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design mix of concrete

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- 2. Concrete Mix Design • Concrete mix design may be defines as the art of selecting suitable ingredients of concrete and determining their relative proportions with the object of producing concrete of certain minimum strength & durability as economically as possible.
- 3. Objectives of Mix Design The purpose of concrete mix design is to ensure the most optimum proportions of the constituent materials to fulfill the requirement of the structure being built. Mix design should ensure following objectives: • To achieve the desired workability in the plastic stage • To achieve the desired minimum strength in the hardened stage • To achieve the desired durability in the given environment conditions • To produce concrete as economically as possible.
- 4. Basic Considerations • The following point must be considered while designing concrete mixes • Cost • Specification • Workability • Strength and Durability
- 5. Basic Considerations Cost • The cost of concrete is made up of • Material Cost • Equipment Cost • Labor Cost • The variation in the cost of materials arises from the fact that cement is several times costlier than aggregates. So it is natural in mix design to aim at as lean a mix as possible. Therefore, all possible steps should be taken to reduce the cement content of a concrete mixtures without sacrificing the desirable properties of concrete such as strength and durability.
- 6. Basic Considerations Specifications • The following point may be kept in mind while designing concrete mixes • Minimum Compressive Strength required • Minimum water/ cement ratio • Maximum cement content to avoid shrinkage cracks • Maximum aggregate / cement ratio • Maximum density of concrete in case of gravity dams
- 7. Basic Considerations Workability • The following points related to workability shall be kept in mind while designing concrete mixes. • The consistency of concrete should no more than that necessary for placing, compacting and finishing. • For concrete mixes required high consistency at the time of placing, the use of water-reducing and set-retarding admixtures should be used rather than the addition of more water • Wherever possible, the cohesiveness and finishibility of concrete should be improved by increasing sand/ aggregate ratio than by increasing the proportion of the fine particles in the sand.
- 8. Workability
- 9. Strength and Durability Strength and durability • Strength and durability require lower w/c ratio. It is usually achieved not by increasing the cement content, but by lowering the water at given cement content. Water demand can by lowered by throughout control of the aggregate grading and by using water reducing admixtures.
- 11. Grade of Concrete • The concrete shall be in grades designated Group Grade designation Characteristics compressive strength of 150 mm cube at 28 days, N/mm2 Ordinary Concrete M10 M15 M20 10 15 20 Standard Concrete M25 M30 M35 M40 M45 M50 M55 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 High Strength Concrete M60 M65 M70 M75 M80 60 65 70 75 80
- 12. What is M 20 ? • M refers to Mix • 20 refers to characteristic compressive strength of 150 mm cube at 28 days in N/mm2 • The minimum Grade of Plain Concrete (PCC) shall be 15 N/mm2 • The minimum grade of reinforced Concrete ( RCC) shall be 20 N/mm2
- 13. Nominal Concrete Mixes and Design mix concrete Nominal Mix Concrete • The wide use of concrete as construction materials has led to the use of mixes of fixed proportion, which ensures adequate strength. These mixes are called nominal mixes. • They offer simplicity and under normal circumstances, has margin of strength above that specified. • Nominal mix concrete may be used for concrete of grades M5, M 7.5, M10, M15 and M20.
- 14. Nominal Concrete Mixes and Design mix concrete
- 15. Proportions of Ingredients in Nominal Mixes • The proportions of materials for nominal mix shall be in accordance Grade Proportions C: FA: CA M5 1: 5:10 M 7.5 1:4:8 M 10 1:3:6 M 15 1:2:4 M 20 1:1.5:3
- 16. Mix Proportion designations • The common method of expressing the proportions of ingredients of a concrete mix is in the terms of parts or ratios of cement, fine and coarse aggregates. For e.g., a concrete mix of proportions 1:2:4 means that cement, fine and coarse aggregate are in the ratio 1:2:4 or the mix contains one part of cement, two parts of fine aggregate and four parts of coarse aggregate. The proportions are either by volume or by mass. The water-cement ratio is usually expressed in mass.
- 18. Minimum Cement content Maximum Water-Cement ratio and Minimum Grade of Concrete for different exposures with normal weight of aggregate of 20mm nominal maximum size. Sl. No. Exposure Plain Concrete Reinforced Concrete Minimum Cement Content kg/m3 Maximum Free Water Cement Ratio Minimum Grade of Concrete Minimum Cement Content kg/m3 Maximum Free Water Cement Ratio Minimum Grade of Concrete i) Mild 220 0.60 - 300 0.55 M20 ii) Moderate 240 0.60 M15 300 0.50 M25 iii) Severe 250 0.50 M20 320 0.45 M30 iv) Very Severe 260 0.45 M20 340 0.45 M35 v) Extreme 280 0.40 M25 360 0.40 M40
- 19. Design Mix Concrete • The concrete mix produced under quality control keeping in view the strength, durability, and workability is called the design Mix. • Others factors like compaction equipment's available, curing method adopted, type of cement, quality of fine and coarse aggregate etc. have to be kept in mind before arriving at the mix proportion. • The design mix or controlled mix is being used more and more in variety of important structures, because of better strength, reduced variability, leaner mixed with consequent economy, as well as greater assurance of the resultant quality.
- 21. Factors Influencing Choice of Mix Design • According to IS 456:2000 and IS 1343:1980 the important influencing the design of concrete mix are • Grade of Concrete • Type of Cement • Maximum nominal Size of Aggregate • Grading of Combined aggregate • Maximum Water/ Cement Ratio • Workability • Durability • Quality Control.
- 22. Factors Influencing Choice of Mix Design Grade of Concrete • The grade of concrete gives characteristic compressive strength of concrete. It is one of the important factor influencing the mix design • The grade M 20 denotes characteristic compressive strength fck of 20 N/mm2. Depending upon the degree of control available at site, the concrete mix is to be designed for a target mean compressive strength (fck) applying suitable standard deviation.
- 23. Factors Influencing Choice of Mix Design
- 24. Factors Influencing Choice of Mix Design Type of Cement • The rate of development of strength of concrete is influenced by the type of cement. • The higher the strength of cement used in concrete, lesser will be the cement content. The use of 43 grade and 53 grade of cement, gives saving in cement consumption as much as 15 % and 25 % respectively, as compared to 33 grade of cement. For concrete of grade M25 it is advisable to use 43 and 53 grade of cement.
- 25. Types of Cement
- 26. Factors Influencing Choice of Mix Design Maximum Nominal Size of Aggregates • The workability of concrete increases with an increase in the maximum size of aggregate. But the smaller size of aggregates provide larger surface area for bonding with the mortar matrix which gives higher strength.
- 27. Factors Influencing Choice of Mix Design Grading of Combined Aggregates • The relative proportions of the fine and coarse aggregate in a concrete mix is one of the important factors affecting the strength of concrete. • For dense concrete, it is essential that the fine and coarse aggregate be well graded. In the case when the aggregate available from natural sources do not confirm to the specified grading, the proportioning of two or more aggregate become essential.
- 28. Factors Influencing Choice of Mix Design Maximum Water/ Cement Ratio • Abram’s water/Cement ratio states that for any given condition of test, the strength of a workability concrete mix is dependent only on water/cement ratio. The lower the water/Cement ratio, the greater is the compressive strength. Workability • Workability of fresh concrete determines the case with which a concrete mixture can be mixed, transported, placed, compacted and finished without harmful segregation and bleeding.
- 29. Factors Influencing Choice of Mix Design Durability • Durability require low water/Cement ratio. It is usually achieved not by increasing the cement content, but by lowering the water demand at a given cement content. • Water demand can be lowered by through control of the aggregate grading and by using water reducing admixtures.