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Effective collaboration.
Indian cultural dimensions.
Pavel Kobychev
Case: YES / NO
It is a Friday. SW will be frozen on Monday noon. Coding has just being completed
and the SW is published. ...
Why?
Give a general understanding of Indian
national culture
How national culture can affect working
behavior?
Increase cu...
What is a culture?
Agenda
12:30: General facts about India. Quiz
13:30: Break
13:45: Cultural dimensions. Communication.
15:15: Q&A
India
National symbols
“Saffron denotes renunciation of disinterestedness.
Our leaders must be indifferent to material gains
and...
National symbols
1. National Sport
2. National Bird
3. National Animal
4. National Flower
5. National Fruit
Language & religion
Languages
Hindi
Telugu
Other
Bengali
Marathi
Hindu
Sikh
Muslim
Christia
n
Other
Demography: some facts
Age structure (2009 est.)
<15
31 %
15-64
64 %
>64
5 %
Total population:
1,195,400,000 (est 2011)
Me...
Trivia and facts. Past and Present.
India never invaded any country in her last 10000 years of history.
First university w...
Lifestyle
Family
Most important institution of Indian society.
Joint family events are still typical
Marriage is a social ...
Ready for a quiz?
India for Foreigners
Incredible India
From NBC's ”Outsourced”
Cultural dimensions
Case: New design proposal
Ville has sent a new design proposal to Raj’s team. This is a regular sync phone
conf…
Ville: Ha...
Geert Hofstede’s cultural dimensions
Geert Hofstede (1923) is Dutch social psychologist and
anthropologist
Widely known as...
India cultural diagram
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
PDI
IDV
MASUAI
LTO
India Finland World average
India cultural diagram
Power Distance
Power Distance (PDI): the
degree of perceived inequality
between people in a country...
India cultural diagram
Power Distance may affect on…
Effective and open communication during negotiations,
brainstorming a...
India cultural diagram
Power Distance. Recommendations.
Give clear and explicit directions. Deadlines should be
highlighte...
India cultural diagram
Individualism
Individualism (IDV): the
degree to which a culture
values and reinforces the
importan...
India cultural diagram
Masculinity
Masculinity (MAS): the
degree to which a culture
reinforces the traditional role
of mal...
India cultural diagram
Uncertainty avoidance
Uncertainty Avoidance (UAI):
the (reverse) level of tolerance
for uncertainty...
India cultural diagram
Long-Term Orientation
Long-term orientation
(LTO): the importance
attached to the future
versus the...
Communication
Direct vs. Indirect communication
“Meant is not said;
said is not heard;
heard is not understood;
understood is not agreed...
Communication challenges.
When Indian means “No” / “Not possible”
Not responding at all.
Avoiding the question/changing th...
Communication challenges.
When Indian means “Behind the schedule”
Repeating the subject of the schedule/deadline
“Schedule...
Communication challenges.
When Indian means “Your proposal is not so good”
Avoiding an answer
Asking your opinion on an id...
Hints for successful communication
with Indians
Never accept the word “Yes” alone as an answer. Pay
attention to what the ...
Case: New design proposal
Ville has sent a new design proposal to Raj’s team. This is a regular sync phone conf…
Ville: Ha...
Thank you
Further materials
Some other presentation on how to make a
phone call with India 10 min
Cultural dimensions in youtube
Inc...
Dos and Don’ts
when writing to Indian
colleagues to always send
a copy of all
correspondence to the
manager.
Give clear an...
Indian cultural dimensions
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Indian cultural dimensions

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Indian cultural dimensions

  1. 1. Effective collaboration. Indian cultural dimensions. Pavel Kobychev
  2. 2. Case: YES / NO It is a Friday. SW will be frozen on Monday noon. Coding has just being completed and the SW is published. FT is not yet started. Ville tries to convince Raj to do a testing on a weekend. Ville: We just have published a software. Might your team be able to come on the weekend, Raj? Raj: This weekend? mmm... Ville: Yes, this weekend. Raj: Let me check my calendar… BTW, How busy is Kalle’s team? Ville: Kalle’s team has done it’s part already today Raj: Yes, they do work quite fast. Ville: Your part shouldn’t take too long… So what do you think, Raj? Raj: We will try our best. Ville: O.k.
  3. 3. Why? Give a general understanding of Indian national culture How national culture can affect working behavior? Increase cultural intelligence Create awareness of multi-cultural nature of FlexiPlatform development Enhance communication between Espoo and India
  4. 4. What is a culture?
  5. 5. Agenda 12:30: General facts about India. Quiz 13:30: Break 13:45: Cultural dimensions. Communication. 15:15: Q&A
  6. 6. India
  7. 7. National symbols “Saffron denotes renunciation of disinterestedness. Our leaders must be indifferent to material gains and dedicate themselves to their work” “The white in the centre is light, the path of truth to guide our conduct.” “The green shows our relation to soil, our relation to the plant life here on which all other life depends” “The Ashoka Wheel denotes motion. India should no more resist change, it must move and go forward.”
  8. 8. National symbols 1. National Sport 2. National Bird 3. National Animal 4. National Flower 5. National Fruit
  9. 9. Language & religion Languages Hindi Telugu Other Bengali Marathi Hindu Sikh Muslim Christia n Other
  10. 10. Demography: some facts Age structure (2009 est.) <15 31 % 15-64 64 % >64 5 % Total population: 1,195,400,000 (est 2011) Median age: 25.9 years (est 2010) Labor force: 523.5 million (2008) More then EU-27 total population (est 2010 at 501 mln ) Rural vs Urban population
  11. 11. Trivia and facts. Past and Present. India never invaded any country in her last 10000 years of history. First university was established in Takshila in 700BC Inventions: The Numbering System (400BC-400CE) Zero (IX century) Chess Largest… 2nd most populous country Democracy Indian Railways is the largest employer Number of post offices 2nd Largest Standing Army 11th Largest Economy (GDP) , 4th Largest (PPP) … Practicalities Country code IST Time zone
  12. 12. Lifestyle Family Most important institution of Indian society. Joint family events are still typical Marriage is a social contract between two families Investment in children education is your pension "Matri devo bhavah, Pitri devo bhavah, Acharya devo bhavah, Athiti devo bhavah". Relationship I know you – I trust you “Loosing face” Naming: Naming system is soo difficult. Depending on religion, region, cast, language… Casts Legal basis is removed by constitution of 1950 Vertical mobility is promoted by government Cyclical perception of time Kal (Hindi) means one day removed from today. = either “tomorrow” or “yesterday”. Education Oriented on examination performance Top-down, knowledge acquisition models. Passive receiving rather than active participation Only top 1% admit to IIS
  13. 13. Ready for a quiz? India for Foreigners Incredible India From NBC's ”Outsourced”
  14. 14. Cultural dimensions
  15. 15. Case: New design proposal Ville has sent a new design proposal to Raj’s team. This is a regular sync phone conf… Ville: Have you received my latest design proposal? Raj: Yes, we have received it yesterday and discussed it briefly Ville: Do you agree it is good? Raj: Yes, Ville, it is good. But what about that missing use-case when a user wants to add all configuration in one transaction? Ville: C’mon, Raj, this is minor issue we can handle during a sprint. Raj: What do you think about proposal from Kumar? Ville: mmm… made last week? It is OK by me. Will you take this item to the sprint planning? Raj: Yes, we’ll take it. Would you participate in the grooming? Ville: Hmm, I might be busy tomorrow, but the document which I sent quite well describes the proposal… Raj: OK.
  16. 16. Geert Hofstede’s cultural dimensions Geert Hofstede (1923) is Dutch social psychologist and anthropologist Widely known as an author of the cultural dimensions theory Massive study conducted in 1967-1973 Cultural dimension Power Distance (equality versus inequality) Collectivism (versus individualism) Masculinity (versus feminity) Uncertainty avoidance (versus tolerance) Long Term Orientation Indulgence (versus restraint) “Culture's Consequences” (1980) Further studies: Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness (GLOBE) conducted in 1994-2004
  17. 17. India cultural diagram 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 PDI IDV MASUAI LTO India Finland World average
  18. 18. India cultural diagram Power Distance Power Distance (PDI): the degree of perceived inequality between people in a country's society. Those in authority openly demonstrate their rank. Subordinates are not given important work and expected to take the blame for things going wrong. Clear guidance is expected The relationship between boss and subordinate is rarely personal. Class divisions within society. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 PDI IDV MASUAI LTO India Finland World average
  19. 19. India cultural diagram Power Distance may affect on… Effective and open communication during negotiations, brainstorming and idea generation. Obtaining meaningful information and giving objective feedback Proposing a (alternative) solutions to critical issues. Independent and effective decision making. Technical expert remains silent until asked by a boss to speak Tendency to say “yes” to requests from clients and superiors Agreeing to things without analyzing task requirements properly Knowledge transfer/knowledge acquisition
  20. 20. India cultural diagram Power Distance. Recommendations. Give clear and explicit directions. Deadlines should be highlighted and stressed. Do not expect subordinates to take initiative. Be more authoritarian in your management style. Show respect and deference to management. Expect more bureaucracy Use managerial channel to deliver an important message
  21. 21. India cultural diagram Individualism Individualism (IDV): the degree to which a culture values and reinforces the importance of the individual as opposed to the group. Group embeddedness based on own (apane) – other (paraye) dichotomy. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 PDI IDV MASUAI LTO India Finland World average
  22. 22. India cultural diagram Masculinity Masculinity (MAS): the degree to which a culture reinforces the traditional role of males vs. females. High MAS: Competitiveness Assertiveness Ambition Accumulation of wealth Material possessions "live to work", meaning longer work hours and short vacations 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 PDI IDV MASUAI LTO India Finland World average
  23. 23. India cultural diagram Uncertainty avoidance Uncertainty Avoidance (UAI): the (reverse) level of tolerance for uncertainty and ambiguity within a culture. In India almost as low as in the USA. (=High tolerance) Have fewer written rules Offer less-structured activities and experience Higher labor turnover. More tolerant of new and different opinions. People don’t easily express their emotions. Not “either-or” but “not only, but also” 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 PDI IDV MASUAI LTO India Finland World average
  24. 24. India cultural diagram Long-Term Orientation Long-term orientation (LTO): the importance attached to the future versus the past and present. Finland official data missing. Sweden, Norway, Germany – Low High LTO: Persistence Savings Long-term strategic goals “life after death” Shame / “loosing face” 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 PDI IDV MASUAI LTO India Finland World average
  25. 25. Communication
  26. 26. Direct vs. Indirect communication “Meant is not said; said is not heard; heard is not understood; understood is not agreed to; agreed to is not carried out .” Konrad Lorenz
  27. 27. Communication challenges. When Indian means “No” / “Not possible” Not responding at all. Avoiding the question/changing the topic Postponing the question “Can I get back to you?” / “I will check my calendar.” Repeating the question Coming up with some other question. Hesitation Conditional Yes “Is that what you would like?” “We will try our best”/ “We can give a try” Pointing out how busy he is Agreeing initially, then bringing the subject up again.
  28. 28. Communication challenges. When Indian means “Behind the schedule” Repeating the subject of the schedule/deadline “Schedule is inconvenient” “Is deadline still good?” “Are all parts of project has to be done as per the deadline?” “Part of the project taking longer time.” “Some parts are on schedule.” “Is another team also busy?”
  29. 29. Communication challenges. When Indian means “Your proposal is not so good” Avoiding an answer Asking your opinion on an idea/proposal of his own Praising a minor unimportant aspect of your suggestion
  30. 30. Hints for successful communication with Indians Never accept the word “Yes” alone as an answer. Pay attention to what the person says next. Double check that you have been understood Do not pose suggestive questions First ask the Indian you are talking to what (s)he thinks Prize openly – punish personally To deliver a negative message an intermediary with rank similar to the receiver can be used Do not confuse Indian “head wagging” (rocking the head from one side to the other) with “no”. It means “I am listening” or even “yes“.
  31. 31. Case: New design proposal Ville has sent a new design proposal to Raj’s team. This is a regular sync phone conf… Ville: Have you received my latest design proposal? Raj: Yes, we have received it yesterday and discussed it briefly Ville: Do you agree it is good? Raj: Yes, Ville, it is good. But what about that missing use-case when a user wants to add all configuration in one transaction? Ville: C’mon, Raj, this is minor issue we can handle during a sprint. Raj: What do you think about proposal from Kumar? Ville: mmm… made last week? It is OK. Will you take this item to the sprint planning? Raj: Yes, we’ll take it. Will you participate in the grooming? Ville: Hmm, I might be busy tomorrow, but the document which I sent quite well describes the proposal… Raj: OK. Raj’s team definitely studied the proposal and have made own understanding of it. Despite not fully understood (used to deal with uncertainty) they will take it (Ambition + LTO) and will not argue with Ville (PDI + “loosing face”). What will be a resulting implementation?
  32. 32. Thank you
  33. 33. Further materials Some other presentation on how to make a phone call with India 10 min Cultural dimensions in youtube Incredible India Book "Working with India” by W. Messner
  34. 34. Dos and Don’ts when writing to Indian colleagues to always send a copy of all correspondence to the manager. Give clear and explicit directions Repeat and check Prize openly – punish personally Fist ask Indian colleague what he think Do not expect subordinates to take initiative Do not expect active open discussion in group Do not accept “yes” alone. Do not pose suggestive questions

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