Introduction • Wireless communication involves the transmission of
information over a distance without the help of wires, cables
or any other forms of electrical conductors.
• Wireless communication is a broad term that incorporates all
procedures and forms of connecting and communicating
between two or more devices using a wireless signal.
• Wireless technology has steadily become a bigger presence in most people’s everyday lives.
Whether it’s at work, home, a stadium or even in cars, people rely on wireless tech for
information, entertainment to communicate and more. It’s almost hard to imagine how so much
got accomplished prior to wireless technology becoming a critical entity in so many different
industries and places.
• People nowadays are demanding instant communication at same time, they do not want to stick
to their desk or devices.
• What they want is communication at any time and anywhere, even though they are on move.
• Wireless computing can make significant differences in your productivity, responsiveness to the
• We can also reduce or eliminate cabling cost and relocate devices without having to rewire your
What Is Wireless
Here we will discuss about what
we actually mean by wireless
communication. What is wireless
communication and how it takes
Wireless communications is a type of data communication that is
performed and delivered wirelessly. This is a broad term that
incorporates all procedures and forms of connecting and
communicating between two or more devices using a wireless signal
through wireless communication technologies and devices.
Wireless communication generally works through
electromagnetic signals that are broadcast by an
enabled device within the air, physical environment
or atmosphere. The sending device can be a sender
or an intermediate device with the ability to
propagate wireless signals. The communication
between two devices occurs when the destination or
receiving intermediate device captures these signals,
creating a wireless communication bridge between
the sender and receiver device.
Cellular network is an underlying
technology for mobile phones, personal
communication systems, wireless
networking etc. The technology is
developed for mobile radio telephone to
replace high power transmitter/receiver
In a cellular structure, a MS (mobile station) needs to communicate with the BS
of the cell where the MS is currently located and the BS acts as a gateway to the
rest of the world. Therefore, to provide a link, the MS needs to be in the area of
one of the cells (and hence a BS) so that mobility of the MS can be supported.
Several base stations are connected through hard-wires and are controlled by a
BS controller (BSC), which in turn is connected to a mobile switching center
Several mobile switching centers are interconnected to a PSTN (public switched
telephone network) and the ATM (asynchronous transfer mode) backbone.
From, Now on we will discuss each component of the block
diagram of a cellular system.
A BS consists of a base transceiver system (BTS) and a BSC. Both tower and antenna are a part of
the BTS, while all associated electronics are contained in the BSC.
The HLR (home location register) and VLR (visitor location register) are two sets of pointers that
support mobility and enable the use of the same telephone numbers worldwide.
The AUC (authentication center) unit provides authentication and encryption parameters that
verify the user's identity and ensure the confidentiality of each cell.
The EIR (equipment identity register) is a database that information about identity of mobile
equipment. Both AUC and EIR can be implemented as individual stand-alone units or as a
combined AUC/EIR unit.
The HLR is located at the MSC where MS is initially registered and is the initial home location for
billing and access information.
The VLR contains information about all MS visiting that particular MSC and hence points to the
HLR of the visiting MSs for exchanging related information about the MS.
Such a pointer allows calls to be routed or rerouted to the MS, wherever it is located. In cellular
systems, a reverse direction pointer is needed that allows traversal of many control signals
back and forth between the HLR and VLR such bidirectional HLR-VLR pointers help in carrying
out various functionalities.
Following is a list of applications in wireless communication:
Business in the form of online sales
Replacement of wired network
Location dependent service
Freedom from wires : Can be configured with the use of any physical connection.
Easy to setup : Wireless network is easy to expand and setup
Better or global coverage: It provides global reach by providing networking in places
such as rural areas, battlefields, etc… where wiring is not feasible.
Flexibility : Wireless network is more flexible and adaptable compared to a wired
Cost-effectiveness : Since it is easy to install and doesn’t require cables, the wireless
network is relatively cheaper.
Dis - Advantages
As communication is done through open space, it is less secure.
More open to interference.
Increased chance of jamming.
Transmission speed is comparably less.
it has a limited amount of bandwidth for communication and breaches of network
Wireless networks can be easily hacked.