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EDUC 5485Development, Teaching andLearningInclusive Education: Gifted Students
What is gifted?Note: From Education for Inclusion and Diversity (3rd ed.) p. 65, by A. Ashman and J.Elkins, 2008, New South Wales: Pearson
What is gifted?Note: From Educational Psychology (3rd ed.) p. 208, by A. Woolfolk and K.Margetts, 2013, Frenchs Forest, NSW: Pearson.Category ofgiftednessNumber of SDs(SD=15) abovemean of 100General abilityscore (IQ)Proportion of thepopulation in orabove this rangeModerately gifted 2 130-144 2%(1 in 50)(1 in 2 classes)Highly gifted 3 145-159 0.1%(1 in 1000)(1 in a school)Exceptionallygifted4 160-179 0.001%(1 in 100,000)(20 in WesternAustralia)Profoundly gifted 5 180+ 0.00001%(1 in 10,000,000)(2 in Australia)
What does gifted look like ?(Winebrenner, 2001, p. 10-11):• Has an advanced vocabulary and verbal ability for her/his age• Has an outstanding memory. Possess lots of information and canprocess it in sophisticated ways• Operates on higher levels of thinking that her/his age peers. Iscomfortable with abstract and complex thinking tasks• Sees patterns, relationships, and connections that others can’t• Is very intense. May be extremely emotional and excitable. Getstotally absorbed in activities and thoughts; may be reluctant tomove from one subject area to another; may insist on masteringone thing before starting another• Is sensitive to beauty and other people’s feelings, emotions andexpectations
What does gifted look like ?(Winebrenner, 2001, p. 11):• Gets frustrated with the pace of the class and what she/heperceives as inactivity or lack of noticeable progress• Monopolises class discussions• Rebels against routine and predictability• Becomes the “class clown”• Asks embarrassing questions; demands good reasons for whythings are done in a certain way• Becomes bossy with her/his peers and teachers• Becomes impatient when she’s/he’s not called on to recite orrespond; blurts out answers without raising their hand
How do you confirm giftedness for oneof your students?• Refer the student to the school psychologist fortesting• Typical tests administered:– Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children – 4th Ed.(WISC-IV)– Wechsler Individual Achievement Test – 2nd Ed.(WIAT-II)– Test of Visual Perception Skills (non-motor)
How do you confirm giftedness for oneof your students?• The following constructs are tested:– Verbal Comprehension (tests of verbal reasoningand acquired verbal knowledge)– Perceptual reasoning (tests of nonverbalreasoning, spatial processing and motor skills)– Working memory– Processing speed
Once you’ve found one, why shouldyou teach them differently?• “Providing for the gifted and talented pupils inour schools is a question of equity. As with allother pupils, they have a right to an educationthat is suited to their particular needs andabilities.” (Balchin, Hymer & Matthews, 2009)• “Wasting the potential of a gifted mind isreckless for a society in desperate need ofcreativity and inventiveness”. (Steineger, 1997)
How should you teach themdifferently?Three examples of differentiating the curriculum• Curriculum compacting. This providesstudents with the opportunity to demonstratewhat they already know about a subject.Teachers can then eliminate content that isrepetitive, replacing it with advanced learningexperiences (Vaughn, Bos & Schumm, 2000).
How should you teach themdifferently?• Enrichment. Giving students additional, moresophisticated, and more thought-provokingwork, but keeping them with their same-agepeers in school (Woolfolk & Margetts, 2013)
How should you teach themdifferently?Examples of “Author Extensions” enrichment(Winebrenner, 2001, p. 102)• Write something of your own in the same style asthe author• Read other books of the same type by differentauthors. Compare and contrast the styles of thevarious authors• Read interviews with the author. Write a shortbiography of the author based on thatinformation.
How should you teach themdifferently?• Acceleration. Moving the students quicklythough grades or through particular subjects(Woolfolk & Margetts, 2013)
How you should not teach them…From Atkins and Taylor (2009), p. 4.
How you should not teach them…• From DETWA (2007)
References• Ashman, A. & Elkins, J. (2008). Education for Inclusion andDiversity. (3rd ed.). New South Wales: Pearson.• DETWA. (2007). Department of Education and TrainingWestern Australia: Middle childhood: Mathematics/Numberscope and sequence. Retrieved fromhttp://det.wa.edu.au/redirect/?oid=com.arsdigita.cms.contenttypes.FileStorageItem-id-10886532&stream_asset=true• Atkins, W. J., & Taylor, P. J. (2009). Australian MathematicsCompetition: Primary 2004-2008, Book 1. Canberra, ACT: AMTPublishing.• Woolfolk, A., & Margetts, K. (2013). Educational Psychology.(3rd ed.). Frenchs Forest, NSW: Pearson.
References• Winebrenner, S. (2001). Teaching Gifted Kids in the RegularClassroom. Minneapolis, USA: Free Spirit Publishing.• Balchin, T., Hymer, B., & Matthews, D.J. (Eds). (2009). TheRoutledge International Companion to Gifted Education.Abingdon, Oxon, UK: Routledge Publishing.• Steineger, M. (1997). Clarion call to action. NorthwestEducation (Fall 1997). Portland, OR, USA: Northwest RegionalEducation Laboratory• Vaughn, S., Bos, C. S., & Schumm, J. S. (2000). Teachingexceptional, diverse, and at-risk students in the generaleducation classroom (2nd ed.). Needham Heights, MA: Allynand Bacon.