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Job Analysis

  1. 1. Job Analysis
  2. 2. JOB ANALYSIS • Job analysis is the process of gathering and analyzing information about the content and the human requirements of jobs, as well as, the context in which jobs are performed. This process is used to determine placement of job. This includes the duties and responsibility involved in the performance the condition un der which task is carried, the nature of the task, the qualification required in the worker and the condition includes of employment- payment scheme, working hours, opportunity ,and privileges. This includes the terms of duties and responsibilities ,skills, knowledge etc. 1. Identification of the job 2. Characteristics of the job 3. Operations involved in doing the job 4. Materials and equipment's to be used in doing the job. 5. Personal attributes required to do the job e.g. education ,basic training, mental capability etc. 6. Relation with other jobs.
  3. 3. USES OF JOB ANALYSIS 1. Human resource planning: Job analysis is useful in human resource planning in terms of demand forecasting. It finds out the requisite knowledge and skills required to perform a job. 2. Recruitment: Job analysis helps in recruitment in terms of finding how and when people should be hired for new job openings. It makes the recruitment process easier by highlighting the skills, knowledge and abilities required to perform a job. 3. Selection of personnel: Job analysis helps in selecting the right person by making the employer understand what is to be done on a job. 4. Training and development: Job analysis eases the training process by identifying the duties and responsibilities associated with a job. If the candidate doesn’t have enough knowledge, then training is provided to make him effective
  4. 4. 5. Performance and appraisal: In case of performance appraisal the appraiser compares the performance of the employee with the standard performance based on job analysis. It makes the process of performance appraisal easy and simple. 6. Safety and health: Through a proper job analysis the analyst can know the health hazards and accidents associated with a job. By knowing, proper steps can be undertaken to eradicate those situations.
  5. 5. JOB DESCRIPTION • A Job Description is an organised factual statement of job contents in the form of duties and responsibilities of a specific job.
  6. 6. Details given in Job Description • IT IS DESIRABLE THAT THE JOB TITLE SHORT AND SUGGESTIVE OF THE NATURE OF JOB . • EG: CASHIER , POST MAN. JOBTITLE • IT MEANS THE NAME OF THE DEPARTMENT WHERE THE JOB • UNDER CONSIDERATION EXISTS. JOB LOCATION • THE TOOLS, MACHINE USED IN THE PERFROMANCE OF THE JOB • SHOULD ALSO BE INCLUDED IN THE JOB DESCRIPTION. MACHINES,TOOLS • EACH TASK TO BE PERFORMED SHOULD BE LISTED • PROPERLY. DUTIESTO BE PERFORMED
  7. 7. Specimen of Job Description
  8. 8. JOB SPECIFICATION • A JOB SPECIFICATION IS A DOCUMENT WHICH STATES THE MINIMUM ACCEPTABLE HUMAN QUALITIES NECESSARY TO PERFORM A JOB PROPERLY.
  9. 9. JOB SPECIFICATION COVERS EDUCATIONAL QUALIFICATION PRACTICAL EXPERIENCE PERSONALITY PHYSIQUE AND HEALTH
  10. 10. SPECIMEN OF JOB SPECIFICATION
  11. 11. The Process Of Job Analysis
  12. 12.  The main steps involved in job analysis are as follows: 1. Organisational Analysis. First of all an overall view of various jobs in the organisation is obtained. This is required to judge the linkages between jobs and the organisational goals, interrelationships among jobs, and the contribution of various jobs to efficiency and effectiveness of the organisation. For this purpose, background information is collected in the form of organisation charts, class specifications, work flow charts, etc. Organisation charts show the relation of the job with other jobs in the organisation. Class specifications describe the general requirements of the job family. Work flow charts indicate the flow of activities involved in a job. 2. Organising Job Analysis Programme. It is necessary to plan and organise the programme of job analysis. The company must decide who will be in charge of the programme and must assign responsibilities. A budget and a time schedule should be developed. 3. Deciding the Uses of Job Analysis Information. It has been stated above that information generated by job analysis can be utilised for practically all functions of human resource management. Nevertheless, it is desirable to focus on a few priority areas in which the job analysis information is to be used. These areas can be decided on the basis of the need, priorities and constraints of the particular organisation. How the job information will be used and for what purpose will determine the extent to which jobs are to be analysed.
  13. 13. 4. Selecting Representative Jobs for Analysis. It would be highly time consuming and costly to analyse all the jobs. It is, therefore, desirable to select a representative sample of jobs for the purpose of detailed analysis. Priorities of various jobs needing analysis can also be determined. 5. Understand Job Design. The job analyst should obtain information concerning the current design of the representative job. For this purpose, current job description and job specification, procedure manual, systems flow charts, etc. can be studied. 6. Collection of Data. In this step, data on the characteristics of the job, and qualifications and behavior required to do the job effectively is collected. Data may be collected from the employees who actually perform the job, or from their super- visors or from outsiders called trade job analysts appointed to watch employees performing the job. Several techniques are available for job analysis. Care should be taken to use only those techniques which are acceptable and reliable in the given situation.
  14. 14. 7. Developing a Job Description. The information collected in the previous step is used in preparing a job description. This is a written statement that describes in brief the tasks, duties and responsibilities which needs to be discharged for effective job performance. 8. Preparing a Job Specification. The last step in job analysis is to prepare a job specification or employee specification. This is a written statement which specifies the personal attributes in terms of education, training, experience and aptitude required to perform the job.
  15. 15. Techniques of Job Analysis
  16. 16.  A variety of sources and methods are used to collect data relating to a job. The main methods are given below: 1. Job Performance: Under this method, the job analyst actually performs the job under study to obtain a first hand experience of the actual tasks, physical and social demands and the environment of the job. 2. Personal observation: Here the analyst directly observes the worker or a group engaged in doing the job. The task performed, the pace at which activities are carried out, the working condition, etc. are observed during a complete work cycle. 3. Interview: The analyst personally interviews the employee, his supervisor and other concerned persons and records answers to relevant questions. A standard format is used to record the data so that the data collected from different employees can be compared to identify the common and critical aspects of the job.
  17. 17. 4. Questionnaire: In this method, properly drafted questionnaire are sent out to jobholders. After completion these are returned to supervisors. As the data is often incoherent and disorganised, it is discussed with the jobholders. After due corrections, the same is submitted to the job analyst. 5. Critical Incidents: Jobholders are asked to describe incidents concerning the job on the basis of their past experience. The incidents so collected are analysed and classified according to the job areas they describe. 6. Log Records: In this method, a diary or logbook is given to each jobholder. The jobholder daily records the duties performed making the time at which each task is started and finished.
  18. 18. THANK YOU

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