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  1. 1. adoption BY TVM/17-17
  2. 2. ADOPTION? It is a mental process through which an individual passes from first hearing about an innovation to final adoption, or it is a decision to make full use of an innovation as the best course of action available. DIFFUSION? It is the process by which an innovation is communication through certain channels over time among the members of a social system
  3. 3. INNOVATION? It is an idea, practice or object that is perceived as new by an individual or other unit of adoption. ADOPTION PROCESS Adoption is essentially a decision making process which may be divided into a sequence of stages with a distinct type of activity occurring during each stage.
  4. 4. The sequential stages are as follows 1. Observing the problem 2. Making analysis of it. 3. Deciding the available courses of action. 4. Taking one course at a time 5. Accepting the consequences of the decision.
  5. 5. ADOPTER CATEGORIES • Not all individuals in a social system adopt an innovation at the same time. • Rather, they adopt in a time sequence and they may be classified into adopter categories on the basis of when they first begin using a new idea
  6. 6. Classifying Adopter Categories on the Basis of Innovativeness • The most innovative individuals were termed progressists, hightriers, experimentals, lighthouses, advance scouts and ultraadopters. • Least innovative individuals were called drones, parochials and diehards.
  7. 7. Innovators- 2.5% (technology enthusiasts) • Require the shortest adoption period of all the categories • Venturesome and risk takers • Understand and apply complex technical knowledge • Appreciate technology for its own sake • Motivated by idea of being a change agent • Gate keepers for the next group of adopters • Recruit to be peer educators
  8. 8. Early adopter-13.5% (visionaries) • Serve as opinion leaders • Have a natural desire to be trend setters • Serve as role models within their social system • Want to revolutionize competitive rules in their industry • Attracted by high risk/ high rewards. • Not necessarily cost sensitive. • Provide excellent tester subjects to trial the innovation.
  9. 9. Early majority- 34% (pragmatists) • Interact frequently with peers, deliberate contact. • Serve as opinion leaders but late in the process • comfortable with only evolutionary changes in the practices to gain productivity enhancements. • Want proven applications, reliable services. • Donot like complexity. • Prudent: want to stay with in budget • Make slow steady progress.
  10. 10. Late majority- 34% (conservatives) • Respond to peer pressure • Respond to economic necessity • Skeptical, cautious • Often technologically shy. • Very cost sensitive • Require bullet proof solutions • Motivated only by need to keep up with competitors or proven trends in their industry • Rely on single, trusted advisor • Easily influenced by laggards
  11. 11. Laggards -16% (skeptics) • Isolated from opinion leaders • Point of reference is in the past. • Suspicious of innovations, innovation- decision process is lengthy. • Resources are limited for them • People are traditional. • Want to maintain status quo. • Think technology is a hindrance to operations • usually invest in technology only if all other alternatives worse
  12. 12. CHARACTERISTICS OF ADOPTER CATEGORIES (1) socioeconomic status (2) personality variables (3) Communication behavior
  13. 13. SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS • Earlier adopters are no different from later adopters in age. About half of many diffusion studies on this subject show no relationship, a few found that earlier adopters are younger, and some indicate they are older. • Earlier adopters have more years of formal education than the later adopters.
  14. 14. • Earlier adopters have higher social status than the later adopters. Status is indicated by such variables as income, level of living, possession of wealth, occupational prestige, self- perceived identification with a social class, and the like. • Earlier adopters have a greater degree of upward social mobility than the later adopters. Earlier adopters have large-sized units (farms, school, companies and so on) than the later adopters.
  15. 15. PERSONALITY VARIABLES • Earlier adopters have greater empathy than the later adopters. Empathy is the ability of individual to project himself or herself into the role of another person. • Dogmatism is the degree to which an individual has a relatively closed belief system that is a set of beliefs which are strongly held. • Earlier adopters have a greater ability to deal with abstractions than the later adopters.
  16. 16. • Earlier adopters have a greater rationality than the later adopters. Rationality is use of the most effective means to reach a given end. • Earlier adopters have a more favorable attitude towards change than the later adopters. • Earlier adopters are better able to cope with uncertainty and risk than are later adopters. • Earlier adopters have a more favorable attitude towards science than the later adopters.
  17. 17. • Earlier adopters are less fatalistic than are later adopters. Fatalism is the degree to which an individual perceives a lake of ability to control his/her future.. • Earlier adopters have higher aspirations (for formal education, higher status, occupations, and so on) than do later adopters. • Earlier adopters have more intelligence than the later adopters
  18. 18. COMMUNICATION BEHAVIOUR • Earlier adopters have more social participation than the later adopters. • Earlier adopters are more highly interconnected through interpersonal networks in their social system than are later adopters. Connectedness is the degree to which an individual is linked to others. • Earlier adopters have more cosmopolite than are later adopters.
  19. 19. • Innovators’ interpersonal networks are more likely to be outside, rather than within, their system. • They travel widely and are involved in matters beyond the boundaries of their local system. • Earlier adopters have more contact with change agents than the later adopters. • Earlier adopters have greater exposure to mass media and inter-personal communication channels than the later adopters. • Earlier adopters seek information about innovations more actively than the later adopters.
  20. 20. • Earlier adopters have greater knowledge of innovations than the later adopters. • Earlier adopters have a higher degree of opinion leadership than do later adopters.
  21. 21. FACTORS AFFECTING ADOPTION PROCESS • COST AND ECONOMIC RETURN -practices which require high input tend to adopt slowly -practices with quick returns on investment tend to adopt rapidly -practices which produce high returns for money invested tend to adopt more rapidly. • COMPATIBILITY: -a practice that is consistent with existing beliefs will be accepted more rapidly than one that is not.
  22. 22. • COMPLEXITY: -new ideas which are simple are adopted quickly than complex ides • VISIBILITY: -the more visible the practice and its results, the more rapid is its adoption. • DIVISIBILITY: - a practice that can be tried on a limited basis will generally be adopted more rapidly than one that cannot
  23. 23. Attributes of innovation • Relative advantage: The degree to which an innovation is perceived as better than the idea it supersedes. • Compatibility: The degree to which an innovation is perceived as being consistent with the existing values, past experiences and needs of the potential adopters (situational and cultural compatibility). • Complexity: The degree to which an innovation is perceived as difficult to understand and use
  24. 24. • Trialability: The degree to which an innovation may be experimented on a limited basis. • Observability: The degree to which the results of an innovation are visible. • Predictability: It refers to the degree of certainty of receiving expected benefits from the adoption of an innovation.
  25. 25. RATE OF ADOPTION • The rate of adoption is defined as the relative speed at which participants adopt an innovation. Rate is usually measured by the length of time required for a certain percentage of the members of a social system to adopt an innovation. • The rates of adoption for innovations are determined by an individual’s adopter category. In general, individuals who first adopt an innovation require a shorter adoption period (adoption process) when compared to late adopters.
  26. 26. • When the number of individuals adopting a new idea is plotted on a cumulative frequency basis over time, the resulting distribution is an “S- shaped curve.” • Within the adoption curve at some point the innovation reaches critical mass. This is when the number of individual adopters ensures that the innovation is self-sustaining.
  27. 27. • Rate of adoption is determined by the following formula. • Rate of adoption = Number of adopting in a year ÷ Number yet to adopt in that year. • Example of the rate of adoption in 1938 is 0.86 when 47 farmers adopted only & 55 were left to adopt .
  28. 28. • Most innovations have an S-shaped rate of adoption. • But there is variation in the slope of the “S” from innovation to innovation; • some new ideas diffuse relatively rapidly and the S-curve is quite steep. • Other innovations have a slower rate of adoption, and the S-curve is more gradual, with a slope that is relatively lazy. • There are also differences in the rate of adoption for the same innovation in different social systems.
  29. 29. • The social structure of the system affects the innovation’s diffusion in several ways. • Here we deal with – how the system’s social structure affects diffusion – the effect of norms on diffusion – the roles of opinion leaders
  30. 30. SOCIAL STRUCTURE • To the extent that the units in a social system are not all identical in their behaviour, structure exists in the system. • Structure - the patterned arrangements of the units in a system. • We can also have a communication structure, defined as: the differentiated elements that can be recognized in the patterned communication flows in a system. • Communications structures are interpersonal networks linking a system’s members, determining who interacts with whom and under what circumstances.
  31. 31. SYSTEM NORMS AND DIFFUSION • Norms are the established behaviour patterns for the members of a social system. They define a range of tolerable behaviour and serve as a guide or a standard for the members’ behaviour in a social system. • The norms of a system tell an individual what behaviour is expected. Thus a system’s norms can be a barrier to change. • Norms can operate at the level of a nation, a religious community, an organisation, or a local system like a village.
  32. 32. OPINION LEADERS • Most innovative member of a system often perceived as a deviant from the social system • Thus is accorded low credibility by the average members of the system. • Thus their role in diffusion is likely to be limited. • Opinion leadership is the degree to which an individual is able to influence other individuals’ attitudes/behaviour.
  33. 33. • This leadership is not a function of the individual’s formal position. • Opinion leadership is earned and maintained by the individual’s – technical competence, – social accessibility, and – conformity to the system’s norms
  34. 34. SOURCES OF INFORMATION • Advertising and media stories may spread information about new innovations ;but its conversations that spread adoption. • Because the adoption of new products (or) services involves risk & uncertainty. • Its usually only people we personals know & trust & who we know have successfully adopted the innovation themselves .
  35. 35. • Early adopters are exception to this • But now a days there is change in the relative importance of information sources in the later stage of purchase decision process person seeking information from another sources. • Examples of discussion forum & chat rooms & blogs on web.
  36. 36. CONSEQUENCES OF ADOPTION OF INNOVATIONS • Both positive and negative outcomes are possible when an individual or organization chooses to adopt a particular innovation. • Rogers states that this area needs further research because of the biased positive attitude that is associated with innovation. • Rogers lists three categories for consequences: desirable vs. undesirable, direct vs. indirect, and anticipated vs. unanticipated.
  37. 37. • Desirable vs. Undesirable: depending on whether the effects of an innovation are functional or dysfunctional. • Direct vs. Indirect: depending on whether the changes occur in immediate response to an innovation or as a second order result of the results of direct consequences of an innovation. • Anticipated vs. Unanticipated: depending on whether the changes are recognized and intended by the members of a social system or not.
  38. 38. THANKYOU