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Software Project Management

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Software Project Management

  1. 1. PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom, & Tegarden Systems Analysis and Design with UML, 5th Edition Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 2: Project Management
  2. 2. PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom, & Tegarden Systems Analysis and Design with UML, 5th Edition Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Learning Objectives  Link information systems to business needs  Learn how to create a system request  Understand system feasibility  Learn how to perform a feasibility analysis  Understand how to select a project  Become familiar with work breakdown structure, Gantt charts & network diagrams  Become familiar with use-case driven effort estimation  Learn how to create an interactive project workplan  Learn how to manage the scope, refine estimates and manage the risk of a project  Become familiar with how to staff a project  Learn how the environment and infrastructure workflows interact with the project management workflow
  3. 3. PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom, & Tegarden Systems Analysis and Design with UML, 5th Edition Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Introduction  Project Management is the process of planning and controlling system development within a specified time at a minimum cost with the right functionality  A project is a set of activities with a specified beginning and end point meant to create a system that brings value to the business  Project Managers monitor and control all tasks and roles that need to be coordinated
  4. 4. PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom, & Tegarden Systems Analysis and Design with UML, 5th Edition Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Agile Project Management  “Plans don’t commit us. Our commitments commit us: the plan is just a convenient place to write those commitments down. Commitments are made by people, and documented in project plans. When someone points to a project plan to show that a commitment was made, it’s not really the piece of paper that the person is pointing to. It’s the promise that’s written down on it that everyone is thinking about.” ~ Stellman and Greene
  5. 5. PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom, & Tegarden Systems Analysis and Design with UML, 5th Edition Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK)  This section is based on the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK) that has been developed by the Project Management Institute (PMI)  PMI is a nonprofit professional organization with members from every industry and large organization in the United States as well as major international organizations  With 500,000 members, it sponsors various conferences and workshops around the globe on project management
  6. 6. PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom, & Tegarden Systems Analysis and Design with UML, 5th Edition Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK) PMPOK is organized into 10 knowledge areas:  Project Integration Management—Integrating all the other knowledge areas into one seamless whole  Project Scope Management—Defining and controlling the functions that are to be included in the system as well as the scope of the work to be done by the project team  Project Time Management—Creating a detailed schedule of all project tasks and then monitoring the progress of the project against defined milestones  Project Cost Management—Calculating the initial cost/benefit analysis and its later updates and monitoring expenditures as the project progresses  Project Quality Management—Establishing a comprehensive plan for ensuring quality, which includes quality control activities for every phase of a project
  7. 7. PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom, & Tegarden Systems Analysis and Design with UML, 5th Edition Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK)  Project Human Resource Management—Recruiting and hiring project team members; training, motivating, and team building; and implementing related activities to ensure a happy, productive team  Project Communications Management—Identifying all stakeholders and the key communications to each; also establishing all communications mechanisms and schedules  Project Risk Management—Identifying and reviewing throughout the project all potential risks for failure and developing plans to reduce these risks  Project Procurement Management—Developing requests for proposals, evaluating bids, writing contracts, and then monitoring vendor performance  Project Stakeholder Management—Identifying and communicating with the stakeholders of the new system
  8. 8. PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom, & Tegarden Systems Analysis and Design with UML, 5th Edition Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. PMBOK
  9. 9. PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom, & Tegarden Systems Analysis and Design with UML, 5th Edition Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Project Manager Responsibilities  Internal Responsibilities  Developing the project schedule  Recruiting and training team members  Assigning work to teams and team members  Assessing project risks  Monitoring and controlling project deliverables and milestones  External Responsibilities  Reporting the project’s status and progress  Working directly with the client (the project’s sponsor) and other stakeholders  Identifying resource needs and obtaining resources
  10. 10. PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom, & Tegarden Systems Analysis and Design with UML, 5th Edition Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Stakeholders Who do you involve and talk to?  Stakeholders– persons who have an interest in the successful implementation of the system  Internal Stakeholders– persons within the organization  External stakeholders – persons outside the organization  Operational stakeholders – persons who regularly interact with the system  Executive stakeholders– persons who don’t directly interact, but use the information or have financial interest Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 7th Edition - Chapter 2 ©2016. Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 10
  11. 11. PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom, & Tegarden Systems Analysis and Design with UML, 5th Edition Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Stakeholders of a comprehensive accounting system for public company Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 7th Edition - Chapter 2 11
  12. 12. PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom, & Tegarden Systems Analysis and Design with UML, 5th Edition Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Patterson Superstore Stakeholders CEO VP Grocery Products VP Pharmacy (Max Ross) Project Manager Ruby Neiley Integrated Health Clinic (IHC) Medical staff Clinic staff VP Finance VP Operations &Technology Senior Systems Analyst Kelly Herman Special Assistant
  13. 13. PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom, & Tegarden Systems Analysis and Design with UML, 5th Edition Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Project Identification  Inception phase: generate a system request based on a business need or opportunity  Perform a feasibility analysis; revise the system request  Approve or decline the project  Projects are driven by business needs  Identified by business people  Identified by IT people  (better yet) identified jointly by business and IT  The project sponsor believes in the system and wants to see it succeed  Normally this is a business person  Should have the authority to move it forward
  14. 14. PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom, & Tegarden Systems Analysis and Design with UML, 5th Edition Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Business Value  Tangible Value  Can be quantified and measured directly  Example: 2 percent reduction in operating costs  Intangible Value  We know it will add value & save time, but we may not be able to quantify or measure its benefits  Example: improved customer service
  15. 15. PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom, & Tegarden Systems Analysis and Design with UML, 5th Edition Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. The System Request (Project Charter)  A document that describes the reasons for and the value added from building a new system  Contains 5 elements: • Project (executive) sponsor: the primary point of contact for the project • Business need: the reason prompting the project (sometimes the business need is framed as a “Problem Statement” – 2-3 sentences that define the business problem that you’re asked to resolve or business opportunity you’re asked to capture as a systems analyst) • Business requirements: what the system will do (often called the Project Vision Statement) • Business value: how will the organization benefit from the project • Special issues: Anything else that should be considered • Because this document describes the expected results of the systems project (deliverables) and the time frame for delivery, it essentially becomes a contract (The Project Charter) between the project manager and the analysis team with the organizational users requesting the new system.
  16. 16. PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom, & Tegarden Systems Analysis and Design with UML, 5th Edition Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Quiz on System Request (Vision Statement and Project Charter)  Read the Patterson SuperStore Case Study available on Canvas  Discuss and answer these questions in your learning pair  What is the complete problem statement of the case study (in your own words)?  Why do you believe the business requirements and system capabilities will generate the value expected?  Identify in quantitative terms how each business requirements accomplishes the business value listed in the case study  What other additional information may be relevant to the stakeholders of the project?
  17. 17. PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom, & Tegarden Systems Analysis and Design with UML, 5th Edition Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Feasibility Analysis  Is this project feasible?  What are the risks?  Can these risks be overcome?  Major components:  Technical feasibility (Can we build it?)  Economic feasibility (Should we build it?)  Organizational feasibility (Will they use it?)
  18. 18. PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom, & Tegarden Systems Analysis and Design with UML, 5th Edition Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Technical Feasibility  Identify risks in the following areas:  The functional area: Are analysts familiar with this portion of the business?  The technology: Less familiarity generates more risk  Project size: Large projects have more risk  Compatibility: Difficult integration increases the risk
  19. 19. PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom, & Tegarden Systems Analysis and Design with UML, 5th Edition Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Economic Feasibility (Cost-Benefit Analysis)  Identify the costs and the benefits  Assign values to the costs and benefits  Determine the cash flow  Determine the value using one or more methods:  Net present value (NPV)  Return on investment (ROI)  Break-even point
  20. 20. PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom, & Tegarden Systems Analysis and Design with UML, 5th Edition Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Formulas for Determining Value
  21. 21. PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom, & Tegarden Systems Analysis and Design with UML, 5th Edition Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Calculating Financial Returns Net Present Value  The two basic concepts of net present value are (1) that all benefits and costs are calculated in terms of today’s dollars (that is, present value) and (2) that benefits and costs are combined to give a net value— hence, the name net present value  Discount rate – the annual percentage rate that an amount of money is discounted to bring it to a present value  Discount factor – the accumulation of yearly discounts based on the discount rate Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 7th Edition - Online Chapter C ©2016. Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
  22. 22. PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom, & Tegarden Systems Analysis and Design with UML, 5th Edition Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Calculating Financial Returns Return on Investment (ROI)  Return on investment – calculates a percentage return (like an interest rate) on the initial investment  Sometimes, ROI calculations are done by using values that include the discount factor  At other times, ROI is done on purely a cash basis without considering the organization’s assigned discount rate Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 7th Edition - Online Chapter C ©2016. Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
  23. 23. PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom, & Tegarden Systems Analysis and Design with UML, 5th Edition Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Quantify Project Approval Factors  Estimated Cost for Development Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 7th Edition - Chapter 11 ©2016. Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
  24. 24. PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom, & Tegarden Systems Analysis and Design with UML, 5th Edition Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Quantify Project Approval Factors  Estimated Cost for Support Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 7th Edition - Chapter 11 ©2016. Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
  25. 25. PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom, & Tegarden Systems Analysis and Design with UML, 5th Edition Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Quantify Project Approval Factors  Tangible “Dollar” Benefits  Used for Cost/Benefit Analysis--process of comparing costs and benefits to see whether investing in a new system will be beneficial-- Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 7th Edition - Chapter 11 ©2016. Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
  26. 26. PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom, & Tegarden Systems Analysis and Design with UML, 5th Edition Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Calculating Financial Returns Return on Investment (ROI) Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 7th Edition - Online Chapter C ©2016. Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
  27. 27. PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom, & Tegarden Systems Analysis and Design with UML, 5th Edition Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Example Cost-Benefit Analysis
  28. 28. PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom, & Tegarden Systems Analysis and Design with UML, 5th Edition Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Example Break-Even Point
  29. 29. PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom, & Tegarden Systems Analysis and Design with UML, 5th Edition Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Organizational Feasibility  Will the users accept the system?  Is the project strategically aligned with the business?  Conduct a stakeholder analysis  Project champion(s)  Organizational management  System users  Others
  30. 30. PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom, & Tegarden Systems Analysis and Design with UML, 5th Edition Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Project Selection  Projects are approved, declined or delayed based on value added vs. risks  Project portfolio management  Goals:  Maximize cost/benefit ratio  Maintain an optimal mix of projects based on:  Risk  Size, cost & length of time to complete  Purpose, scope & business value  Limited resources require trade-offs  Selected projects enter the project management process
  31. 31. PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom, & Tegarden Systems Analysis and Design with UML, 5th Edition Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Project Management Tools  Aids in creating workplans  Identify all tasks, their sequence and estimate the time to complete each one  Work breakdown structures (WBS): a hierarchy of tasks to identify:  Duration of each task  Current status of each task  Task dependencies (shows which tasks must be completed before others can begin)  Gantt charts: horizontal bar chart that shows the WBS graphically  Network diagrams: PERT and CPM
  32. 32. PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom, & Tegarden Systems Analysis and Design with UML, 5th Edition Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 6th Edition 32 Systems Concepts
  33. 33. PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom, & Tegarden Systems Analysis and Design with UML, 5th Edition Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 6th Edition 33 Data Flow Diagram Symbols
  34. 34. PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom, & Tegarden Systems Analysis and Design with UML, 5th Edition Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Example Level 1 Data Flow Diagram (DFD)
  35. 35. PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom, & Tegarden Systems Analysis and Design with UML, 5th Edition Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. 35 RMO’s CSMS Sample DFD Context Diagram
  36. 36. PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom, & Tegarden Systems Analysis and Design with UML, 5th Edition Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 6th Edition 36 Redraw this system into a hierarchy chart (functional decomposition diagram)
  37. 37. PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom, & Tegarden Systems Analysis and Design with UML, 5th Edition Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Functional Decomposition Diagram RMO's CSMS Order Entry Subsystem Look up item availability Create new order Update Order Produce Order summary reports Produce transaction summary reports Order Fulfillment Subsystem Look up order status Record order fulfillment Record back order Create order return Product fulfillment summary report Customer Maintenance Subsystem Product catalog info Produce prospective customer activity reports Update customer account Distribute promotional package Create customer charge adjustment Product customer adjustment report Catalog Management Subsystem Update catalog Create special product promotion Create new catalog Product catalog activity reports System being analyzed Subsystem layer Functions
  38. 38. PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom, & Tegarden Systems Analysis and Design with UML, 5th Edition Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Project Effort Estimation  Estimation involves trade-offs between functionality, time and cost  It is the process of assigning projected values for time and effort  Most accurate estimates come from experience  Use-case point method; based on:  Technical complexity factors (13)  Environmental factors (8)
  39. 39. PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom, & Tegarden Systems Analysis and Design with UML, 5th Edition Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Use-case Estimation Example  Actors & Use-cases:
  40. 40. PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom, & Tegarden Systems Analysis and Design with UML, 5th Edition Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Use-case Estimation Example  Technical complexity factors:
  41. 41. PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom, & Tegarden Systems Analysis and Design with UML, 5th Edition Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Use-case Estimation Example  Environmental factors & final estimate:
  42. 42. PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom, & Tegarden Systems Analysis and Design with UML, 5th Edition Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Creating & Managing the Workplan  Workplan: a dynamic and sequential list of all tasks needed to complete a project  Approaches:  Modify existing or completed projects  Derive the tasks from the methodology being used  Unified Process:  Iterative & incremental  Workplan is also iterative & incremental  Tasks and time intervals follow the phases  Different tasks executed for each workflow
  43. 43. PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom, & Tegarden Systems Analysis and Design with UML, 5th Edition Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. MS Project Tasks Using Different Methodologies  Waterfall  Use MS Project Software Development Plan Template  Agile Unified Process  Use “Unified Process MS Project Template” on Canvas  Agile Scrum  Use “Scrum MS Project Template” on Canvas
  44. 44. PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom, & Tegarden Systems Analysis and Design with UML, 5th Edition Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Create Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) First Iteration of CSMS Project Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 7th Edition - Online Chapter C ©2016. Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
  45. 45. PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom, & Tegarden Systems Analysis and Design with UML, 5th Edition Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Project Schedule Microsoft Project  First cut Gantt Chart Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 7th Edition - Online Chapter C ©2016. Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
  46. 46. PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom, & Tegarden Systems Analysis and Design with UML, 5th Edition Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. PERT/CPM Charts  PERT/CPM chart is a network diagram with boxes that represent the tasks or activities of the project and with connecting arrows that represent the sequence and dependencies between tasks  PERT, which stands for Project Evaluation and Review Technique developed by the U.S. Department of Defense to organize, monitor, and control very large, complex defense projects  CPM, which stands for Critical Path Method, was developed independently  In practice, the two techniques are combined Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 7th Edition - Online Chapter C ©2016. Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
  47. 47. PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom, & Tegarden Systems Analysis and Design with UML, 5th Edition Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. PERT/CPM chart After identifying task dependencies Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 7th Edition - Online Chapter C ©2016. Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
  48. 48. PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom, & Tegarden Systems Analysis and Design with UML, 5th Edition Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. PERT/CPM chart Critical Path  Early start time – the earliest time that a task can begin due to predecessor durations  Late start time – the latest time that a task can start to maintain the schedule  Slack time – the amount of time a task or leg of sequential tasks can be delayed without impacting the project schedule Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 7th Edition - Online Chapter C ©2016. Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. On Critical Path Not On Critical Path
  49. 49. PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom, & Tegarden Systems Analysis and Design with UML, 5th Edition Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Project Schedule Microsoft Project  Resource Information for Project (People) Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 7th Edition - Online Chapter C ©2016. Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
  50. 50. PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom, & Tegarden Systems Analysis and Design with UML, 5th Edition Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Project Schedule Using Microsoft Project  Information about tasks Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 7th Edition - Online Chapter C ©2016. Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
  51. 51. PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom, & Tegarden Systems Analysis and Design with UML, 5th Edition Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Project Schedule Microsoft Project  Assign resources to tasks Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 7th Edition - Online Chapter C ©2016. Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
  52. 52. PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom, & Tegarden Systems Analysis and Design with UML, 5th Edition Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.  Resource Usage Chart Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 7th Edition - Online Chapter C ©2016. Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Project Schedule Using Microsoft Project
  53. 53. PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom, & Tegarden Systems Analysis and Design with UML, 5th Edition Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Schedule the Work  Gantt Chart for first iteration  Shows task, duration, start date, predecessors, and resources  Generates chart graphically showing dates, predecessors, tasks, and critical path Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 7th Edition - Chapter 11 ©2016. Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
  54. 54. PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom, & Tegarden Systems Analysis and Design with UML, 5th Edition Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Project Schedule Microsoft Project  Tracking Gantt Chart Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 7th Edition - Online Chapter C ©2016. Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
  55. 55. PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom, & Tegarden Systems Analysis and Design with UML, 5th Edition Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.  Network Diagram (The PERT/CPM Chart) Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 7th Edition - Online Chapter C ©2016. Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Project Schedule Using Microsoft Project
  56. 56. PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom, & Tegarden Systems Analysis and Design with UML, 5th Edition Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Schedule the Work: Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) with Time Estimates and Notes Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 7th Edition - Chapter 11 ©2016. Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
  57. 57. PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom, & Tegarden Systems Analysis and Design with UML, 5th Edition Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Project Schedule Microsoft Project  Final Gantt Chart with Critical Path and Slack Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 7th Edition - Online Chapter C ©2016. Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
  58. 58. PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom, & Tegarden Systems Analysis and Design with UML, 5th Edition Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Evolutionary Work Breakdown Structures  Organized in a standard manner across all projects  Created in an incremental & iterative manner  Generality supports learning from past mistakes and successes  Unified Process:  Workflows are the major divisions  Workflows are decomposed along the phases  Phases are decomposed along the required tasks  Tasks are added as each iteration is completed
  59. 59. PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom, & Tegarden Systems Analysis and Design with UML, 5th Edition Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Scope Management  Scope “creep”  Occurs after the project is underway  Results from adding new requirements to the project  Can have a deleterious effect on the schedule  Techniques to manage the project scope:  Identify all requirements at the outset  Allow only those changes deemed absolutely necessary  Carefully examine the impact of suggested changes  Delay some changes for “future enhancements”  Time boxing
  60. 60. PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom, & Tegarden Systems Analysis and Design with UML, 5th Edition Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Staffing the Project  Goals:  Determine how many people are required  Match skill sets to required activities  Motivate the team to meet the objectives  Minimize conflicts  Deliverable—The staffing plan, which includes:  Number & kind of people assigned  Overall reporting structure  The project charter (describes the project’s objectives and rules)
  61. 61. PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom, & Tegarden Systems Analysis and Design with UML, 5th Edition Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Creating a “Jelled” Team  A team of people so strongly knit that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts  Characteristics of a jelled team:  Very low turnover rate  Strong sense of identity  A feeling of eliteness  Team vs. individual ownership of the project  Team members enjoy their work
  62. 62. PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom, & Tegarden Systems Analysis and Design with UML, 5th Edition Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. The Staffing Plan  Calculate the number of people needed:  Lines of communication increase exponentially as people are added to a project  Create a reporting structure for projects with large numbers of people assigned  Form sub-teams as necessary  Assign the Project Manager, Functional lead & Technical lead  Pay attention to technical and interpersonal skills
  63. 63. PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom, & Tegarden Systems Analysis and Design with UML, 5th Edition Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Motivating People  Motivation is the greatest influence on performance  Monetary rewards usually do not motivate  Suggested motivating techniques:  20% time rule  Peer-to-peer recognition awards  Team ownership (refer to the team as “we”)  Allow members to focus on what interests them  Utilize equitable compensation  Encourage group ownership  Provide for autonomy, but trust the team to deliver
  64. 64. PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom, & Tegarden Systems Analysis and Design with UML, 5th Edition Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Handling Conflict  Preventing or mitigating conflict:  Cohesiveness has the greatest effect  Clearly defining roles and holding team members accountable  Establish work & communications rules in the project charter  Additional techniques:  Clearly define plans for the project  Make sure the team understands the importance of the project  Develop detailed operating procedures  Develop a project charter  Develop a schedule of commitments in advance  Forecast other priorities and their impact on the project
  65. 65. PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom, & Tegarden Systems Analysis and Design with UML, 5th Edition Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Environment & Infrastructure Management  Environment—Choose the right set of tools  Use appropriate CASE tools to:  Increase productivity and centralize information (repository)  Utilize diagrams—more easily understood  Establish standards to reduce complexity  Infrastructure—Document the project appropriately  Store deliverables & communications in a project binder  Use Unified Process standard documents  Don’t put off documentation to the last minute
  66. 66. PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom, & Tegarden Systems Analysis and Design with UML, 5th Edition Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Summary  Project Initiation  Feasibility Analysis  Project Selection  Traditional Project Management Tools  Estimating Project Effort  Create and manage the workplan  Staff the project  Manage the environment and infrastructure work flows of the project

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