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learning in organizationl behavior

  1. CHAPTER 3 Learning Styles
  2. Learning :  Learning is the process of acquiring new understanding, knowledge, behaviors, skills, values attitudes, and preferences.  Learning is a relatively permanent change in behavior occurring as a result of experience.
  3. Two types of learning:  Observational learning (modeling).  Operant conditioning.
  4.  1- Observational Learning  The form of learning in which people acquire new behaviors by systematically observing the rewards and punishments given to others. If the model was rewarded for behaving as observed, the observer is motivated to imitate the model.
  5.  2- Operant Conditioning  The form of learning in which people associate the consequences of their actions with the actions themselves, or learning through rewards and punishments. Behaviors leading to desirable consequences (positive rewards) tend to be strengthened & repeated, and those leading to undesirable consequences (punishment) tend to be weakened or avoided.
  6. Contingencies of reinforcement:  Refers to the various relationships between one’s behavior and the consequences of that behavior.
  7.  Four contingencies:  1- Positive reinforcement: the process by which people learn to perform the acts that lead to desirable / pleasant outcomes.  2- Negative reinforcement: the process by which people learn to perform acts that lead to the removal of undesired events.  3- Punishment: decreasing undesirable behavior by following it with undesirable consequences.  4- Extinction: the process through which responses that are no longer reinforced tend to gradually diminish
  8. Organizational practices using reward and punishment:  a) Behavior management (OB Mod):  OB Mod is the practice of altering behavior in organizations by systematically administering rewards. In other words, it is the systematic application of positive reinforcement principles in organizational settings for the purpose of raising desirable organizational behaviors.
  9.  b)Discipline:  Discipline is the process of systematically administering punishments. One very common practice of discipline involves using punishment progressively, or progressive discipline, which means gradually increasing the severity of punishments for unacceptable behavior.
  10. Disciplinary measures continuum:  Twelve stages in progressive discipline:  1. Talk to employee about the problem.  2. Oral warning.  3. Written warning.  4. Coach employee about problem.  5. Provide special in-house services to help employee.  6. Send employee to formal training.
  11.  7. Transfer employee to different department.  8. Intervene in the situation.  9. Put the employee on probation.  10. Withhold portion of merit pay.  11. Suspend without pay.  12. Termination.
  12. Principles for using discipline fairly and effectively:  Deliver punishment immediately after an undesirable response occurs.  Give moderate levels of punishment – not too high or too low.  Punish undesirable behavior, not person.  Use punishment consistently across occasions.
  13.  Punish everyone equally for same infraction.  Clearly communicate reasons for punishment while showing dignity and respect.  Do not follow punishment with non-contingent rewards to minimize the pain of punishment.