Learning is the process of acquiring new
understanding, knowledge, behaviors,
skills, values attitudes, and preferences.
Learning is a relatively permanent change
in behavior occurring as a result of
Two types of learning:
Observational learning (modeling).
1- Observational Learning
The form of learning in which people
acquire new behaviors by systematically
observing the rewards and punishments
given to others. If the model was rewarded
for behaving as observed, the observer is
motivated to imitate the model.
2- Operant Conditioning
The form of learning in which people associate
the consequences of their actions with the actions
themselves, or learning through rewards and
punishments. Behaviors leading to desirable
consequences (positive rewards) tend to be
strengthened & repeated, and those leading to
undesirable consequences (punishment) tend to
be weakened or avoided.
1- Positive reinforcement: the process by which
people learn to perform the acts that lead to desirable /
2- Negative reinforcement: the process by which
people learn to perform acts that lead to the removal of
3- Punishment: decreasing undesirable behavior by
following it with undesirable consequences.
4- Extinction: the process through which responses
that are no longer reinforced tend to gradually diminish
Organizational practices using reward
a) Behavior management (OB Mod):
OB Mod is the practice of altering behavior in
organizations by systematically administering
rewards. In other words, it is the systematic
application of positive reinforcement principles in
organizational settings for the purpose of raising
desirable organizational behaviors.
Discipline is the process of systematically administering
punishments. One very common practice of discipline
involves using punishment progressively, or progressive
discipline, which means gradually increasing the severity
of punishments for unacceptable behavior.
Disciplinary measures continuum:
Twelve stages in progressive discipline:
1. Talk to employee about the problem.
2. Oral warning.
3. Written warning.
4. Coach employee about problem.
5. Provide special in-house services to help
6. Send employee to formal training.
7. Transfer employee to different department.
8. Intervene in the situation.
9. Put the employee on probation.
10. Withhold portion of merit pay.
11. Suspend without pay.
Principles for using discipline fairly and
Deliver punishment immediately after an undesirable
Give moderate levels of punishment – not too high or
Punish undesirable behavior, not person.
Use punishment consistently across occasions.
Punish everyone equally for same infraction.
Clearly communicate reasons for punishment
while showing dignity and respect.
Do not follow punishment with non-contingent
rewards to minimize the pain of punishment.