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Motivation and Theory of Motivation

What is motivation? Significance
How to motivate employees in an Organization?
Theories of motivation
Maslow hierarchy of needs theory.
ERG motivation theory Alderfer.
McClelland achievement and acquired needs theory.
Stacey Adams equity theory.
Hertzberg hygiene factors and motivators theory.
Vroom expectancy motivation theory.
Hackman and Oldham job characteristics model.

Motivation and Theory of Motivation

  1. 1. Presented By: Prinson Rodrigues
  2. 2. What is motivation? Motivation is a theoretical construct used to explain behaviour. It represents the reasons for people's actions, desires, and needs. Motivation can also be defined as one's direction to behaviour, or what causes a person to want to repeat a behaviour and vice versa. A motive is what prompts the person to act in a certain way, or at least develop an inclination for specific behaviour. According to Maehr and Meyer, “Motivation is a word that is part of the popular culture as few other psychological concepts are.”
  3. 3. Significance of motivation • Puts human resources into action • Improves level of efficiency of employees • Leads to achievement of organizational goals • Builds friendly relationship • Leads to stability of work force
  4. 4. Significance of motivation Motivation is important to an individual as: • Motivation will help him achieve his personal goals. • If an individual is motivated, he will have job satisfaction. • Motivation will help in self-development of individual. • An individual would always gain by working with a dynamic team.
  5. 5. • The more motivated the employees are, the more empowered the team is. • The more is the team work and individual employee contribution, more profitable and successful is the business. • During period of amendments, there will be more adaptability and creativity. • Motivation will lead to an optimistic and challenging attitude at work place. MOTIVATION is important to a business as
  6. 6. How to motivate employees in an Organization? Motivating workers requires creativity and an understanding. Motivation comes from addressing areas for improvement before they become major problems. Step 1 Observe employee performance throughout an evaluation period -- don't wait until performance appraisal season to review how employees do their jobs. Step 2 Give employees regular feedback. Addressing performance issues sooner rather than later can lead to immediate improvement. Step 3 Schedule public announcements to recognize employee. For example, at staff meetings recognize employees whose performance exceeds expectations.
  7. 7. Step 4 Promote employees with performance records that consistently exceed the company's expectations. Again, Herzberg believed that non-monetary employee recognition is an effective method for motivation. Step 5 Ask employees to volunteer for roles where they can demonstrate their capabilities. For instance, ask current employees if they would like to become presenters at orientation sessions. Step 6 Obtain employee opinions using regularly scheduled surveys, usually once a year. Employees are happier and satisfied if they feel their opinions matter.
  8. 8. Theories of motivation • Maslow hierarchy of needs theory. • ERG motivation theory Alderfer. • McClelland achievement and acquired needs theory. • Stacey Adams equity theory. • Hertzberg hygiene factors and motivators theory. • Vroom expectancy motivation theory. • Hackman and Oldham job characteristics model.
  9. 9. Maslow’s Theory of Needs
  10. 10. According to Maslow • An individual’s needs can be divided into 5 levels  PHYSIOLOGICAL NEEDS  SAFETY NEEDS  SOCIAL NEEDS  ESTEEM NEEDS  SELF ACTUALISATION Maslow’s theory Hierarchial Standard setting Generic classification
  11. 11. Stacey Adams equity theory Equity needs When people feel fairly or advantageously treated they are more likely to be motivated; when they feel unfairly treated they are highly prone to feelings of disaffection and demotivation.
  12. 12. Alderfer’s ERG theory • Existence Needs Include all material and physiological desires (e.g., food, water, air, clothing, safety, physical love and affection). Maslow's first two levels. • Relatedness Needs Encompass social and external esteem; relationships with significant others like family, friends, co-workers and employers . This also means to be recognized and feel secure as part of a group or family. Maslow's third and fourth levels.
  13. 13. • Growth Needs Internal esteem and self actualization; these impel a person to make creative or productive effects on himself and the environment (e.g., to progress toward one's ideal self). Maslow's fourth and fifth levels. This includes desires to be creative and productive, and to complete meaningful tasks. EXISTENCE RELATEDNESS GROWTH ORDER OF CONCRETENESS
  14. 14. Mc Clelland’s theory Achievement motivation • This person is 'achievement motivated' and therefore seeks achievement, attainment of realistic but challenging goals • There is a strong need for feedback as to achievement and progress, and a need for a sense of accomplishment. • People with a high need for achievement seek to excel and thus tend to avoid both low-risk and high-risk situations.
  15. 15. Authority/power motivation • This person is 'authority motivated'. This driver produces a need to be influential, effective and to make an impact. • There is a strong need to lead and for their ideas to prevail. • There is also motivation and need towards increasing personal status and prestige. Affiliation motivation • This person is 'affiliation motivated', and has a need for friendly relationships and is motivated towards interaction. • They need harmonious relationships with other people and need to feel accepted by other people. • These people are team players. They tend to conform to the norms of their work group. • These individuals prefer work that provides significant personal interaction.
  16. 16. Herzberg's theory • Herzberg's hygiene factors vs. motivators theory is also called 2 factor theory • A Kick In The Ass, he explains, comes in different forms. • First off, you have negative physical KITA. The literal kick up the buttocks and whiplashes may have helped build the pyramid • Secondly, there's negative psychological KITA. This entails all kinds of emotional games and manipulations to make someone perform more. • Positive KITA (pay, incentives) don’t work to improve the motivation • And negative KITA doesn’t work at all….
  17. 17. Examples
  18. 18. Vroom’s theory Vroom's expectancy theory assumes that behaviour results from conscious choices among alternatives whose purpose it is to maximize pleasure and to minimize pain. An employee's performance is based on individuals factors such as personality, skills, knowledge, experience and abilities. Vrooms theory is based upon the following three beliefs: Valence Valence refers to the emotional orientations people hold with respect to outcomes [rewards]. Management must discover what employee’s value.
  19. 19. Expectancy is the belief that increased effort will lead to increased performance. This is affected by things such as: • Having the right resources available (e.g. raw materials, time). • Having the right skills to do the job. • Having the necessary support to get the job done (e.g. supervisor support, or correct information on the job). Instrumentality is the belief that if you perform well that a valued outcome will be received. This is affected by things such as: • Clear understanding of the relationship between performance and outcomes – e.g. the rules of the reward 'game’. • Trust in the people who will take the decisions on who gets what outcome. • Transparency of the process that decides who gets what outcome.
  20. 20. Hackman and Oldham’s job characteristics Hackman and Oldham’s job characteristics theory proposes that high motivation is related to experiencing three psychological states whilst working: 1. Meaningfulness of work That labour has meaning to you, something that you can relate to, and does not occur just as a set of movements to be repeated. This is fundamental to intrinsic motivation, i.e. that work is motivating in an of itself (as opposed to motivating only as a means to an end).
  21. 21. 2. Responsibility That you have been given the opportunity to be a success or failure at your job because sufficient freedom of action has given you. This would include the ability to make changes and incorporate the learning you gain whilst doing the job. 3. Knowledge of outcomes This is important for two reasons. Firstly to provide the person knowledge on how successful their work has been, which in turn enables them to learn from mistakes. The second is to connect them emotionally to the customer of their outputs, thus giving further purpose to the work (e.g. I may only work on a production line, but I know that the food rations I produce are used to help people in disaster areas, saving many lives).
  22. 22. Motivation and behaviour • It can be difficult to distinguish a motivational issue from a behavioural issue. Although the symptoms look the same, and often the causes are similar, the solutions can be very different. • Motivation directs behaviour toward particular goals. • Motives or motivation are what drives an individual’s behaviour. The sources of motivation are what push and pull an individual to behave in a particular way, therefore motivated behaviour is the result of how an individual push and pull toward a certain end-state

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