Medicine administration is a core responsibility of
registered nurses in healthcare settings. To ensure patient
safety, it is essential the correct procedure is implemented
so the correct medicine is given in the prescribed amount
using the most appropriate route. Before administering any
medicine, the person carrying out the procedure must be
familiar with the advantages and limitations of the
prescribed route, and know the indications,
contraindications and side-effects of the medicine they
intend to give.
3. • Pharmacokinetics– what body does to the drug?
• Pharmacokinetics is defined as the study of the time
course of drug absorption, distribution, metabolism, and
• Pharmacodynamics – effect of drug on the body
(mechanism of action). it is the study of the biochemical
and physiologic effects of drugs
• ac (ante cibum) means "before meals"
• Bid, b.d.(bis in die) means "twice a day“
• S.o.s. (si opus sit) if necessary in emergency
• gt (gutta) means "drop"
• hs (hora somni) means "at bedtime"
• od (oculus dexter) means "right eye"
• os (oculus sinister) means "left eye"
• po (per os) means "by mouth"
5. • Tid,t.d.s. (ter in die) means "three times a day"
• pc (post cibum) means "after meals"
• prn (pro re nata) means "as needed"
• q3h (quaque 3 hora) means "every three hours"
• qd (quaque die) means "every day"
• qid (quater in die) means "four times a day“
• Alt,die (alternis diebus) alternative days
6. • O.m. (omni mane) each morning
• O.d. (omni mane) daily
• Stat (statim) at once
• C.m. (cras mane) tomorrow morning
• Sig (signa) means "write“
• A.m. (ante meridian) before noon
• P.m.(post meridian) after noon
• Po per oral
• Pr per rectal
7. RIGHTS OF MEDICATION ADMINISTRATION
1. Right Drug.
The first right of drug administration is to check and verify if it’s the right name and
form. Beware of look-alike and sound-alike medication names. Misreading medication
names that look similar is a common mistake. These look-alike medication names
may also sound alike and can lead to errors associated with verbal prescriptions.
Check out The Joint Commission’s list of look-alike/sound-alike drugs.
2. Right Patient.
Ask the name of the client and check his/her ID band before giving the medication.
Even if you know that patient’s name, you still need to ask just to verify.
3. Right Dose.
Check the medication sheet and the doctor’s order before medicating. Be aware of
the difference between an adult and a pediatric dose.
4. Right Route.
Check the order if it’s oral, IV, SQ, IM, etc..
8. • 5. Right Time and Frequency.
• Check the order for when it would be given and when was the last time it was given.
• 6. Right Documentation.
• Make sure to write the time and any remarks on the chart correctly.
• 7. Right History and Assessment.
• Secure a copy of the client’s history to drug interactions and allergies. 8. Right to Refuse.
• Give the client enough autonomy to refuse the medication after thoroughly explaining the effects.
• 9. Right Drug-Drug Interaction and Evaluation.
• Review any medications previously given or the diet of the patient that can yield a bad interaction to the
drug to be given. Check also the expiry date of the medication being given.
• 10. Right Education and Information.
• Provide enough knowledge to the patient of what drug he/she would be taking and what are the expected
therapeutic and side effects
1. Effervescent tablet - This tablet will dissolve
upon contact with water due to the release of gas.
Gas produced from the reaction of bicarbonate
with citric or tartaric acid to facilitates the process
of dissolving the medicine
ex:- Vitamin C tablet.
10. 2.Chewable tablet - This tablet is meant
to be chewed to make it broken down to smaller pieces.
This will increase the surface area exposed for the
dissolution process and allows, medicines that are
released to be absorbed more quickly. This type of tablet is
usually given to patients who have difficulty in swallowing
, such as the elderly and children. It is also used if the dose
given is too large.
Ex: Multivitamin chewable tablet
11. 3.Sublingual tablet - This tablet is designed to be placed under the tongue so that
it can be absorbed directly into the bloodstream through the mucosal membrane. This
method produces faster therapeutic effects as compared to oral administration.
• Ex: tri-nitrate tablet
12. 4.Enteric coated tablet - A tablet with a special coating that avoids it
from dissolving in the stomach but will dissolves in the intestine. It is used to
prevent medicine from being degraded by gastric juice in the stomach so that it
can be absorbed in the intestine.
13. CAPSULE - an edible preparation inside a small casing, usually made of gelatin,
that can be filled with medicines to produce a unit dose for oral use.
14. • Powder - powder for oral use is
usually dissolved in water for the patient
to drink for its therapeutic action. It is
usually supplied in small sachets
• Ex: Oral rehydration salts
15. • Lozenges - are medicated solid
preparations that need to be sucked inside
the mouth until dissolved. Lozenges are
typically used to relieve coughs and sore
16. • Implant- is a medicine delivery device planted in
the body (most commonly under the skin) to enable
the administration of medicine slowly and steadily
over a period of time. This device is usually used to
deliver hormones or contraceptives.
• ex: Implanon
17. Aqueous solution (Irrigation solution) - It is a sterile germ-free
solution, which is used to clean body cavity, operation sites, wound or the
Ex: Saline solution..
• A drug made in a capsule in such way
that there is slow release of its contents
& provide effect over a long period.