, he also kisses
hugs and expresses love by touching.
Children with sound health are able to
control their emotions in a better way. Children who
are weak remain irritable, easily excitable and
Children who are intelligent are
emotionally stable. Children with low intelligence
quotient are emotionally unstable.
6. Family relation
Relation of family members with
each other and how they express their emotions
affects the emotional behaviour of the child. If the
behaviour of the parents is stable and they express
their emotions in a subdued and balanced manner, the
child will also learn to express his emotion in a
If the parents shout in anger, show
violent behaviour, the baby also adopts
the same behaviour and shows temper
tantrums. He will throw his toys and other
things in a fit of anger. Over pampering
makes the child obstinate and
indiscipline. Parents who are not able to
give time to their children or somehow
don't show any affection, their children
become submissive or introvert.
7. Social environment
Just like family, neighborhood, school,
society members exert influence on the emotional
development of the child. If the environment of the
society is tense and emotionally charged the child will
also become emotionally unstable. If people around are
emotionally stable, they express their emotions in a
socially approved way.
If people have control over their emotions the child also
imitates and follows the same pattern regarding his
emotions. He will learn better control over his emotion
and will always try to confirm the socially approved way
of expressing his emotions.
8. Control over emotions
To maintain physical and mental health, it is
very necessary to have control over emotions. At the time
of emotional state, body undergoes many
changes like change in blood
circulation, pulse rate, breathing,
effect on digestive system, stretching
of eyes, closing of fists, etc. When
these emotional states are created in
the body frequently and intensely, it
affects the body badly.
That is why it is very necessary to
exercise control over emotions and they
should be expressed in a socially
approved manner so that the person and
the people around him can live in peace
1-Repression or inhibition:
Here the undesirable
emotional behavior of the child is check by
imposing restrictions and giving punishment.
Rule and regulation are strictly observed and the
child is always required to express his
emotions in socially desirable.
2-Industriousness or mental occupation
method for exercising control over emotion is
to keep oneself busy in some constructive
activities. Empty mind is said to be a devil’s
workshop. Therefore, it is essential to have
provision for co-curricular and leisure
activities for the balance emotional
development of the children.
3- Radiation and sublimation:
The direction of flow of emotional energy is changed through the
process of redirection and sublimation from a desirable goal to a
socially desirable one.
In both these process, there is only a difference of degree. While,
in redirection there is no change in the nature of the emotion and
only the direction of flow is changed, in sublimation, there is
modification of original instincts or emotions.
Sublimation changes the very form of the emotion.
In this method, desirable channels are provided for the release of
the emotional energy in some way or the other, the individual
provided with opportunity of self-expression so that the pent up
emotions get appropriate outlet. Under the cloud of emotions
tensions are created in the mind of the individuals. By providing a
proper outlet for emotional expression, the tension can be removed
and one is made to feel better and lighter.
1) They should be an adequate provision
for various co-curricular activities
for the full expression and outlet of
emotional energies of the children.
2) Instructional methodology and
curriculum should be dynamic,
progressive and child-centered.
3) Children should get desired love and
sympathy from the teachers. Their
individuality should be respected and
individual difference recognized. The
teacher should see that basic
emotional need of the children is
satisfied in the classroom or school.
4) With the help of positive methods
of controlling and training the
emotion, the emotional tension
present in minds of the children
should be removed and the creation of
undesirable complexes avoided.
5) Moral and religious training should
from a part of the school programme.
High ideas of life and moral
principles should be made the guiding
factors of the children’s lives.
6) Emotions are caught, they are not
taught. Therefore, teachers should
refrain from any act or behavior which
can bring undesirable influence on the
emotional development of the children.
They must put their own example before
the children for the refined emotional
expression and behaviour.
7) Proper care should be taken for the
balanced social development of the
children. Each child should get due
recognition in his group and in no case
he should feel isolated or rejected by
his peer group and classmates.
Emotional intelligence (EI) refers to the ability to
perceive, control and evaluate emotions. Some
researchers suggest that emotional intelligence
can be learned and strengthened, while others
claim it is an inborn characteristic.
Emotional intelligence is the ability to identify
and manage your own emotions and the emotions of
others. It is generally said to include 3 skills:
1. Emotional awareness, including the ability to
identify your own emotions and those of others;
2. The ability to harness emotions and apply them to
tasks like thinking and problems solving;
3. The ability to manage emotions, including the
ability to regulate your own emotions, and the
ability to cheer up or calm down another person.
Perceiving Emotions: The first step in understanding
emotions is to perceive them accurately. In many cases, this might
involve understanding nonverbal signals such as body
language and facial expression.
Reasoning With Emotions: The next step involves using
emotions to promote thinking and cognitive activity. Emotions help
prioritize what we pay attention and react to; we respond
emotionally to things that garner our attention.
Understanding Emotions: The emotions that we perceive
can carry a wide variety of meanings. If someone is expressing
angry emotions, the observer must interpret the cause of their
anger and what it might mean. For example, if your boss is acting
angry, it might mean that he is dissatisfied with your work; or it
could be because he got a speeding ticket on his way to work that
morning or that he's been fighting with his wife.
Managing Emotions: The ability to manage emotions
effectively is a crucial part of emotional intelligence. Regulating
emotions, responding appropriately and responding to the emotions
of others are all important aspect of emotional management.
Emotional quotient (EQ), also called emotional
intelligence quotient, is a measurement of a
person's ability to monitor his or her
emotions, to cope with pressures and demands,
and to control his or her thoughts and actions.
The ability to assess and affect situations and
relationships with other people also plays a
role in emotional intelligence. This
measurement is intended to be a tool that is
similar to intelligence quotient (IQ), which is
a measurement of a person's intellect. There is
much debate surrounding the legitimacy of EQ,
however, primarily because there is no standard