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Exam 1. Essentials of Organizational Behavior

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Exam 1. Essentials of Organizational Behavior

  1. 1. Question 1 1. According to the Hofstede's framework, ________ indicates the degree to which people in a country prefer structured to unstructured situations. collectivism power distance long-term orientation uncertainty avoidance collectivism 0.2 points Question 2 1. Erin works at a software company, in charge of the help desk. After being yelled at by a customer about the state of her company's software, she becomes angry, and has to take a short break to calm down. What makes her anger an emotion, rather than a mood? It is a simple, unambiguous feeling. Her response is prolonged. It has a contextual stimulus. Her response is not accompanied by facial expressions. It is cognitive in nature. 0.2 points Question 3 1. Which of the following cultural dimensions identified by GLOBE does not have an equivalent in Hofstede? future orientation power distance performance orientation individualism/collectivism gender differentiation 0.2 points Question 4 1. Decision makers construct simplified models that extract the essential features from problems without capturing all their complexity. That is, they operate within the confines of ________. optimal decision making intuitive decision making
  2. 2. bounded rationality rationality common sense 0.2 points Question 5 1. ________, the most widely used intelligence test in hiring decisions, takes only 12 minutes to complete. Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Test (KAIT) Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test (KBIT) Myers-Briggs Type Indicator assessment Multidimensional Aptitude Battery (MAB-II) Wonderlic Cognitive Ability Test 0.2 points Question 6 1. McClelland's theory of needs concentrates on which three needs? achievement, growth, and security achievement, power, and affiliation self-actualization, stability, and affiliation affiliation, control, and security control, status, and affiliation 0.2 points Question 7 1. Which of the following is an example of a shortcut used in judging others? hindsight bias confirmation bias stereotyping randomness error availability bias 0.2 points Question 8 1. Of the following attitudes, the best predictor of turnover is ________. pay supervision
  3. 3. x organizational commitment cognitive dissonance affective dissonance 0.2 points Question 9 1. Differences in characteristics like education, ethnicity, regional background, and gender form part of ________. individual-level diversity organizational-level diversity lateral-level diversity surface-level diversity deep-level diversity 0.2 points Question 10 1. You are seeking to fill the position of corporate accountant, and have administered Holland's Vocational Preference Inventory questionnaire to all candidates. The best candidates for the position would have which of the following personality types? conventional realistic enterprising investigative social 0.2 points Question 11 1. You are trying to improve this situation with the help of Herzberg's two-factor theory. You decide that your first job should be to improve the hygiene factors. Which of the following would you consider a hygiene factor? working conditions training related to new skills recognition employee empowerment promotion 0.2 points
  4. 4. Question 12 1. Which of the following statements is not true regarding values? They are partly determined by our genetically transmitted traits. They tend to be relatively stable and enduring. They have both content and intensity attributes. They carry an individual's ideas as to what is right, good, or desirable. There is no substantial variability in values across cultures. 0.2 points Question 13 1. An individual's involvement with, satisfaction with, and enthusiasm for the work he/she performs is known as ________. employee engagement job involvement loyalty job satisfaction psychological empowerment 0.2 points Question 14 1. Which is not a personality assessment recommended for you to use for your completion of your Personal Strengths and Career Development paper you are to write in this course? Work Performance Indicator RIASEC assessment MBTI Big Five The Wonderlic Cognitive Ability test 0.2 points Question 15 1. Keara thinks a lot about the people she works with. She is very much concerned about helping those who had helped her in the past. Which of the following statements best describes Keara's personality? She has a high level of other-orientation. She has a high level of narcissism. She has a high level of self-monitoring. She has a high level of risk-taking.
  5. 5. She has a high level of Machiavellianism. 0.2 points Question 16 1. We don't evaluate a person in isolation. Our reaction to a person is influenced by other persons we have recently encountered. This is known as the ________. the halo effect contrast effect confirmation bias framing effect impact bias 0.2 points Question 17 1. ________ is the ability to identify a logical sequence in a problem and then solve the problem. Verbal comprehension Perceptual speed Inductive reasoning Spatial visualization Deductive reasoning 0.2 points Question 18 1. Usually when we talk about discrimination, though, we mean allowing our behavior to be influenced by stereotypes about ________. ethnic majorities ethnic minorities new employees groups of people collection of organizations 0.2 points Question 19 1. In week 2's Class Discussion, the professor introduced 8 keys to becoming among the most valued at work. Which is not one of the 8 keys discussed? Partnership Proper Comportment
  6. 6. Dependability Organizational networking Sense of humor 0.2 points Question 20 1. The ________ bias is typically associated with negotiation. confirmation distinction anchoring hindsight availability 0.2 points Question 21 1. Julie smiles and is polite to a customer at her checkout, even though she really deeply dislikes this customer. What is the term used to explain the disparity between the emotion Julie displays and the emotions she is actually experiencing? negative affect emotional dissonance affect intensity positive affect positivity offset 0.2 points Question 22 1. Which of the following statements is true about people with positive core self- evaluations? They set ambitious goals. They lack persistence. They tend to question their capabilities. They view themselves as powerless over their environment. They are less popular co-workers than those with negative core self-evaluation. 0.2 points Question 23 1. The three-component model of creativity proposes that individual creativity essentially requires expertise, creative thinking skills, and ________.
  7. 7. external locus of control intrinsic task motivation emotional intelligence positivity offset selective perception 0.2 points Question 24 1. The most common means of measuring personality is through ________. in-depth interviews self-report surveys focus groups case studies factor analysis 0.2 points Question 25 1. What measure in the WPI may suggest you are more intuitive? Task specific information Predictor Humor Idea Your grand type 0.2 points Question 26 1. With reference to John Holland's personality-job fit theory, people belonging to the "enterprising" type prefer ________. activities that involve helping and others activities that involve thinking, organizing, and understanding physical that require skill, strength, and coordination ambiguous and imaginative activities that allow creative expression activities in which there are opportunities to influence others and attain power 0.2 points Question 27 1. What additional stigma did Professor Gilbert find that impedes one's career advancement at work?
  8. 8. Ageism Obesity Marital status Smokerism Atheleticism 0.2 points Question 28 1. In ________ cultures, similarity to supervisors is more important for predicting career advancement. collectivistic sociocentric egocentric peer-to-peer individualistic 0.2 points Question 29 1. The expectancy theory proposes that ________. employees can view work as being as natural as rest or play, and therefore the average person can learn to accept, and even seek, responsibility achievement, power, and affiliation are three important needs that help explain motivation the strength of a tendency to act in a certain way depends on the strength of our expectation of a given outcome and its attractiveness extrinsic rewards will reduce intrinsic interest in a task within every human being, there exists a hierarchy of five needs and as each of these needs becomes substantially satisfied, the next one becomes dominant 0.2 points Question 30 1. Which of the following is not one of the five factors included in the Big Five model? agreeableness conscientiousness intuitiveness emotional stability extroversion
  9. 9. 0.2 points Question 31 1. Which of the following is true about the scores you received on the Work Preference Indicator, The Big Five and the Strengths Finder assessments: They predict one's behavior with high accuracy They are behaviors that are observed They are accurate forecasters of actual behavior a respondent will demonstrate at work They are biased by others' perceptions None of the above 0.2 points Question 32 1. What term is used for those emotions that an organization requires workers to show and considers appropriate in a given job? felt emotions displayed emotions conditional emotions required emotions mandated emotions 0.2 points Question 33 1. ________ refers to an individual's belief that he or she is capable of performing a task. Emotional contagion Affect intensity Self-efficacy Cognitive dissonance Self-righteous 0.2 points Question 34 1. Early studies of organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) assumed that it was closely linked with satisfaction. More recent evidence suggests that satisfaction influences OCB, but through perceptions of ________. fairness consistency
  10. 10. productivity leadership ability out marketing 0.2 points Question 35 1. Compared to people who have a negative core self-evaluation, people who have a positive core self-evaluation ________. are less satisfied with their jobs see their work as less challenging see their work as less fulfilling are less likely to gravitate toward challenging jobs are less likely to give up when confronting difficulties 0.2 points Question 36 1. Ismael spent the morning in the field making sales calls. He called on four prospective clients and they all declined to purchase his company's product. Ismael returned to the office stressed and exhausted. He has an hour and a half for lunch before he has to make a large sales presentation to a current client, which Ismael hopes will expand his account. Which of the following is most likely to be the best way for Ismael to spend his lunch hour? He should prepare his sales pitch data and graphics on the computer. He should practice his sales pitch orally with a co-worker. He should go through the past sales orders placed by this client in order to better understand her requirements. He should rest and relax before the presentation. He should ask his boss to help him prepare the presentation. 0.2 points Question 37 1. Emotions are ________. independent of the personality of individuals strongly affected by weather less intense as compared to moods less likely to be caused by a specific event than moods critical to rational thinking 0.2 points
  11. 11. Question 38 1. Francine heads an ad agency and works with copywriters, artists, and designers to come up with effective branding solutions for new products. Why is it particularly important for Francine to keep her team happy? People are more conscientious when they are in a good mood. People tend to weigh all possible options rather than the most likely ones when they are in a good mood. People are less likely to use rules of thumb when they are in a good mood. People tend to search for perfect solutions when they are in a good mood. People are more creative when they are in a good mood. 0.2 points Question 39 1. Which of the following issues was consistently the most significant concern of HR managers in a survey by the Society for Human Resources Management? providing work-life benefits for dual-career couples developing multilingual training materials the aging of the workforce increasing wages increasing training costs 0.2 points Question 40 1. Which of the following statements is true regarding a contrast effect? Our tendency to attribute our success to internal factors and blame our failure on external factors is called the contrast effect. The contrast effect states that we tend to judge someone on the basis of our perception of the group to which he or she belongs. A person appears more appealing than normal when compared with a person of less appeal due to the contrast effect. If we think that women won't relocate for a promotion, we are using a shortcut to judge all women and it is called the contrast effect. The contrast effect indicates a tendency to fixate on initial information and fail to adequately adjust for subsequent information. 0.2 points Question 41 1. The corporate office has determined that the company vision needs to be amended. What should corporate leaders do to increase the likelihood that employees will accept this change?
  12. 12. arouse emotions and link them to an appealing vision demonstrate how the vision will better company profits evoke empathy for the CEO negotiate with them and express anger motivate employees by putting them in a good mood 0.2 points Question 42 1. Which of the following is not one of Hofstede's five dimensions of national culture? power distance flexibility versus rigidity individualism versus collectivism long-term versus short-term orientation uncertainty avoidance 0.2 points Question 43 1. Which of the following is one of the four ways of increasing self-efficacy that involves gaining relevant experience with the task or job? verbal persuasion enactive mastery vicarious modeling arousal focused training 0.2 points Question 44 1. Which of the following statements is true regarding utilitarianism? It protects the interests of the underrepresented and less powerful. It reduces productivity and efficiency. It promotes decision making that is consistent with fundamental liberties and privileges, as set forth in documents such as the Bill of Rights. The utilitarianism view dominates business decision making. It imposes and enforces rules fairly and impartially. 0.2 points Question 45
  13. 13. 1. Julia works as a receptionist in a real estate company. One morning her boss comes in the door and yells at her, telling her that the front office is a mess and that she needs to get up and clean it immediately. After her boss leaves the room, Julia grabs three magazines and violently slams them into the trash can. Which of the following best describes Julia's anger? an affect a thought a mood an emotion a mental process 0.2 points Question 46 1. The degree to which a person identifies with his or her job, actively participates in it, and considers his or her performance as being important to self-worth is ________. job satisfaction job involvement job stability organizational commitment social embeddedness 0.2 points Question 47 1. Guillermo's wife was recently diagnosed with breast cancer. Guillermo had to take a considerable amount of time off work to care for their children, and he was late in completing his portion of a large project. Guillermo never feared that his job was in jeopardy because of his absences or his delay in completion of work. (Note: This term is closely associated with a dimension in the OPA used in this class to assess organizational effectiveness). Name the major job attitude relative to the above stated example. psychological empowerment perceived organizational support organizational commitment employee engagement job involvement 0.2 points Question 48
  14. 14. 1. Whenever Jane is successful she takes full credit for her success, but whenever she is unsuccessful she attributes her failure to bad luck or blames one of her fellow employees. She is guilty of the ________. fundamental attribution error attribution bias confirmation bias distinction bias self-serving bias 0.2 points Question 49 1. What is the major problem with the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator as a measure of personality? It is very difficult to administer. It forces a person to be categorized as either one type or another. It does not include enough dimensions to differentiate all the variety of human personality. It tends to overemphasize intuitive personality traits over analytical personality traits. It does not clearly classify a person into any single type. 0.2 points Question 50 1. The Alligator River story demonstrated how people put values on facts very differently and this is attributed to perceptions. Who was the most violent person in the story? Bill Cindy Sinbad Ivana None of the above 0.2 points Question 51 1. The equity theory ________. discusses three important needs: achievement, power, and affiliation suggests that employees inherently dislike work and must therefore be directed or even coerced into performing it proposes that extrinsic rewards will reduce intrinsic interest in a task
  15. 15. discusses four referent comparisons self-inside, self-outside, other-inside, other- outside suggests that the factors that lead to job satisfaction are separate and distinct from those that lead to job dissatisfaction 0.2 points Question 52 1. Which of the following is an example of an affective attitude? believing that you did a good job the observation that most dogs have four legs the opinion that it is never acceptable to steal anger at being unfairly accused of a wrongdoing the avoidance of a restaurant where one once received bad service 0.2 points Question 53 1. Sam and Clarke are two employees in an organization who recently started working together. Sam is an older, long-tenured woman raised in rural Kansas, who achieved her current level in the organization by starting as a high school graduate and working her way up the hierarchy. Clarke is a young, recently hired male college graduate with a business degree, raised in a Spanish-speaking neighborhood in Miami. However, both are deeply committed to their families, share a common way of thinking about important work problems, like to work collaboratively, and are interested in international assignments in the future. Which of the following describes the diversity between these two? lateral-level diversity deep-level diversity surface-level diversity individual-level diversity hierarchical-level diversity 0.2 points Question 54 1. Once an individual reaches a level of comfortable living, the relationship between pay and job satisfaction ________. becomes stronger turns positive virtually disappears becomes negative
  16. 16. weakens, but only slightly 0.2 points Question 55 1. Goals seem to have a more substantial effect on performance when the ________. goals are generalized (like "Do your best") rather than specific tasks are complex rather than simple tasks are novel rather than well learned goals are easy rather than difficult tasks are independent rather than interdependent 0.2 points Question 56 1. Some researchers doubt the existence of emotional intelligence (EI). Which of the following is an argument they use against it? EI assumes that decisions made emotively are superior to those made dispassionately. EI is not related to personality or intelligence. The tests used to measure EI are too simplistic in what they define as right and wrong answers. The concept of EI is so broad and variegated as to render it effectively meaningless. People with high EI appear to be high performers in the eyes of others rather than in reality. 0.2 points Question 57 1. With reference to decision making, satisficing involves ________. identifying all possible alternative decisions seeking solutions that are satisfactory and sufficient evaluating all possible alternatives objectively selecting the best option with the highest utility using an unconscious decision-making process created from distilled experience 0.2 points Question 58 1. With reference to the expectancy theory, which of the following examples indicates a weak rewards-personal goals relationship? The employee lacks the skill required for the desired performance level. The organization's appraisal system assesses nonperformance factors such as
  17. 17. creativity and initiative. The organizational rewards are based on seniority. The employee expects a poor appraisal as he believes that his manager does not like him. The employee wants to be relocated to the Paris office but instead is transferred to Singapore. 0.2 points Question 59 1. ________ is as important for managers as for front-line employees and among all big five traits, this trait is most consistently related to job performance. Extraversion Agreeableness Conscientiousness Emotional stability Openness to experience 0.2 points Question 60 1. What is the correct procedure to begin your team term paper Appoint a team point of contact to be responsible for the team's term paper then have the POC find an organization to analyze based on the professor's list of organizations Develop research questions that are to be used by your team and then find a suitable organization to be analyzed based on organizations your professor will list for you. Survey your team to find an organization you can analyze and once you have approval from the organization, appoint a point of contact and have the POC send an email to the professor to create the online account. Complete the assessment questionnaire to start the research project in the course designated drop box. None of the above.