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L 7 passive movement

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passive movement and its type with full description

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L 7 passive movement

  2. 2. Introduction TomaintainnormalROM,itimportanttomovethesegmentsthroughtheiravailablejointrangeormusclerangeperiodically.TomaintainnormalROM,itimportanttomovethesegmentsthroughtheiravailablejointrangeormusclerangeperiodically. FactorsleadstodecreasedROMFactorsleadstodecreasedROM:: 1-systemic1-systemic 2-Joint2-Joint 3-neurologic3-neurologic 4-muscular4-muscular 5-surgicalortraumaticinsult5-surgicalortraumaticinsult 6-inactivityorimmobilization6-inactivityorimmobilization
  3. 3. Types of ROM ExercisesTypes of ROM Exercises
  4. 4. PASSIVE MOVEMENTPASSIVE MOVEMENT MovementwithintheunrestrictedROMproducedbyanexternalforce,duringwhich,thereislittletoornovoluntarymuscularcontraction.Theexternal forcemaybegravity,amachine,physicaltherapist,oranotherpartoftheindividual’sownbody. CLASSIFICATIONOFPASSIVEMOVEMENT 1-RelaxedmanualPassiveMovements,includingaccessorymovements. 2-ForcedPassiveMovementsincludingJoint Mobilization&Manipulation. 3-MechanicalPassiveMovementsincludingContinuousPassiveMovements(CPM)
  5. 5. Indications: 1- In acute, inflamed tissues, where active movements is painful 2- In comatose, paralytic, or complete bed redden patient. 3- In muscle re-education as a first step 4- in relaxation Goals of Passive movement 1- Maintain joint and connective tissue mobility 2- Maintain the physiological properties of the muscle (extensibility, elasticity, etc.) and minimize the formation of contracture. 3- assist circulation and enhance synovial movement and diffusion of materials in the joint 4- Maintain range of motion and prevent formation of adhesions
  6. 6. Limitations of PROM Passive ROM will not: 1- Prevent muscle atrophy 2- Increase muscle strength and endurance 3- Assist circulation as active exercises PrecautionsandContraindicationstoPROM 1-Immediatelyafteracutetears,fractures,andsurgery. 2-Signsoftoomucheffusionorswelling. 3-Seversharpandacutejointpain 4-Whenmotiondisruptivetothehealingprocess. 5-Whenbonyblocklimitsjointmotions 6-acuteinfectionaroundorinthejoint(arthritis)
  7. 7. PRINCIPLES OF RELAXED PASSIVE MovementPRINCIPLES OF RELAXED PASSIVE Movement 1-Relaxation:1-Relaxation: A brief explanation of the procedure is given to the patient, who is asked to relax as much as possible. The selection of aA brief explanation of the procedure is given to the patient, who is asked to relax as much as possible. The selection of a suitablestarting position ensures comfortandsupport.Describethe plane and method to meet thegoals. Freethe regionsuitable starting position ensures comfortand support.Describethe plane and method to meet the goals. Freethe region fromrestrictiveclothing,linen,splintanddressing.fromrestrictiveclothing,linen,splintanddressing. 2-Fixation:2-Fixation: Good fixation near the joint to be moved as close to the joint line as possible to ensure that the movement is localized to thatGood fixation near the joint to be moved as close to the joint line as possible to ensure that the movement is localized to that joint,andtocontrolmovement.joint,andtocontrolmovement.
  8. 8. 3-Support: Fulland comfortable supportto the moved part and tothe areas of poor structural integritysuch as a hypermobile joint or paralyzed limb segment,so that the patient has confidence and will remain relaxed. The physiotherapist grasps the part firmly but comfortably in his hand, or it may be supportedbyaxialsuspensioninslings. 4-Traction: Many joints allow the articular surfaces to be drawn apart by traction, which is always given in the long axis of a joint, the fixation of the bone proximal to the joint providing an opposing force to a sustained pull on the distal bone. Traction is thought to facilitate the movement by reducinginter-articularfriction.
  9. 9. 5-Range: Move the segment through its complete pain –free range to point of tissue In normal joints slight over pressure can be given to ensure full range,butinflailjointcareisneededtoavoidtakingthemovementbeyondthenormalanatomicallimit. 6-SpeedandDuration: As it is essential that relaxation is maintained throughout the movement, the speed must be slowly, smoothly and rhythmically.The number of repetitionsdependsontheobjectivesoftheprogramandthepatient'scondition.
  10. 10. Forced Passive Movements Joint Mobilization & Manipulation Joint Mobilization & Manipulation are passive, skilled manual therapy techniques applied to joints and related soft tissues at varying speeds and amplitudes using physiologic or accessory motion to restore or maintain joint ROM and to treat pain. According to the varying speeds and amplitudes, Joint Mobilization can be divided into: 1- Mobilization: is a passive low-velocity, high –amplitude motion performed by the therapist such that the patient can stop it. The technique may be applied with ▲Passive oscillatory motion: 2-3/sec for 1-2 minutes, small amplitude, applied anywhere in the range of movement. ▲ Sustained stretch: distraction and gliding force 3-7 seconds, followed by partial release.
  11. 11. 2- Manipulation: is a passive high-velocity, short –amplitude motion using physiologic or accessory motion, which may be: ▲Manipulation under Anaesthesia: is a medical procedure used to restore full ROM by breaking adhesions while the patient is anesthetized. ▲ Thrust sudden motion: is high-velocity, short –amplitude motion such that the patient cannot prevent it.
  12. 12. Type of Movements ▲▲Physiological movement: are the traditional movements performed by the patient's voluntary muscle contraction, such as flexion, abduction. The amount of movement can be measured in degrees using Goniometer. ▲Accessory movements: are movements within normal ROM of the joint and surrounding tissue but that cannot be actively performed by the patient. They can be classified into: ●Component motion: are motions that accompany active motion but are not under voluntary control e.g. scapular upward rotation during shoulder flexion. ●Joint play: motions that occurs between the joint surfaces as well as the joint capsule, which allows the bones to move. This movements occurs passively but cannot occur actively by the patient .e.g. distraction, gliding, spinning of the joint.
  13. 13. 1- MOBILIZATION OF JOINTS Definition: ▲Mobilization is manual therapy designed to restore joint movement. These are usually small repetitive rhythmical oscillatory, localised accessory, or physiological movements performed by the physiotherapist in various amplitudes within the available range, and under the patient’s control. These can be done very gently or quite strongly, and are graded according to the part of the available range in which they are performed.
  14. 14. Effects of Joint Mobilization • Neurophysiological effects : – Stimulates mechanoreceptors to  pain – Affect muscle spasm & muscle guarding – Increase in awareness of position & motion because of afferent nerve impulses • Nutritional effects : – Distraction or small gliding movements – cause synovial fluid movement – Movement can improve nutrient exchange due to joint swelling & immobilization • Mechanical effects : – Improve mobility of hypomobile joints (adhesions & thickened CT from immobilization – loosens) – Maintains extensibility & tensile strength of articular tissues
  15. 15. Indications for Joint Mobilization 1- Pain and muscle spasm to stimulate neurophysiological and mechanical effects 2- Joint hypomobility to elongate hypomobile capsular and ligamentous connective tissues. 3- Progressive limitation of ROM to maintain available motion. 4- Functional immobility to prevent the degenerating effects of immobility. 5- Positional fault as a result of traumatic injury, immobility or muscle weakness. Limitations of Joint Mobilization - The outcome of the results will be determined by the skill of the therapist and patient condition
  16. 16. Contraindications for Mobilization • Avoid the following: – Inflammatory arthritis – Malignancy – Tuberculosis – Osteoporosis – Ligamentous rupture – Herniated disks with nerve compression – Bone disease – Neurological involvement – Bone fracture – Congenital bone deformities – Vascular disorders – Joint effusion
  17. 17. Precautions of Joint Mobilization ●Malignancy ●Bone disease detected on X-ray ● unhealed fracture ● Elderly individuals with weakened connective tissue. ● Osteoarthritis ●Total joint replacement
  18. 18. Patient Response • May cause soreness • Perform joint mobilizations on alternate days to allow soreness to decrease & tissue healing to occur • Patient should perform ROM techniques • Patient’s joint & ROM should be reassessed after treatment, & again before the next treatment • Pain is always the guide
  19. 19. II- MANIPULATION OF JOINTS BY PHYSIOTHERAPIST Definition These are accurately localised, single, quick movements of small amplitude and high velocity completed before the patient can stop it. MANIPULATION OF JOINT BY SURGEON /PHYSICIAN Definition: Manipulations performed by a surgeon or physician are usually given under a general or local anaesthetic which eliminates pain and protective spasm, and allows the use of greater force. Even well-established adhesions can be broken down; but when these are numerous, it is usual to regain full range progressively, by a series of manipulations, to avoid excessive trauma and marked exudation. Maximum effort on the part of the patient and the physiotherapist must be exerted after manipulation to maintain the range of movement gained at each session, otherwise fibrous
  20. 20. Procedures Steps 1. Evaluation and Assessment 2. Determine grades and dosage 3. Patient position 4. Joint position 5. Stabilization 6. Treatment force 7. Direction of movement 8. Speed and rhythm 9. Initiation of treatment 10. Reassessment
  21. 21. Maitland Joint Mobilization Grading Scale • Grading based on amplitude of movement & where within available ROM the force is applied. • Grade I – Small amplitude rhythmic oscillating movement at the beginning of range of movement – Manage pain and spasm • Grade II – Large amplitude rhythmic oscillating movement within midrange of movement – Manage pain and spasm • Grades I & II – often used before & after treatment with grades III & IV
  22. 22. • Grade III – Large amplitude rhythmic oscillating movement up to point of limitation (PL) in range of movement – Used to gain motion within the joint – Stretches capsule & CT structures • Grade IV – Small amplitude rhythmic oscillating movement at very end range of movement – Used to gain motion within the joint • Used when resistance limits movement in absence of pain • Grade V – (thrust technique) - Manipulation – Small amplitude, quick thrust at end of range – Accompanied by popping sound (manipulation) – Velocity vs. force – Requires training
  23. 23. Indications for Mobilization • Grades I and II - primarily used for pain – Pain must be treated prior to stiffness – Painful conditions can be treated daily – Small amplitude oscillations stimulate mechanoreceptors - limit pain perception • Grades III and IV - primarily used to increase motion – Stiff or hypomobile joints should be treated 3-4 times per week – alternate with active motion exercises
  24. 24. Joint Traction Techniques • Technique involving pulling one articulating surface away from another – creating separation • Performed perpendicular to treatment plane • Used to decrease pain or reduce joint hypomobility
  25. 25. Continuous Passive Motion( CPM) Definition: Is slowly and continuously passive motion performed by mechanical device through a controlled Rom without patienteffort. BenefitsofCPM: 1-Lesseningthenegativeeffectsofjointimmobilization. 2-Preventadhesionsandcontractureformation. 3-Stimulatethehealingprocessoftendonsandligament. 4-increasesynovialfluidlubricationofthejoint. 5-Decreasepostoperativepain.
  26. 26. ProcedureProcedure -Thedevicemaybeappliedtotheinvolvedextremityimmediatelyaftersurgery. -Thearcofmotionstartedusingalowarcof20-30degreesprogressed10-15degreesperdayastolerated. -Therateofmotionisdeterminedbythepatienttolerant. -ThetotaltimeonCPMmachinevariesfordifferentprotocol.Longerperiodsreportedashorterhospitalstay. -Duringtheoffperiod,physicaltherapytreatmentcabeapplied.
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