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What is motivation? Significance
How to motivate employees in an Organization?
Theories of motivation
Maslow hierarchy of needs theory.
ERG motivation theory Alderfer.
McClelland achievement and acquired needs theory.
Stacey Adams equity theory.
Hertzberg hygiene factors and motivators theory.
Vroom expectancy motivation theory.
Hackman and Oldham job characteristics model.
What is motivation?
Motivation is a theoretical construct used to explain behaviour. It
represents the reasons for people's actions, desires, and needs. Motivation
can also be defined as one's direction to behaviour, or what causes a person
to want to repeat a behaviour and vice versa. A motive is what prompts the
person to act in a certain way, or at least develop an inclination for specific
According to Maehr and Meyer, “Motivation is a word that is
part of the popular culture as few other psychological
Significance of motivation
• Puts human resources into action
• Improves level of efficiency of employees
• Leads to achievement of organizational goals
• Builds friendly relationship
• Leads to stability of work force
Significance of motivation
Motivation is important to an individual as:
• Motivation will help him achieve his personal goals.
• If an individual is motivated, he will have job satisfaction.
• Motivation will help in self-development of individual.
• An individual would always gain by working with a dynamic team.
• The more motivated the employees are, the more empowered the
• The more is the team work and individual employee contribution,
more profitable and successful is the business.
• During period of amendments, there will be more adaptability and
• Motivation will lead to an optimistic and challenging attitude at
MOTIVATION is important to a business as
How to motivate employees in an
Motivating workers requires creativity and an understanding. Motivation
comes from addressing areas for improvement before they become major
Observe employee performance throughout an evaluation period -- don't
wait until performance appraisal season to review how employees do their
Give employees regular feedback. Addressing performance issues sooner
rather than later can lead to immediate improvement.
Schedule public announcements to recognize employee. For example, at
staff meetings recognize employees whose performance exceeds
Promote employees with performance records that consistently exceed the
company's expectations. Again, Herzberg believed that non-monetary employee
recognition is an effective method for motivation.
Ask employees to volunteer for roles where they can demonstrate their capabilities.
For instance, ask current employees if they would like to become presenters at
Obtain employee opinions using regularly scheduled surveys, usually once a year.
Employees are happier and satisfied if they feel their opinions matter.
Theories of motivation
• Maslow hierarchy of needs theory.
• ERG motivation theory Alderfer.
• McClelland achievement and acquired needs theory.
• Stacey Adams equity theory.
• Hertzberg hygiene factors and motivators theory.
• Vroom expectancy motivation theory.
• Hackman and Oldham job characteristics model.
According to Maslow
• An individual’s needs
can be divided into 5
Stacey Adams equity theory
When people feel fairly or advantageously treated they are more likely
to be motivated; when they feel unfairly treated they are highly prone
to feelings of disaffection and demotivation.
Alderfer’s ERG theory
• Existence Needs
Include all material and physiological desires (e.g., food, water, air, clothing,
safety, physical love and affection). Maslow's first two levels.
• Relatedness Needs
Encompass social and external esteem; relationships with significant others like
family, friends, co-workers and employers . This also means to be recognized
and feel secure as part of a group or family. Maslow's third and fourth levels.
• Growth Needs
Internal esteem and self actualization; these impel a person to make
creative or productive effects on himself and the environment (e.g., to
progress toward one's ideal self).
Maslow's fourth and fifth levels.
This includes desires to be creative and productive, and to complete
Mc Clelland’s theory
• This person is 'achievement motivated' and therefore seeks achievement,
attainment of realistic but challenging goals
• There is a strong need for feedback as to achievement and progress, and a need
for a sense of accomplishment.
• People with a high need for achievement seek to excel and thus tend to avoid
both low-risk and high-risk situations.
• This person is 'authority motivated'. This driver produces a need to be influential, effective and to
make an impact.
• There is a strong need to lead and for their ideas to prevail.
• There is also motivation and need towards increasing personal status and prestige.
• This person is 'affiliation motivated', and has a need for friendly relationships and is motivated
• They need harmonious relationships with other people and need to feel accepted by other people.
• These people are team players. They tend to conform to the norms of their work group.
• These individuals prefer work that provides significant personal interaction.
• Herzberg's hygiene factors vs. motivators theory is also called 2 factor
• A Kick In The Ass, he explains, comes in different forms.
• First off, you have negative physical KITA. The literal kick up the buttocks
and whiplashes may have helped build the pyramid
• Secondly, there's negative psychological KITA. This entails all kinds of
emotional games and manipulations to make someone perform more.
• Positive KITA (pay, incentives) don’t work to improve the motivation
• And negative KITA doesn’t work at all….
Vroom's expectancy theory assumes that behaviour results from conscious choices
among alternatives whose purpose it is to maximize pleasure and to minimize pain.
An employee's performance is based on individuals factors such as personality,
skills, knowledge, experience and abilities.
Vrooms theory is based upon the following three beliefs:
Valence refers to the emotional orientations people hold with respect to outcomes
Management must discover what employee’s value.
is the belief that increased effort will lead to increased performance. This is affected by things such as:
• Having the right resources available (e.g. raw materials, time).
• Having the right skills to do the job.
• Having the necessary support to get the job done (e.g. supervisor support, or correct information on the
is the belief that if you perform well that a valued outcome will be received. This is affected by things such
• Clear understanding of the relationship between performance and outcomes – e.g. the rules of the
• Trust in the people who will take the decisions on who gets what outcome.
• Transparency of the process that decides who gets what outcome.
Hackman and Oldham’s job
Hackman and Oldham’s job characteristics theory proposes that high
motivation is related to experiencing three psychological states whilst
1. Meaningfulness of work
That labour has meaning to you, something that you can relate to, and does
not occur just as a set of movements to be repeated. This is fundamental to
intrinsic motivation, i.e. that work is motivating in an of itself (as opposed
to motivating only as a means to an end).
That you have been given the opportunity to be a success or failure at your job
because sufficient freedom of action has given you. This would include the ability
to make changes and incorporate the learning you gain whilst doing the job.
3. Knowledge of outcomes
This is important for two reasons. Firstly to provide the person knowledge on
how successful their work has been, which in turn enables them to learn from
mistakes. The second is to connect them emotionally to the customer of their
outputs, thus giving further purpose to the work (e.g. I may only work on a
production line, but I know that the food rations I produce are used to help
people in disaster areas, saving many lives).
Motivation and behaviour
• It can be difficult to distinguish a motivational issue from a
behavioural issue. Although the symptoms look the same, and often
the causes are similar, the solutions can be very different.
• Motivation directs behaviour toward particular goals.
• Motives or motivation are what drives an individual’s behaviour. The
sources of motivation are what push and pull an individual to behave
in a particular way, therefore motivated behaviour is the result of
how an individual push and pull toward a certain end-state