2. How did the PLO originate?
The Palestinian cause was lobbied by other Arab
Formed 1964 by the Arab League of Nations
Recognised as the ‘sole representative of Palestine’
3. PLO Structure
Purpose “The Liberation of Palestine” through armed
The Palestinian National Charter Article 7:
“That there is a Palestinian community and that it has material,
spiritual, and historical connection with Palestine are
indisputable facts. It is a national duty to bring up individual
Palestinians in an Arab revolutionary manner. All means of
information and education must be adopted in order to acquaint
the Palestinian with his country in the most profound manner,
both spiritual and material, that is possible. He must be
prepared for the armed struggle and ready to sacrifice his
wealth and his life in order to win back his homeland and bring
about its liberation.”
4. PLO Structure (continued)
The Palestinian National Charter Article 9:
Armed struggle is the only way to liberate Palestine. This is the
overall strategy, not merely a tactical phase. The Palestinian
Arab people assert their absolute determination and firm
resolution to continue their armed struggle and to work for an
armed popular revolution for the liberation of their country and
their return to it . They also assert their right to normal life in
Palestine and to exercise their right to self-determination and
sovereignty over it.
5. PLO Structure (continued)
Fatah – Founded by Yasir Arafat
PFLP – Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine
DFLP – Democratic Front for the Liberation of
PSF – Popular Struggle Front
Although each faction is independent, they remained
under the PLO umbrella.
6. PLO Structure (continued)
Palestinian National Council (PNC) – executive committee
Ahmad Shuqayri 1964-67
Yasir Arafat 1969-2004
Mahmoud Abbas 2004- Present
10. What are the major roots of
Israel’s Settlement Policy
Impact of Israeli Settlements and Economics
Look up the heavens and count the stars – if indeed you can count them.
So shall your offspring be. Genesis 15:5
The true heir inherits the
land of Canaan as outlined in
Zionism is a nationalist and political movement of Jews
and Jewish culture that supports the re-establishment of a
Jewish homeland in the territory defined as the historic
Land of Israel (roughly corresponding to Palestine,
Canaan or the Holy Land)
Jewish Nationalists and rebirth of Jewish State
Reclamation of Biblical land
1917 Zionists lobbied British
1939 only 75,000 migrants allowed over following 5yr
Palestine to be independent and political power based on
population ratio of Jew & Palestinian
1945 Zionists revolted – 2:1 ratio
British withdrew leaving admin to UN
1947 UN divided land, allocating 45% to Jews
1948 war resulted in 80% of land to Jews
16. Impact on the Palestinians
Decline in trade
Refugees in Jordan
17. Israeli Colonialism
No investment into Palestinian economy
Shaped the Territories to their own needs
Palestinians = low wage labour force
Palestinian trade mostly with Israel
Regulation of agriculture, industry, investments =
multiple layers of tax
Created Palestinian dependency on Israel
Checkpoints, curfews, and security barriers
18. PLO Response
1987 Peaceful protests – not totally peaceful however
Yasar Arafat praised the “children of the stones”
Guerilla tactics against settlers & IDF
2000 violent uprising and escalated IDF response
Suicide bombers featured
11 Sept 2001
Arens, O., & Kaufman, E. (2012). The Potential Impact of Palestinian Nonviolent Struggle on Israel: Preliminary
Lessons and Projections for the Future. Middle East Journal , 66 (2), 231-252.
De Waart, P. J. (2007). Israel's Settlement Policy Stumbling Block in the Middle East Peace Process. Leiden Journal
of International Law , 825-839.
Drey, P. R. (2002). The Role of Hagar in Genesis 16. Andrews University Seminary Studies , 40 (2), 179-195.
Farsakh, L. (2011). The One State Solution and the Israeli-Palestine Conflict: Palesitinian Challenges and Prospects.
Middle East Journal , 65 (1), 55-71.
Naqib, F. M. (2003). Economic Aspects of the Palestinian-Israeli Conflict: The Collapse of the Oslo Accord. Journal of
International Development , 15 (4), 499-512.
Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO). (2016). In Compton's by Britannica. Retrieved from
http://kids.britannica.com/comptons/article-309059/Palestine-Liberation-Organizatio (The American-Israeli
Cooperative Enterprise, 2016)n-PLO
palistinefacts.org. (n.d.). Founding the Palistinian Liberation Organisation. Retrieved May 8, 2016, from
Reuveny, R. (2008). The Last Colonialist: Israel in the Occupied Territories since 1967. The Independant Review , 12
21. References (Ctd)
Rowley, C. K., & Taylor, J. (2006). The Israel and Palestine Land Settlement Problem, 1948-2005: An
Analytical History. Public Choice (128), 77-90.
The American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise. (2016). Palistinian Liberation Organization PLO: History &
Overview. Retrieved May 8, 2016, from Jewish
Virtual Library: www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Terrorism/plo.html
Zeep, I. G. (2000). A Muslim Primer: beginner's guide to Islam, (Vol. 2). University of Arkansaa Press.
Notas del editor
The Palestinian cause was lobbied by the other Arab nations but Palestine wanted to exercise their own sense of self determination (Tino Rangatiratanga)
The PLO was formed in 1964 by the Arab League of Nations
Recognised by over 100 nations with whom it has diplomatic ties as being the “sole representative of Palestine”
Purpose: “The Liberation of Palestine” through armed struggle
In 1968 the Palestinian National Charter was composed by the Palestinian National Council. It consisted of 33 Articles. Articles 7-10 refer to the Palestinian armed struggle
The Charter’s hard line stance regarding the re-establishment of a Palestinian State and the abolishment of Israel has created factions within the PLO. Some factions have maintained what has been stated within the Charter and others have taken a more compromising stance, hoping to have both Israel and Palestine living together as two separate States. These differences between factions has led to violent conflicts within the PLO. Different factions have also adopted different strategies, with some resorting to terrorism.
Since 1968 the PLO has been dominated by FATAH, it was founded by Yasir Arafat.
Others have included the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP), the Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine (DFLP), and the Popular Struggle Front (PSF)
The PLO is run by an executive committee and a legislative body called the Palestine National Council (PNC).
Ahmad Shukeiri was born in Lebanon to a Turkish mother, became a lawyer in Jordan and served as Syria’s Ambassador to the UN, Saudi Arabia’s Ambassador to the UN, and the Arab League’s Ambassador to the UN.
Yasir Arafat became chairman in 1969, initially from a militant background he entered into secret peace talks with Israel in 1993 to secure the Oslo Peace Accord. Awarded a Nobel Prize for World Peace in 1994
Mahmoud Abbas has overseen a schism between Fatah (West Bank) and more militant Hamas (Gaza Strip). Abbas is opposed to armed struggle and has strong international support, working towards an independent Palestinian State.
It’s interesting to note how the ‘Middle East’ got its title, its to the East of the Colonial powers of Europe.
Illustration of the Arab League of Nations
Illustration of the growth of Israel from 1947 to present
Major roots of the Palestinan conflict are religion, Zionism and Israel’s Settlement Policy and the impacts of Israeli Settlements and Economics
Both Islam and Judaism whakapapa back to Abraham as their father. Abraham was promised by God his descendants would outnumber the the stars in the sky. When his barren wife Sarah was able to give birth, they consented to him fathering a child through Hagar, their maidservant. She had a son and he was called Ishmael. 14yrs later Sarah became pregnant and in her old age she bore a son whom she call Isaac. Hagar and Ishmael were eventually driven away from Abraham’s camp and the two half brothers were separated.
Within Islam, Ishmael is recognised as their tupuna from whom the Prophet Muhammad and the Arab people descend.
Within Judaism, Isaac is recognised as their tupuna, they claim he is the child of “God’s promise”, and Ishmael, although the first born wasn’t God’s promised child.
The true heir of Abraham inherits the land of Canaan as outlined in Numbers 31:1-2
Theodor Herzl, known as the father of Zionism, developed a scheme of migration into Palestine in order to reclaim the land of Israel through the purchase of every acre if that is what it was going to take. Jews were migrating to Palestine from the late 1800s under the Zionist banner.
Zionism was not completely accepted by Jews
This is a timeline of Zionist strategy to implement the reclamation of ancient Israel
Israel’s settlement policy has granted incentives to Jews to build and acquire property and land in the Palestinian occupied territories. The national population growth of Israel is currently 2-3% however within the Palestinian occupied territories Israeli population growth is 6%.
The impact on the Palestinians has been severe unemployment, massive decline in trade, poverty and mass trans-border refugee migration into Jordan.
Israeli colonisation strategies have included no investment into Palestinian economy and hey have shaped territories to their own needs. Palestinians are likened to a low wage labour force. They are restricted to trade mostly with Israel and heavy regulation of primary industries includes multiple layers of Israeli tax. Palestinians are dependent on Israel and Israel imposes its security concerns upon the Palestinian population through checkpoints, curfews and security barriers.
These are the PLO responses which have ranged from peaceful protests to suicide bombing, The key date on the timeline is 11 September 2001 where global attitudes towards terrorism changed.