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  1. Chapter 1 Introduction to Earth Science 1.What Is Earth Science? 2.A View of Earth 3.Representing Earth’s Surface 4.Earth System Science 5.What Is Scientific Inquiry?
  2. 1. Observing: What features can you identify in the photo? 2. Inferring: Where do you think this photograph came from? 3. Designing Experiments If you were an Earth scientist, how could you use this photograph in your work?
  3. Section 1 What Is Earth Science?  Key Concepts 1. What is the study of Earth science? 2. How did Earth and the solar system form?
  4. Earth science the name for all the sciences that collectively seek to understand Earth; It includes _______, ____________, __________, and _________.
  5. Geology the science that examines ____, its form and ____________, and the changes it has undergone and is undergoing
  6. Physical geology: The examination of the materials that make up Earth and the possible explanations for the many processes that shape our planet. What are some of the processes which can shape our planet?
  7. Historical geology To establish a timeline of the vast number of physical and biological changes that have occurred in the past.
  8. Oceanography •The scientific study of the ______ and oceanic phenomena. • Oceanography integrates the sciences of chemistry, physics, geology, and biology. Oceanographers study the composition and movements of seawater, as well as coastal processes, seafloor topography, and marine life.
  9. _______________ •the scientific study of the atmosphere and atmospheric phenomena; the study of weather and climate.
  10. _______________ the scientific study of the universe; It includes the observation and interpretation of celestial bodies and phenomena.
  11. Formation of Earth The nebular hypothesis suggests that the bodies of our solar system evolved from an enormous rotating cloud called the solar nebula. It was made up mostly of hydrogen and helium with a small percentage of heavier elements.  Why does Earth have little hydrogen and helium but large amounts of heavier elements?
  12. Layers Form on Earth Why does Earth have layers? Where did the oceans and atmosphere come from?
  13. Earth’s Place in the Universe
  14. Section 2 A View of Earth  Key Concepts  What are the four major spheres into which Earth is divided?
  15. Section 2 A View of Earth  Key Concepts  What defines the three main parts of the solid Earth?  Which model explains the position of continents and the occurrence of volcanoes and earthquakes?
  16. Earth’s Major Spheres  __________: the water portion of Earth; one of the traditional subdivisions of Earth’s physical environment
  17. Earth’s Major Spheres  _________: the gaseous portion of a planet; the planet’s envelope of air; one of the traditional subdivisions of Earth’s physical environment
  18. Earth’s Major Spheres  ___________: layer of Earth under both the atmosphere and the oceans; It is composed of the core, the mantle, and the crust.
  19.  Because the geosphere is not uniform, it is divided into three main parts based on differences in composition—the ____, the _____, and the ______.
  20. Geosphere  ______: the innermost layer of Earth, located beneath the mantle; The core is divided into an outer core and an inner core.
  21. Geosphere  _________: the 2890- kilometer-thick layer of Earth located below the crust  ______: the thin, rocky outer layer of Earth
  22. Earth’s Major Spheres  __________: all life on Earth; the parts of the solid Earth, hydrosphere, and atmosphere in which living organisms can be found.
  23. Plate Tectonics  the theory that proposes that Earth’s outer shell consists of individual plates that interact in various ways and thereby produce earthquakes, volcanoes, mountains, and the crust itself.
  24. Section 3 Representing Earth’s Surface  Key Concepts  What lines on a globe are used to indicate location?
  25. Section 3 Representing Earth’s Surface  Key Concepts  What problems do mapmakers face when making maps?  How do topographic maps differ from other maps?
  26. Determining Location  Global Grid  ______: the distance north or south of the equator, measured in degrees.
  27. Determining Location  Global Grid  ________: the distance east or west of the prime meridian, measured in degrees.
  28. Global Grid
  29. Global Grid
  30. Maps and Mapping  The Mercator Projection
  31. Maps and Mapping  Robinson Projection Map  Conic Projection Map  Gnomonic Projection Map
  32. Different Projection Maps for Different Purposes
  33. Topographic Maps  _________________: a map that represents Earth’s surface in three dimensions; It shows elevation, distance, directions, and slope angles.
  34. Contour Lines  ________ _________: line on a topographic map that indicates an elevation; Every point along a contour line has the same elevation.  ________ ________: on a topographic map, tells the distance in elevation between adjacent contour lines
  35. Maps and Mapping 1.3 Representing Earth’s Surface  No matter what kind of map is made, some portion of the surface will always look either too small, too big, or out of place. Mapmakers have, however, found ways to limit the distortion of shape, size, distance and direction.
  36. Topographic Maps 1.3 Representing Earth’s Surface  Topographic maps represent Earth’s surface in three dimensions; they show elevation, distance directions, and slope angles. • ________________ __________are lines on a topographic map that indicate an elevation. • __________ ____________is the distance in elevation between adjacent contour lines.
  37. What Is a System? 1.4 Earth System Science  Closed systems are self contained (e.g., an automobile cooling system).  Open systems allow both energy and matter to flow in and out of the system (e.g., a river system).  A __________ is any size group of interacting parts that form a complex whole.
  38. Earth as a System 1.4 Earth System Science  Earth is a dynamic body with many separate but highly interacting parts or spheres.  Earth system science studies Earth as a system that is composed of numerous parts, or subsystems.
  39. Earth as a System 1.4 Earth System Science  Sources of Energy • Sun—drives external processes such as weather, ocean circulation and erosional processes • Earth’s interior—drives internal processes including volcanoes, earthquakes and mountain building
  40. Earth as a System 1.4 Earth System Science  Humans are part of the Earth system.  Consists of a nearly endless array of subsystems (e.g., hydrologic cycle)
  41. People and the Environment 1.4 Earth System Science  Environment • Surrounds and influences organisms • Physical environment encompasses water, air, soil, and rock • The term environmental is usually reserved for those aspects that focus on the relationships between people and the natural environment.
  42. People and the Environment 1.4 Earth System Science  Resources • Include water, soil, minerals, and energy • Two broad categories 2. Nonrenewable—cannot be replenished in the near future (e.g., metals, fuels) 1. Renewable—can be replenished (e.g., plants, energy from water and wind)
  43. People and the Environment 1.4 Earth System Science  Population • Population of the planet is growing rapidly • Use of minerals/energy has climbed more rapidly than the overall growth of population
  44. Growth of World Population
  45. Environmental Problems 1.4 Earth System Science  Caused by people and societies • Urban air pollution • Acid rain  Caused by natural hazards • Landslides • Ozone depletion • Global warming • Earthquakes  Local, regional, and global
  46. Science 1.5 What Is Scientific Inquiry?  Science assumes the natural world is • consistent • predictable  Goals of science are • to use the knowledge to predict • to discover patterns in nature
  47. Hypothesis and Theory 1.5 What Is Scientific Inquiry?  An idea can become a • ____________:tentative or untested explanation • ________:tested, confirmed, supported hypothesis  Scientific Method • Formulate hypotheses • Gather facts through observation • Test hypotheses to formulate theories
  48. Science Methods 1.5 What Is Scientific Inquiry?  Scientific knowledge is gained through • following systematic steps 2. Collecting facts • theories that withstand examination • totally unexpected occurrences 3. Developing a hypothesis 4. Conducting experiments 5. Reexamining the hypothesis and accepting, modifying, or rejecting it 1. Identify the problem