An Introduction to Electronic Media

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CHAPTER 1
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ELECTRONIC MEDIA-AN INTRODUCTION
1.1 Television and Mass Communication
1.2 Computer & Information Technology
1.3 Impact of Technology on Advertising
1.4 Advertising Definitions
1.5 New Dimensions of Advertising
1.6 Techniques used in Electronic Media
1.7 Computer Image Processing
1.8 Buying Behaviour
ELECTRONIC MEDIA-AN INTRODUCTION
To communicate with one another is a compulsive urge of human beings.
Civilizations and cultures progress to the extent communications have made
them possible. Speech (unaided for its propagation) has a limited distance
range. Communication within the family and every closely living family helped
the primitive communities. As movement also was limited, there could have been
thousands of languages as despaired in the expression 'Babel of tongues.' After
speech, the next important development was writing. It helped preservation of
Ideas, of thoughts, of agreements and their transmission from generation to
generation. Until paper and printing were invented, even writing could help only
to a limited extent for communication between far-flung communities and
societies. Printing helped the multiplication of information and knowledge and
their easy availability to tens of thousands of people. Even though paper and
printing extended the range of communication, they could not influence the
rapidly of transmission.
^ It was only from the middle of the last century that rapid transmission of
communications by electrical means became possible. Telegraph helped the
transmission of written messages, almost instantaneously, and telephony from
1876 onwards facilitated the transmission of speech, enabling the dissemination
of information and knowledge very rapidly. Telegraphy and telephony are,
however, means of communication from one individual to another, and could be
said to be private means of communication. Millions only could kriow what is
transmitted by telegraph or telephone when it was printed and distributed through
newspapers or othen/vlse.
By the beginning of the 1930s, almost all over the world radio broadcasting
for Information transmission over wide communities and areas had been
established. From then onwards we could say that the Information was becoming
more and more electronic-based. In the 1950s began the transmission of picture
along with voice for broadcasting. Television increasingly caught on. The black
and white pictures were themselves a wonder, but television became an arresting
marvel with colour transmissions.
It has become increasingly affordable by more and more people because
the transistors and the Integrated circuits made the mass-produced radios as well
as the television sets cheaper every decade. The invention and increased
availability of portable recording and replaying devices enabled the capture of
events as they were taking place and they're near instantaneous broadcasting
throughout the world. Communication satellites with the capability of telephone
and telex and television helped the worldwide instantaneous transmission of
news and views of events.
Audio and videocassette recording and their multiplication in million is
enabling the spread o instruction and training and entertainment and education.
Electronics, computers and telecommunication media are enabling the
simultaneous printing newspapers from several centers. Electronic book
publishing is another rapidly growing activity. Personal computers, access
databases over telecom media, and print out a mass of information in whatever
formats it is wanted. They are a great aid for information storage, retrieval and
processing.
In modern times, because of the industrial revolution and intensive and
economic exploitation of resources and increasing consumption of goods and
services, huge companies or corporations and organizations are a necessity.
They are also economically efficient. It is very necessary that all these
companies and organisations explain to the masses of money-providers and
consumers why and how they are performing and how best their services could
be utilized by the consumer. This is one of the most important aspects of public
information and relations that every corporate organization has to undertake.
While newspapers could be useful only a fraction of the 30 per cent of the
lettered people in India, mass communication media like radio, television and
Internet are the most effective and economic means of mass information. Huge
organizations become more and more impersonal and bureaucratized.
Customers, and may be even the workers, will find themselves helpless in
understanding or reacting with these organizations. Various communication
media like audio and videocassettes and electronic reproduction methods enable
a public instructional and information programme to be carried out easily. They
are the means by which mind can be informed and influenced for the
achievement of an organisation's goals and for the transformation of society.
A wide range of electronic communication technology, which can bring
about meaningful revolution and improvement in information transmission are
now available. Many of the organisations in developing countries, may not be in
a position to make use of all the latest innovations. The developing countries in
collaboration with large business organisations should chalk out a phased
programme for introduction of new communication devices into their
organizational structure to make communication effective. Radio, Television, and
Internet are the important innovations. It is necessary to introduce such latest and
sophisticated communication technology in collaboration with other countries.
The managements in developing countries must realize the importance of new
communication technologies for speedy, quick, correct and low cost transmission
as well as for imparting education to catch up with the advanced countries of the
world.
Radio, Television and Internet are the most important electronic media, in
which this study concentrates only on Television and Internet and also on
Television and Internet advertising and hence, here afterwards, researcher talks
only on Television and Internet in general and Television and Internet advertising
in particular. These media have been selected for the study with the intention that
both Television and Internet media form second group of advertising commercial
media.^
Griffin points out some basic faults in 'mouth to mouth' communication.
They refer to the problems of duration, speed, absence of visual clues,
unidimension, absence of phatic communication and disembodiment. According
to Griffin^, the role of the coordinator is very crucial and very difficult in a satellite
programme.
Mass media assistance is required to communicate development
programmes and achievements to the mass. Thus today seventy per cent of the
population in the country is covered by television.^
Both Television and Internet advertisements are visual communication
media. A visual aid is any visible device that assists to transmit to learner facts,
skills, understanding, knowledge and appreciation, and that is why both
Television and Internet ads have arrested the minds of both general publics in
general and marketers in particular. It is widely being believed all over the
world that the mass media (particularly Television & Internet) plays an
important role in building and developing a country.
1.1 Television and IViass Communication
It is widely believed that mass media has an Important role to play in
achieving national goals. The UNESCO report^ on various aspects of
communication and society provides eight following functions of mass media:
(1) Dissemination of information; (5) Education;
(2) Socialization; (6) Cultural Promotion;
(3) Motivation; (7) Entertainment; and
(4) Promoting debates and discussion; (8) Integration.
Television, the electronic medium, performs all these functions effectively
and with perfection. Television is one of the nicest inventions of man. It has an
edge over other forms of mass media, viz., radio and newspapers, etc. It has
overcome the barrier put up by illiteracy, which is the main hurdle with the print
media. It provides a unique communication process, in a way helping mass
communications becoming very simple and speedy. It is a multimedia system
predominated by the visual medium. It is recognized that there is an urgent need
for mass education and communication media for accelerating social change,
creating awareness and inculcating scientific temper among the masses. It will
also inculcate desired attributes and attitudes among the masses necessary for
national development.
Television, the powerful medium of communication, is a product of the
ongoing modern communication revolution. It commands bigger influence on the
perceptions, emotions and the outlook of the masses than any other media. The
impact of television on the society is often compared with the effect of "water
dripping on a stone, steadily, imperceptibly eroding old values and attitudes in
favour of new ones.
Television, invented by John Baird, is associated with the Second
Industrial Revolution of advanced Western countries. Being an expensive tool,
mainly of entertainment (as it began), it became a part of the affluent lifestyle and
culture of the post-industrial society. Television has become a worldwide
phenomenon today. Details on origin, growth, development, present status and
future prospects of television and television advertising have been presented in
chapter four.
UNESCO, Many Voices One World, Paris, p. 14.
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1.2 Computer & Information Technology
A large mechanical electronic contrivance with associated electro chemical
equipments capable of carrying out mathematical functions at high speed and
accuracy. Computer is capable of storing and processing huge quantity of
information and performing calculations through data processing machine.
Computer has been defined by the United States of American Institute, as
a device capable of solving problems, by accepting data performing described
operations on the data and supplying the results of the operations. Calculations,
digital computers and analog computers are the types of computers. It has
components like input unit, memory storage, arithmetic unit, output unit etc.
Computing process is done and controlled by a computer programming.
An electronic contrivance which solves problems and does complicated
calculations by processing data according to prescribed, programmed
instructions and then produces and or retains the outcome of these processes;
one who computers; a reckoner; a calculator (New Webster's Dictionary).
The role of computers in engineering education cannot be
overemphasized and needs no special elucidation. The computer-assisted
instruction involves the use of computers to perform instructional functions. In
order to update the syllabus and Improve the standards and to prepare the
students to tackle the problems of the future, the curriculum must encompass
latest technological advancement relating to Robotics, Computer Aided Design
(CAD) and Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM). Computer based instructions
include a broad range of application. But they can be divided into two types
namely: (1) Direct Instructions (2) Instructional Management.
The recent information technology revolution has transformed a
communication conscious human society into, metaphorically speaking;
information obsessed global village in the short span of just two decades. The
course of development for the developing and the underdeveloped countries is
not longer linear-sequential; it is increasingly characterized by leap fogging
wherein one or more stages are bypassed in order to arrive at the state-of-art
stage of information technology. Today our traditional concepts of 'knowledge'
and 'information' call for re-examination. "Knowledge is power" is the slogan of
this decade. Distance has been whisl<ed away, thanl<s largely to information
technology.
Information Technology (IT) has meant different things to different
persons. However, the consensus of opinion is more inclined to define IT as the
technology that deals with "the collection, storage, processing, dissemination and
use of information""^ or "new ways of storing, processing, and transmitting
information brought about by rapid developments in electronics, computing and
telecommunications".^ Information experts now make a distinction between
information and knowledge. Knowledge, consequently, is no longer the same as
information. Information comprises data transformed into a meaningful guide for
specific action. Knowledge, on the other hand, is an organized body of
information that facilitates insights and judgments. To quote Stonier, "What is
information at one level may be data at the next."^ Thus facts, data, information
and knowledge constitute a hierarchical order. One of the imperceptible shifts in
our social order relates to the fact that political power has increasingly become
information-based; till the recent past, it was capital-based. Hence, information
and knowledge are the grist common to the mills of education as well as to IT.
As a means of reaching the masses, no other medium today has the
unique creative ability of Television. Broadcast television has grown faster than
any other advertising medium in history because of the unique advantages it
offers advertisers; mass coverage at low cost, audience selectivity, impact,
prestige, and social dominance.'^ Television's power as a creative tool may be
unmatched, but the medium still has many drawbacks, including high cost, limited
selectivity, brevity, clutter, and susceptibility to zipping and zapping.
To determine which shows to buy, the media buyer must select the most
efficient ones against the target audience. He or she must compare the packages
of each station, substitute stronger programmes for less efficient ones, and
negotiate prices to get the best buy.
New electronic media, particularly Internet, is challenging broadcast
television's dominance. Use of Internet has exploded during the last few years in
both the consumer and business-to-business markets. Although the experts still
debate the future of the Internet, no one doubts it will have an impact on how
business will take place in the twenty-first century.^
Two inventions have had a profound impact on the nature of business in
the latter half of the twentieth century: (1) the computer and (2) the Internet.
Through the Internet, a business of any size can compete in the global
marketplace. In fact, on the Internet, the size of an organization's operation
makes little difference, because the Internet is an open environment. Similar
companies compete against one another while being only a click of the mouse
away. In other words, a buyer can locate numerous seller offering similar
merchandise, similar prices, and similar offers in a very short time period. As
more people and businesses become comfortable with the Internet, the
marketing landscape will continue to evolve quickly in the coming years. In
general, the greatest impact of the Internet is on sales, marketing, and
distribution systems for various businesses. These three activities typically
account for 20 percent to 30 percent of the final cost of a good or service. What
makes the potential of the Internet so exciting is that e-commerce companies
have the potential to save 10 percent to 20 percent of these costs. As a result,
the manufacturer does not need to absorb these costs, which are normally part of
the price charged to retailers.^
Effective advertising is more likely to occur when the firm has a well-
defined mission statement and targets its energies in the direction of creating
goods or services to meet the needs of a target market.
Advertising requires matching a noticeable message with appropriate
media. Like a company's business cards, stationery, and brochures, a firm's
commercials spell out the organization's identity and image. The Integrated
Marketing Communications [IMC] approach makes certain all of these elements
speak with the same voice so that customers can understand clearly the nature
of the company, its products and services, and its methods of doing business.
Marketing is more than just distributing goods from the manufacturer to the
final customer. It comprises all the stages between creation of the product and
the after-market, which follows the eventual sale. One of these stages is
advertising.^°
Advertising belongs to the modern industrial world, and to those countries,
which are developing, and becoming industrialized. In the past when a
shopkeeper or stall- holder had only to show and shout his goods to passerby,
advertising as we know it today hardly existed."
Now, this chapter turns to observe and analyse the impact of technology
on advertising, advertising definitions, new dimensions of advertising, techniques
being used in electronic media, computer image processing in advertising.
1.3 Impact of Technology on Advertising
The need for advertising developed with the expansion of population and
the growth of towns with their shops and large stores; mass production in
factories; roads and railways to convey goods; and popular newspapers in which
to advertise. The large quantities of goods being produced were made known by
means of advertising to unknown customers who lived far from the place of
manufacture. This process developed some two hundred years ago in
industrialised countries.
We are in the 800^"^ lifetime. If the past 50,000 years of man's existence
were divided into lifetimes of approximately 62 years each. Of these 800
lifetimes, fully 650 lifetimes were spent in caves. Only during the last 70 lifetimes
has it been possible to communicate effectively from one lifetime to another as
writing made it possible to do. Only during the last six lifetimes did masses of
men ever see a printed world. Only during the last four has it been possible to
measure the time with precision. Only in the last two has any one anywhere used
an electric motor, and the ovenwhelming majority of all the materiel goods we are
using in daily life today have been developed within in present 800'*^ lifetime.
The above history told us how man has progressed, from living in the
caves to the latest information technology age. It could happen only because of
the technology, which man has invented and now adding new dimension to in all
the fields.
The urge to advertise seems to be a part of human nature, evidenced
since ancient times. History evidenced that, man use to live in the caves; he used
to draw pictures on the walls of cave, which today are guidelines for our
archeologists to estimate the age/period. Though man may not have thought
about the advancement of today's hi-tech world, but he had only one objective in
mind, to communicate. To communicate with the new generations about his
existence. Advertising consists in persuasive communication directed toward a
particular target group.
Advertising is a continuous process. Technology lias changed the
advertising procedure, though the main perspective remained the same; to make
public aware about the product, services offered by an individual or organization.
With the strengthening progress in science and technology advertising has
changed through many phases. First phase was of use of newspaper as
advertising medium. In 1920, advertising entered in the second phase;
broadcasting advertising through radio. After invention of television, advertising in
global market became possible. Today satellite television has become an
important advertising vehicle.
In the past, an advertiser had to advertise through either personal meeting
or distribution of handbills. Today lot of media choices are available. In electronic
media, radio has always been popular choices; because of its reach. The daily
reach of radio is 81 per cent as compared to 76 per cent of television. The weekly
reach of radio is 95 per cent as compared to 90 per cent of television. In print
media newspaper has the daily reach of 69 per cent, while it's weekly reach is 84
per cent.
As a communication form, global advertising contributes to the unification
of the world and enhanced international understanding. With the continued
evolution of technology and ideologies, international advertising will continue to
flourish.
1.4 ADVERTISING DEFINITIONS
Advertising is widely defined as "a communication process, a
marl<eting process, an economic and social process, a public relations
process, or an information and persuasion process".
1. The Chambers Twentieth Century Dictionary defines advertising as:
"to draw attention to; to give public information about the merits
claimed for".
2. Wells et al. (1992) give the following definition, which includes reference
to the mass media:
"Advertising is paid non-personal communication from an identified
sponsor using mass media to persuade or influence an audience".
3. Crosier (1999) highlights the important components of advertising in his
definition as below;
Advertising Is Communication via a recognizable advertisement
placed in a definable advertising medium, guaranteeing delivery of an
unmodified message to a specified audience In return for an agreed rate for
the space or time used".
4. Kotler et al. (1999) define advertising as:
"Any paid form of non-personal presentation and promotional ideas,
goods or services by an identified sponsor".
5. The Institute of Practitioners In Advertising definition says:
"Advertising presents the most persuasive possible selling message
to the right prospects for the product or service at the lowest possible cost:
6. Hoke (1988) and Bauer and IVIIglautsch (1992. p. 10). Propose tiie
following definition for Direct Marketing Advertising definition:
"Direct marketing is a relational marketing process of prospecting,
conversion, and maintenance that Involves Information feedback and
control at the individual level by using direct response advertising with
tracking codes".
7. Arens & Bovee (1994) iiave proposed tiie following definition:
"Advertising is the non-personal communication of Information,
usually paid for and usually persuasive in nature, about products (goods
and services) or Ideas by Identified sponsors through various media".
8. The (British) Chartered Institute of Marketing defines marketing as:
"The management process responsible for identifying, anticipating
and satisfying customer requirements profitably".
During the 1980's many companies came to see the need for more of a
strategic integration of their promotional tools. These began moving toward the
process of Integrated Marketing Communications (IMC), which involves
coordinating the various promotional elements and other marketing activities that
communicate with a firm's customers. As marketers embraced the concept of
integrated marketing communications, they began asking their ad agencies to
coordinate the use of a variety of promotional tools rather than relying primarily
on media advertising.
9. A task force from the American Association of Advertising Agencies
(the 4A's) (1994) developed one of the first definitions of IMC:
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"a concept of marketing communications planning that recognizes
the added value of a comprehensive plan that evaluates the strategic roles
of a variety of communication disciplines - for example, general
advertising, direct response, sales pro motion and public relations - and
combines these disciplines to provide clarity, consistency, and maximum
communication impact".
In general, advertising is believed to be particularly good at generating
awareness and in helping to develop and maintain brands. In simple terms, it is
said to work through developing brand 'salience' so that consumers can believe it
to be a brand for them. The brand, therefore, has to be distinctive to differentiate
it ifrom competing brands, but not necessarily better. For new brands, an
emphasis has to be placed on generating awareness and trial and this can be
strongly supported by the use of other promotional tools. Thereafter, and for
established brands, the principal task has to be in maintaining salience of the
brand is to continue to be included in customers'/consumers' consideration sets.
Advertising can lead consumers to try a brand when new, it can reassure
consumers, reinforce trial, and perhaps 'nudge' more of an established brand to
be used. Advertising is something that occurs in many forms that can be used to
progress buyers along the hierarchical chain to the final purchase; this, may
particularly be so if the advertising contains sales promotional elements and
'calls-to-action'. Some concern was expressed over the sequencing of the
hierarchy of effects models and it has been suggested that advertising may work
in a different way such as through post-purchase dissonance reduction.
Advertising is the nonpersonal communication of information, usually paid
for and usually persuasive in nature, about products (goods and services) or
ideas by identified sponsors through various media. Advertising is directed to
groups of people rather than individuals and is therefore nonpersonal. Most
advertising is paid for by sponsors. Most advertising is intended to be persuasive
- to win converts to a good, service, or idea. A company usually sponsors
advertising to convince people its product will benefit them. Some ads, through
such as legal announcements, are intended merely to inform, not to persuade. In
addition to promoting tangible goods, advertising also helps publicize the
intangible services. And increasingly, advertising is used to sell a wide variety of
ideas-economic, political, religious, and social. For the sake of simplicity, when
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the researcher uses the term product, it is being referred to both goods and
services.
Advertising is usually aimed at a particular segment of the population - the
target audience. Advertising can be classified by target audience (consumer,
institutional and/or industrial), by geography (local, international), by medium
(print, radio, television, internet etc) or by function or purpose (product
advertising, noncommercial advertising, action advertising).
As a marketing tool, advertising serves several functions viz, it identifies
and differentiates products; communicates information about the
products/services; induces trial of new products by new users and suggests
repurchasing by existing users; stimulates a product's distribution; increases a
product's distribution; builds value, brand preference, and loyalty; and lowers the
overall cost of sales.
Aside from marketing, advertising also serves several other functions in
the economy and in society. Some of tlie important roles of advertising have
been presented in chapter five.
1.5 New Dimensions of Advertising
The global market place consists of an increasingly complex arena of
competitors within a rapidly changing international environment. New companies
are formed on a daily basis, from small businesses to Internet-based operations,
to expanding global conglomerates originating from major takeovers and
mergers.^^ Through the history, the purpose of advertising to inform, to persuade
has not changed. The presentation, message of advertising has become more
and more educative. As new products are being introduced everyday in the
market it is becoming essential to educate the common man about the concept or
the product.
At the start of this year Electronic pagers/mobiles are permitted to use by
Department of Telecommunication (DOT) in India. Motorola Inc., a
multinational telecommunication giant, launched an educative advertising-
campaign in print media through the newspapers and magazines. Rationale was
to educate people about the product and its use.
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As the time is ciianging, tlie styie and application of advertising is
improving. Non-commercial advertising, which is mostly done for society, is also
making waves. In September 1994, when the western part of our country was
affected by plague, many of the pharmaceutical organizations made
advertisement campaigns on electronic as well as print and outdoor media.
These advertisement campaigns were designed to educate people about the
preventive-measures and precautions to be taken so as to avoid the infections.
Many social organizations also made campaigns for drug prevention and educate
people about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), the life taking
disease.
With advent of new technologies, the use of computers has become a
necessary. This change in technology has changed both; design and
presentation of advertisements. Earlier town-cryers used to advertise by putting
product on a push-cart with a singing bell, but now we have different kinds of
media available.
Computer Technologies are becoming a very powerful tool in making of
advertisement commercials. Computer graphics, morphing and mixing
techniques made advertising commercials very effective and humorous. We can
change a man into tiger, a motorbike into running cheetah on television screen.
Many of the new companies are effectively advertising through all media,
and succeeding in raising required capital from public. As common people are
being exposed to the happenings of the share market through television,
newspapers and magazines, financial advertising is the latest trend.
Most of the large business-houses in the country are effectively using the
available media for building corporate image in the eyes of public.
The average person is exposed to more than 600 advertisements per day.
As every marketing manager knows, people are bombarded with messages
through an expanding variety of media. Television and radio have long been the
staples of advertising programmes, and they compete with newspaper and
magazines ads, billboards, signs, direct-mail campaigns, and other traditional
channels. Recently the number of ways to contact customers has grown. Ads on
the Internet, telemarketing programme, and even messages heard while a
consumer is on hold on the telephone create numerous new opportunities to
contact potential customers."*^
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This situation represents a tremendous challenge for marketers. A
company simply cannot afford to prepare ads for every possible medium.^'*
Choices must be made, and messages must be of sufficient quality to give the
company an advantage in a highly cluttered world, and a world in which people
are becoming increasingly proficient at simply tuning ads out.
To be effective, an ad first must be noticed. Next, it must be remembered.
Then, the message of the advertisement should incite some kind of action, such
as a purchase, a shift in brand loyalty.
The objective of advertising is to increase the awareness of an advertised
product, programme or service that ultimately translates into increase in the
volume or activity by supporting a thought out and articulated marketing
programme. Thus, each effective market programme requires an appropriate
advertisement suited for the mission, the message and the target audience. The
success of a good market campaign lies in the ability to discern two essential
elements of this target market: 1) who they are? & 2) how they buy?
Advertising supports the marketing programme by influencing through
impressions the "audience". An audience is that part of the target market that
can be expected to experience the advertisement or series of advertisements (a
'schedule'). It is a well-defined and measurably quantifiable subset of the target
market. The nature of the audience mix in terms of demographics,
psychographics and other factors determine the 'composition' of the "audience".
The size of the "audience" relative to the target market is referred to as the
advertisement's 'reach'. Every time, a member of its audience experiences an
advertisement, it is said to have made an impression. These impressions must
be effective. The effectiveness of an advertisement is usually measured by
recall, i.e., can a member of the advertisement's audience remember the
advertisement at a later date?
Many an advertisements need to be seen several times before they can
be recalled. The number of times a member of audience must be exposed to an
advertisement before it can be recalled is referred to as the "effective frequency"
of the advertisement. The effective frequency is usually between four to seven
for most of traditional media advertising.
The emergency of Internet as an information exchange and
communication medium, file transfer protocol (ftp) applications such as Archie,
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Gopher & Veronica, Bulletin Board Services, Electronic mail facility, added a new
avenue for advertisement. Early advertisements through these media have been
in existence for a decade. It is the emergence of the World Wide Web, powered
by the 'hypertext transfer protocol' (HTTP) and 'hypertext markup language'
(HTML) with multimedia publishing capabilities, which have made it a means for
mass communication.
Many times a Website is designed for e-commerce, or selling goods on the
Internet. Another purpose for a website provides a different function. The goal of
a customer service website to support the customer after the sale. E-commerce
can take on many different forms. E-commerce also can be a retail operation
that sells entirely on the Internet without any physical store or even inventory.
Services are offered, deals are mediated, and products are sipped through this
range of e-commerce operations. Instead of investigating all of the various forms
of e-commerce, the purpose of the section is to provide a short synopsis of why
and how setting up an e-commerce site benefits an organization.
The marketing functions clearly indicate the potential of the Internet to be a
valuable component of the company's Integrated Marketing Communications
programme.
The advertisers need to entice the Internet users to the forums, or identify
appropriate forums. Such as chat rooms, mailing lists, bulletin board services,
news groups, ftp archives and web sites. Once attractive forums have been
identified, the advertiser using Internet media has several advantages over the
regular media advertiser. This is primarily due to the fact that users have a
choice whether or not to visit and spend time over the advertisement. Thus, we
can assume that any viewer that spends time is an interested one. The Internet
users themselves evolve from notice to more sophisticated in using and trusting
the electronic gadgets and Internet. The three new market segments seem to
have clearly emerged on the horizon. They have been classified as given below:
1. Net-Surfers: This segment consists of newer users of Internet, usually
younger persons with shorter attention span. These people tend to hop from
site to site, usually trying to discover more and more, if something looks
interesting at a site, they may scan it, or download it, othenwise move on to
next site. People in this segment may be browsing several documents/sites
simultaneously. It is the segment that may be very hard to appeal to, but is
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attractive to marketers and advertisers. Tfie decisions made by the segment
tends to impulsive, buying right off the net is a no sweat situation.
2. Net-Buyers: This segment of user who spend lots of time online as apart of
their business activity, usually the workplace. The segment tends to be
dominated by software professionals, academicians, researchers,
engineering's and others employed in online service provider industry.
According to first IIML Web usage survey, 1999 the group consists of nearly
60 % of Internet user population in India.
3. Net-Consumers: This segments consists of those users who access the
network from their homes. The segment represents the family, and offers the
opportunity for retail industry, entertainment industry and convenience stores.
It is the segment that holds the biggest promise as we move toward the digital
economy. The advertisers and marketers can influence this segment by
making it more convenient to shop online than a visit to the local shopping
stores. The segment in Indian already has reached 30 % of the Indian
Internet users.
1.6 Techniques used in Electronic l/ledia
(a) Computer Graphics: Computer graphics have always been one of the most
visually spectacular branches of computer technology. The computer has
bought new power, versatility, speed and value that enable one to create high
quality images or animations for a variety of uses. With the various software
available, one can quickly create complex shapes and edit them in a variety of
ways to build three-dimensional objects. One can virtually create any kind of
material, by combining colour settlings, transparency, and special effects.
The materials that can be created are water, glass, and granite, marble
among many others.
(b) Morphing: Another interesting area within computer graphics is morphing.
Morphing is the transition from one image to another in a vary short span of
time, such that the move appears to be continuous to the viewer. Using
various software tools it is now possible to create real life 3D effects. We take
a look at the process involved.
16
(c) Animation: 2D animation is displaying a rapid succession of images to create
the illusion of movement. Conventionally, 2D animation was done by drawing
individual frame-up to many of them, for every second of the animation. So
for 10-minute film you'd painstakingly create thousands of individual frames
and film them in proper sequence, a time consuming affair.
Using the computer to do the same task is much more productive.
Packages like 'animator pro' offers a host tools and generate the intervening
frames to simulate action and motion automatically. Since 2D or cell
animation is generally populated by bitmaps, one can use image processing,
paint, special effects and illustration programs to create sophisticated
characters, background and scenes for animation.
Going beyond 2D or plane animation there's solid object or 3D animation -
the stuff movies are made of. This is more complex, since it involves the
creating of every object in the scene with proper texture, perspective, lighting,
shadows and movement. In fact, 3D animation demands good modeling and
visualization abilities.
Mapping is important in 3D modeling since it frees you from the effort of
having geometrically defined every tiny detail. Packages like 3D study ship
with whole host o texture libraries, which you can use for the objects - from
brick walls to textile finishes. However, the process of modeling and mapping
multiple objects is quite time consuming. To speed it up one can use 3D
object libraries, which are like clip art. Once the objects in the scene have
been created, and the position of the lights and cameras defined, the process
of animating can be started.
1.7 Computer Image Processing
Computer imaging is the integration of computer graphics system into the
creative process. Artists absorb and assimilate the unique character of computer
systems and their capabilities, intuitively using them as a vehicle for visual
expression, and for visual communication of information.
The computer provides the basis for dynamic new directions in art, with
unique application ink painting, drawing photography, print-making, laser images,
and in graphic design, product design and television graphics.
17
(a) The Imaging Process: Computer imaging as multi-dimensional process
consists off four basic components. The four basic components are the input
process, involving a variety of input devices; image manipulation or image
processing instruction sets or software; the output process using a series of
output devices; and finally output media involving the integration of computer
imagery with another medium.
(b) Image Transformation: One of the most valuable capabilities of computer
graphics system is image transformation. This is the process of changing the
nature of an object or its state or being a metamorphosis.
(c) Assemblage: Figures, objects, and images can be super-imposed to create
complex compositions. Using a computer graphics system gives the artist
access to any figure or element in a picture or composition. These elements
can be extracted, scaled, rotated and repeated, and synthesized with other
elements. Another technique involves breaking up a composition or
fracturing it into pieces, creating some open areas. These fractured
compositions are then super imposed on other compositions.
1.8 The evolving behaviour of Indians
No study of the Indian consumer is complete if it doesn't look at the Indian
family. Unlike in the West, we are of society consensus-seekers. We rely a great
deal on our family. Even out purchase decisions are made jointly. Why is this? it
could be a hangover from the past when everyone stayed in large, extended
families and was used to making decisions through consensus. Or it could be
because unlike in the west, we don't have social security of to fall back on. The
family is the only support system we have.
Today, Indian families are coming under pressure partly because of the
media boom, which has made us more aware about the wider opportunities out
there. The dotcom boom and the frequent success stories of Indians who have
made it big internationally make us believe we can too. The media is also
pushing western value systems into Indian homes. The impact of these forces
has been studied, but not in the context of the Indian family.
Which is why, earlier this year, JWT short listed 24 families from all over
India - DINKs (Double Income with No Kids) in Bangalore, affluent Punjabis in
18
Lajpat Nagar, a middle-class family from small town - Bareilly, a middle-class
family in Mumbai, an MNC executive, an extended family in Warangal, and so on.
Feeling conventional research lays to much emphasis on the individual, JWT
relied on anthropology. And had its researchers spend a week with these
families, just observing the interplay. This was followed by in-depth interviews
with every family member. Their objective was to identify the common pressures
acting on each of these families, and how they are responding to these. This is
what they found.
The World in your Home: This one has been written about ad nauseam.
The media boom. Seventy-odd channels, not counting the venerable
Doordarshan, modern values knocking at Indian door. Enter, western lifestyles
and a generation increasingly comfortable with consumerism.
The head of the family: In the old days, the father was the unquestioned
head. Today, there is recognition that even parents don't have all the answers.
Kids prefer to go to their peers or seniors for career advice. However, there is
greater appreciation of parental advice when it comes to areas like managing
interpersonal relationships.
The importance of self: Till now, we always believed we would lead the
sort of life our parents did. Today, people are questioning that. Economic
differences and political connections matter less than ever before. Instead, there
is an increasing premium on merit - the dotcom boom played a role here. As has
the steady steam of neighbourhood kids who got into the IITs. As a result,
people are questioning the whole notion of aukaad. (If a person is courageous
and is willing to work hard, he can do anything.
Uncertainty: Life itself has become much more uncertain. Earlier, once
you got a job, you were set for life. But today, we hear about large companies
shutting down. People being laid of. All the old certainties are up for grabs. Real
estate is not considered a foolproof investment any longer. The stock markets
have singed many.
Confusion: Indian in metres feel increasingly frustrated when they look at
their counterparts in the West. Similarly, in small town India, they aspire to move
to the metres. But there are no clear pathways in this confusing new world. So,
while people know where they want to be, they don't know how to get there...
19
Iconoclasm: Today, there are no role models. There are no successful
people who can also occupy the moral high ground. As a result, people are
choosing their icons based on narrow definitions of success. For instance,
people might want to be like Dhirubhai Ambani purely because of the wealth he
accumulated.
Back to roots: Paradoxically, there is a renewed interest in Indian culture.
People are perverse. Starve them of something, and they will crave for it. Give it
to them by the shovelful, and they get choosy. Today, people no longer crave for
everything Western. Instead, they are looking only for the things they can identify
with. This also because they have seen Indians becoming very successful, they
now know their Indianness is not something to be embarrassed about.
Materialism: Life may have become uncertain, but unlike our parents who
would try to salt away money, this generation is not doing that. Partly because
there is nowhere to invest - interest rates are low; stock markets are dicey with
no sunrise industry on the horizon. At the same time, they are also developing a
taste for instant gratification.
This is how the reasoning goes. We life in a high-pressure world with no
time for oneself. Ergo, when we do have time, we try to make the most of it. A
lot of people told the JWT team that they tried not to spend any weekends at
home. If they had to, they would try to make them as enjoyable as possible.
Spiritualism: At the same time, to cope with the rising uncertainty, people
are becoming more spiritual.
Enterprise: There are new opportunities everywhere. New sectors are
opening up. In each of these, there are new solutions people can offer. People
are becoming more entrepreneurial.
The marketing function in India is certainly becoming more complex (Sonal
Aganwal, Dirctor, Accord Group, India, 2003). The art, which mainly refers to the
manual and intuitive marketing processes of old, is increasingly being supported
by the science, which includes sophisticated research tools. Managing customer
expectations will be crucial. Besides, the challenge will be to instill the customer
value proposition in people across all parts of the company so that there is
consistent experience.
How's today's marketer changing? Well, he is growing from being a bearer
of specialized skills - like market research or brand management - to one who
20
understands the context of the business and uses his specialized sl<ills in this
context. He is expected to plan, implement and deliver a marketing strategy that
is firmly in line with what the business needs. Today's marketing professional
cannot be simply ride on a global brand image - he walks the fine line between
keeping the global brand alive and creating a local brand that sensitive to the
market he operates in. (Adil Malla-Vice President, Coca-cola India, 2002).
The greatest challenge for a marketer is to balance two diverse roles -
that of an artist and a scientist. Marketers need to actively seek data
(environmental, sales or buyer behaviour) for decision-making. There are times
when decisions have to be taken even though the data suggests otherwise
(Rajesh Jejurkar, Vice-president - Marketing, Mahindra & Mahindra, India, 2001).
Success in marketing is critically dependent on deep, holistic consumer
understanding - what makes consumer tick, what impacts their life and what are
their unmet needs. The ability to get under the skin of the consumer is the single
biggest tool encompassing buying behaviour and macro trends that impact
consumers' aspirations (Gautam Thakar - Chief Marketing Officer, Baazee.com,
India, 2003).
Marketing professionals need to be champions of the brands in the sense
that they need to get into a consumer's head and understand what he/she wants.
And they need to be able to deliver that product/service (Vivek Sharma -
Business Director, Ogiivy & Mather, India 2003).
Marketing research requires the ability to think clearly and logically. The
other important requirement is attention to detail. Any one possessing these
capabilities can look fonward to a rewarding and enriching career in marketing
research. Marketing research is a little specialized. However, the key skill
required is that of logical thinking and common sense (Nehal Medh - Vice
President, ORG-MARG, India, 2003)
In view of all these aspects, current research tries to fill-up the gap existing
as far as 'advertising on electronic media - an analysis of its impact on buying
behaviour' is concerned in general and Television & Internet advertising in
particular, which helps the marketing professionals to understand and set
marketing strategies.
Thesis now turns to state research methodology (Chapter 2) adopted
for the current research.
21
Endnotes & References:
1 Kumar Arvind. (1999), Editor-in-chief, The Electronic Media, Institute for
Sustainable Development, Lucknow & Anmol Publications, Pvt. Ltd, New
Delhi, p.11.
2 Griffin, C C M. (1981), "Satellite-based Distance Education: Problems and
Solutions", paper presented to RSDTA, Penang (Malaysia).
3 New Technologies in Higher Education, Association of Indian Universities,
AID House, 16, Kotia Marg, New Delhi, 1986, p.27.
4 Chartrand, R L and Morentz J W. (1979), Information Technology Servicing
Society, London, Pergamon.
5 A/ei//Soc/efy, Dec. 1982, p.2.
6 Stonier T. (1983), The Wealth of information, London, Thames Methuen, p.19.
7 Arens and Bovee. (1994), Contemporary Advertising, 5* edition. The Inwin
Series in Marketing, Richard D Inwin Inc, USA, p.455.
8 Kenneth E. Clow & Donald Baack. (2002), Integrated Advertising, Promotion,
& Marketing Communications, Pearson Education, Inc, p.549.
9 Alan Mitchell, "Marketers Must Grasp the Net or Face Oblivion," Marl<eting
Week, Vol.22, No.3, February 18, 1998, p.6.
10 Frank Jefkins, (1999), Advertising, 3/e, Macmillan India Ltd, New Delhi, p. 1.
11 British Code of Advertising Practice, (1989), (eighth edition), (The Advertising
Standards Authority, London, December).
12 Kenneth E. Clow & Donald Baack, (2003) Integrated Advertising, Promotion,
& Marketing Communications, Pearson Education, (Singapore) Pte. Ltd,
Indian Branch, Delhi.p.4.
13 Ibid, p.220.
14 Advertising Worldwide, (1991), Marieke K de Mooij and Warren J. Keegan,
PrenticeHall, Hemel Hampstead.
References:
1. The Marketing White book - 2003-04, published by Business World, New
Delhi.
2. David Hughes (1974), "The Measurement of Beliefs and Attitudes," in
Handbook of Marketing Research, ed. Robert Ferber, McGraw-Hill, New York.
22
3. Fred N. Kerlinger (1979), Behavioural Research: A conceptual Approach, Holt,
Rinehart and Winston, New York.
4. Rati.a.Mohammed et.al. (2002) Internet Marketing, Tata McGraw-Hill, edition,
New Delhi.
5. Richard.J. Semenik, (2002) Promotion & Integrated Marl<eting
Communications, Thomson South-Western A Division of Thomson Learning
Inc, Singapore, ISBN: 981-240-372-8.
6. Roger D. Wimmer & Joseph R. Dominick (2000), Mass Media Research,
Wadsworth Publishing Company-An International Thomson Publishing
Company, Belmount, CA 94002.
23

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An Introduction to Electronic Media

  • 1. CHAPTER 1 ft _Q ELECTRONIC MEDIA-AN INTRODUCTION 1.1 Television and Mass Communication 1.2 Computer & Information Technology 1.3 Impact of Technology on Advertising 1.4 Advertising Definitions 1.5 New Dimensions of Advertising 1.6 Techniques used in Electronic Media 1.7 Computer Image Processing 1.8 Buying Behaviour
  • 2. ELECTRONIC MEDIA-AN INTRODUCTION To communicate with one another is a compulsive urge of human beings. Civilizations and cultures progress to the extent communications have made them possible. Speech (unaided for its propagation) has a limited distance range. Communication within the family and every closely living family helped the primitive communities. As movement also was limited, there could have been thousands of languages as despaired in the expression 'Babel of tongues.' After speech, the next important development was writing. It helped preservation of Ideas, of thoughts, of agreements and their transmission from generation to generation. Until paper and printing were invented, even writing could help only to a limited extent for communication between far-flung communities and societies. Printing helped the multiplication of information and knowledge and their easy availability to tens of thousands of people. Even though paper and printing extended the range of communication, they could not influence the rapidly of transmission. ^ It was only from the middle of the last century that rapid transmission of communications by electrical means became possible. Telegraph helped the transmission of written messages, almost instantaneously, and telephony from 1876 onwards facilitated the transmission of speech, enabling the dissemination of information and knowledge very rapidly. Telegraphy and telephony are, however, means of communication from one individual to another, and could be said to be private means of communication. Millions only could kriow what is transmitted by telegraph or telephone when it was printed and distributed through newspapers or othen/vlse. By the beginning of the 1930s, almost all over the world radio broadcasting for Information transmission over wide communities and areas had been established. From then onwards we could say that the Information was becoming more and more electronic-based. In the 1950s began the transmission of picture along with voice for broadcasting. Television increasingly caught on. The black and white pictures were themselves a wonder, but television became an arresting marvel with colour transmissions. It has become increasingly affordable by more and more people because the transistors and the Integrated circuits made the mass-produced radios as well
  • 3. as the television sets cheaper every decade. The invention and increased availability of portable recording and replaying devices enabled the capture of events as they were taking place and they're near instantaneous broadcasting throughout the world. Communication satellites with the capability of telephone and telex and television helped the worldwide instantaneous transmission of news and views of events. Audio and videocassette recording and their multiplication in million is enabling the spread o instruction and training and entertainment and education. Electronics, computers and telecommunication media are enabling the simultaneous printing newspapers from several centers. Electronic book publishing is another rapidly growing activity. Personal computers, access databases over telecom media, and print out a mass of information in whatever formats it is wanted. They are a great aid for information storage, retrieval and processing. In modern times, because of the industrial revolution and intensive and economic exploitation of resources and increasing consumption of goods and services, huge companies or corporations and organizations are a necessity. They are also economically efficient. It is very necessary that all these companies and organisations explain to the masses of money-providers and consumers why and how they are performing and how best their services could be utilized by the consumer. This is one of the most important aspects of public information and relations that every corporate organization has to undertake. While newspapers could be useful only a fraction of the 30 per cent of the lettered people in India, mass communication media like radio, television and Internet are the most effective and economic means of mass information. Huge organizations become more and more impersonal and bureaucratized. Customers, and may be even the workers, will find themselves helpless in understanding or reacting with these organizations. Various communication media like audio and videocassettes and electronic reproduction methods enable a public instructional and information programme to be carried out easily. They are the means by which mind can be informed and influenced for the achievement of an organisation's goals and for the transformation of society. A wide range of electronic communication technology, which can bring about meaningful revolution and improvement in information transmission are
  • 4. now available. Many of the organisations in developing countries, may not be in a position to make use of all the latest innovations. The developing countries in collaboration with large business organisations should chalk out a phased programme for introduction of new communication devices into their organizational structure to make communication effective. Radio, Television, and Internet are the important innovations. It is necessary to introduce such latest and sophisticated communication technology in collaboration with other countries. The managements in developing countries must realize the importance of new communication technologies for speedy, quick, correct and low cost transmission as well as for imparting education to catch up with the advanced countries of the world. Radio, Television and Internet are the most important electronic media, in which this study concentrates only on Television and Internet and also on Television and Internet advertising and hence, here afterwards, researcher talks only on Television and Internet in general and Television and Internet advertising in particular. These media have been selected for the study with the intention that both Television and Internet media form second group of advertising commercial media.^ Griffin points out some basic faults in 'mouth to mouth' communication. They refer to the problems of duration, speed, absence of visual clues, unidimension, absence of phatic communication and disembodiment. According to Griffin^, the role of the coordinator is very crucial and very difficult in a satellite programme. Mass media assistance is required to communicate development programmes and achievements to the mass. Thus today seventy per cent of the population in the country is covered by television.^ Both Television and Internet advertisements are visual communication media. A visual aid is any visible device that assists to transmit to learner facts, skills, understanding, knowledge and appreciation, and that is why both Television and Internet ads have arrested the minds of both general publics in general and marketers in particular. It is widely being believed all over the world that the mass media (particularly Television & Internet) plays an important role in building and developing a country.
  • 5. 1.1 Television and IViass Communication It is widely believed that mass media has an Important role to play in achieving national goals. The UNESCO report^ on various aspects of communication and society provides eight following functions of mass media: (1) Dissemination of information; (5) Education; (2) Socialization; (6) Cultural Promotion; (3) Motivation; (7) Entertainment; and (4) Promoting debates and discussion; (8) Integration. Television, the electronic medium, performs all these functions effectively and with perfection. Television is one of the nicest inventions of man. It has an edge over other forms of mass media, viz., radio and newspapers, etc. It has overcome the barrier put up by illiteracy, which is the main hurdle with the print media. It provides a unique communication process, in a way helping mass communications becoming very simple and speedy. It is a multimedia system predominated by the visual medium. It is recognized that there is an urgent need for mass education and communication media for accelerating social change, creating awareness and inculcating scientific temper among the masses. It will also inculcate desired attributes and attitudes among the masses necessary for national development. Television, the powerful medium of communication, is a product of the ongoing modern communication revolution. It commands bigger influence on the perceptions, emotions and the outlook of the masses than any other media. The impact of television on the society is often compared with the effect of "water dripping on a stone, steadily, imperceptibly eroding old values and attitudes in favour of new ones. Television, invented by John Baird, is associated with the Second Industrial Revolution of advanced Western countries. Being an expensive tool, mainly of entertainment (as it began), it became a part of the affluent lifestyle and culture of the post-industrial society. Television has become a worldwide phenomenon today. Details on origin, growth, development, present status and future prospects of television and television advertising have been presented in chapter four. UNESCO, Many Voices One World, Paris, p. 14. 4
  • 6. 1.2 Computer & Information Technology A large mechanical electronic contrivance with associated electro chemical equipments capable of carrying out mathematical functions at high speed and accuracy. Computer is capable of storing and processing huge quantity of information and performing calculations through data processing machine. Computer has been defined by the United States of American Institute, as a device capable of solving problems, by accepting data performing described operations on the data and supplying the results of the operations. Calculations, digital computers and analog computers are the types of computers. It has components like input unit, memory storage, arithmetic unit, output unit etc. Computing process is done and controlled by a computer programming. An electronic contrivance which solves problems and does complicated calculations by processing data according to prescribed, programmed instructions and then produces and or retains the outcome of these processes; one who computers; a reckoner; a calculator (New Webster's Dictionary). The role of computers in engineering education cannot be overemphasized and needs no special elucidation. The computer-assisted instruction involves the use of computers to perform instructional functions. In order to update the syllabus and Improve the standards and to prepare the students to tackle the problems of the future, the curriculum must encompass latest technological advancement relating to Robotics, Computer Aided Design (CAD) and Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM). Computer based instructions include a broad range of application. But they can be divided into two types namely: (1) Direct Instructions (2) Instructional Management. The recent information technology revolution has transformed a communication conscious human society into, metaphorically speaking; information obsessed global village in the short span of just two decades. The course of development for the developing and the underdeveloped countries is not longer linear-sequential; it is increasingly characterized by leap fogging wherein one or more stages are bypassed in order to arrive at the state-of-art stage of information technology. Today our traditional concepts of 'knowledge' and 'information' call for re-examination. "Knowledge is power" is the slogan of
  • 7. this decade. Distance has been whisl<ed away, thanl<s largely to information technology. Information Technology (IT) has meant different things to different persons. However, the consensus of opinion is more inclined to define IT as the technology that deals with "the collection, storage, processing, dissemination and use of information""^ or "new ways of storing, processing, and transmitting information brought about by rapid developments in electronics, computing and telecommunications".^ Information experts now make a distinction between information and knowledge. Knowledge, consequently, is no longer the same as information. Information comprises data transformed into a meaningful guide for specific action. Knowledge, on the other hand, is an organized body of information that facilitates insights and judgments. To quote Stonier, "What is information at one level may be data at the next."^ Thus facts, data, information and knowledge constitute a hierarchical order. One of the imperceptible shifts in our social order relates to the fact that political power has increasingly become information-based; till the recent past, it was capital-based. Hence, information and knowledge are the grist common to the mills of education as well as to IT. As a means of reaching the masses, no other medium today has the unique creative ability of Television. Broadcast television has grown faster than any other advertising medium in history because of the unique advantages it offers advertisers; mass coverage at low cost, audience selectivity, impact, prestige, and social dominance.'^ Television's power as a creative tool may be unmatched, but the medium still has many drawbacks, including high cost, limited selectivity, brevity, clutter, and susceptibility to zipping and zapping. To determine which shows to buy, the media buyer must select the most efficient ones against the target audience. He or she must compare the packages of each station, substitute stronger programmes for less efficient ones, and negotiate prices to get the best buy. New electronic media, particularly Internet, is challenging broadcast television's dominance. Use of Internet has exploded during the last few years in both the consumer and business-to-business markets. Although the experts still debate the future of the Internet, no one doubts it will have an impact on how business will take place in the twenty-first century.^
  • 8. Two inventions have had a profound impact on the nature of business in the latter half of the twentieth century: (1) the computer and (2) the Internet. Through the Internet, a business of any size can compete in the global marketplace. In fact, on the Internet, the size of an organization's operation makes little difference, because the Internet is an open environment. Similar companies compete against one another while being only a click of the mouse away. In other words, a buyer can locate numerous seller offering similar merchandise, similar prices, and similar offers in a very short time period. As more people and businesses become comfortable with the Internet, the marketing landscape will continue to evolve quickly in the coming years. In general, the greatest impact of the Internet is on sales, marketing, and distribution systems for various businesses. These three activities typically account for 20 percent to 30 percent of the final cost of a good or service. What makes the potential of the Internet so exciting is that e-commerce companies have the potential to save 10 percent to 20 percent of these costs. As a result, the manufacturer does not need to absorb these costs, which are normally part of the price charged to retailers.^ Effective advertising is more likely to occur when the firm has a well- defined mission statement and targets its energies in the direction of creating goods or services to meet the needs of a target market. Advertising requires matching a noticeable message with appropriate media. Like a company's business cards, stationery, and brochures, a firm's commercials spell out the organization's identity and image. The Integrated Marketing Communications [IMC] approach makes certain all of these elements speak with the same voice so that customers can understand clearly the nature of the company, its products and services, and its methods of doing business. Marketing is more than just distributing goods from the manufacturer to the final customer. It comprises all the stages between creation of the product and the after-market, which follows the eventual sale. One of these stages is advertising.^° Advertising belongs to the modern industrial world, and to those countries, which are developing, and becoming industrialized. In the past when a shopkeeper or stall- holder had only to show and shout his goods to passerby, advertising as we know it today hardly existed."
  • 9. Now, this chapter turns to observe and analyse the impact of technology on advertising, advertising definitions, new dimensions of advertising, techniques being used in electronic media, computer image processing in advertising. 1.3 Impact of Technology on Advertising The need for advertising developed with the expansion of population and the growth of towns with their shops and large stores; mass production in factories; roads and railways to convey goods; and popular newspapers in which to advertise. The large quantities of goods being produced were made known by means of advertising to unknown customers who lived far from the place of manufacture. This process developed some two hundred years ago in industrialised countries. We are in the 800^"^ lifetime. If the past 50,000 years of man's existence were divided into lifetimes of approximately 62 years each. Of these 800 lifetimes, fully 650 lifetimes were spent in caves. Only during the last 70 lifetimes has it been possible to communicate effectively from one lifetime to another as writing made it possible to do. Only during the last six lifetimes did masses of men ever see a printed world. Only during the last four has it been possible to measure the time with precision. Only in the last two has any one anywhere used an electric motor, and the ovenwhelming majority of all the materiel goods we are using in daily life today have been developed within in present 800'*^ lifetime. The above history told us how man has progressed, from living in the caves to the latest information technology age. It could happen only because of the technology, which man has invented and now adding new dimension to in all the fields. The urge to advertise seems to be a part of human nature, evidenced since ancient times. History evidenced that, man use to live in the caves; he used to draw pictures on the walls of cave, which today are guidelines for our archeologists to estimate the age/period. Though man may not have thought about the advancement of today's hi-tech world, but he had only one objective in mind, to communicate. To communicate with the new generations about his existence. Advertising consists in persuasive communication directed toward a particular target group.
  • 10. Advertising is a continuous process. Technology lias changed the advertising procedure, though the main perspective remained the same; to make public aware about the product, services offered by an individual or organization. With the strengthening progress in science and technology advertising has changed through many phases. First phase was of use of newspaper as advertising medium. In 1920, advertising entered in the second phase; broadcasting advertising through radio. After invention of television, advertising in global market became possible. Today satellite television has become an important advertising vehicle. In the past, an advertiser had to advertise through either personal meeting or distribution of handbills. Today lot of media choices are available. In electronic media, radio has always been popular choices; because of its reach. The daily reach of radio is 81 per cent as compared to 76 per cent of television. The weekly reach of radio is 95 per cent as compared to 90 per cent of television. In print media newspaper has the daily reach of 69 per cent, while it's weekly reach is 84 per cent. As a communication form, global advertising contributes to the unification of the world and enhanced international understanding. With the continued evolution of technology and ideologies, international advertising will continue to flourish. 1.4 ADVERTISING DEFINITIONS Advertising is widely defined as "a communication process, a marl<eting process, an economic and social process, a public relations process, or an information and persuasion process". 1. The Chambers Twentieth Century Dictionary defines advertising as: "to draw attention to; to give public information about the merits claimed for". 2. Wells et al. (1992) give the following definition, which includes reference to the mass media: "Advertising is paid non-personal communication from an identified sponsor using mass media to persuade or influence an audience". 3. Crosier (1999) highlights the important components of advertising in his definition as below;
  • 11. Advertising Is Communication via a recognizable advertisement placed in a definable advertising medium, guaranteeing delivery of an unmodified message to a specified audience In return for an agreed rate for the space or time used". 4. Kotler et al. (1999) define advertising as: "Any paid form of non-personal presentation and promotional ideas, goods or services by an identified sponsor". 5. The Institute of Practitioners In Advertising definition says: "Advertising presents the most persuasive possible selling message to the right prospects for the product or service at the lowest possible cost: 6. Hoke (1988) and Bauer and IVIIglautsch (1992. p. 10). Propose tiie following definition for Direct Marketing Advertising definition: "Direct marketing is a relational marketing process of prospecting, conversion, and maintenance that Involves Information feedback and control at the individual level by using direct response advertising with tracking codes". 7. Arens & Bovee (1994) iiave proposed tiie following definition: "Advertising is the non-personal communication of Information, usually paid for and usually persuasive in nature, about products (goods and services) or Ideas by Identified sponsors through various media". 8. The (British) Chartered Institute of Marketing defines marketing as: "The management process responsible for identifying, anticipating and satisfying customer requirements profitably". During the 1980's many companies came to see the need for more of a strategic integration of their promotional tools. These began moving toward the process of Integrated Marketing Communications (IMC), which involves coordinating the various promotional elements and other marketing activities that communicate with a firm's customers. As marketers embraced the concept of integrated marketing communications, they began asking their ad agencies to coordinate the use of a variety of promotional tools rather than relying primarily on media advertising. 9. A task force from the American Association of Advertising Agencies (the 4A's) (1994) developed one of the first definitions of IMC: 10
  • 12. "a concept of marketing communications planning that recognizes the added value of a comprehensive plan that evaluates the strategic roles of a variety of communication disciplines - for example, general advertising, direct response, sales pro motion and public relations - and combines these disciplines to provide clarity, consistency, and maximum communication impact". In general, advertising is believed to be particularly good at generating awareness and in helping to develop and maintain brands. In simple terms, it is said to work through developing brand 'salience' so that consumers can believe it to be a brand for them. The brand, therefore, has to be distinctive to differentiate it ifrom competing brands, but not necessarily better. For new brands, an emphasis has to be placed on generating awareness and trial and this can be strongly supported by the use of other promotional tools. Thereafter, and for established brands, the principal task has to be in maintaining salience of the brand is to continue to be included in customers'/consumers' consideration sets. Advertising can lead consumers to try a brand when new, it can reassure consumers, reinforce trial, and perhaps 'nudge' more of an established brand to be used. Advertising is something that occurs in many forms that can be used to progress buyers along the hierarchical chain to the final purchase; this, may particularly be so if the advertising contains sales promotional elements and 'calls-to-action'. Some concern was expressed over the sequencing of the hierarchy of effects models and it has been suggested that advertising may work in a different way such as through post-purchase dissonance reduction. Advertising is the nonpersonal communication of information, usually paid for and usually persuasive in nature, about products (goods and services) or ideas by identified sponsors through various media. Advertising is directed to groups of people rather than individuals and is therefore nonpersonal. Most advertising is paid for by sponsors. Most advertising is intended to be persuasive - to win converts to a good, service, or idea. A company usually sponsors advertising to convince people its product will benefit them. Some ads, through such as legal announcements, are intended merely to inform, not to persuade. In addition to promoting tangible goods, advertising also helps publicize the intangible services. And increasingly, advertising is used to sell a wide variety of ideas-economic, political, religious, and social. For the sake of simplicity, when 11
  • 13. the researcher uses the term product, it is being referred to both goods and services. Advertising is usually aimed at a particular segment of the population - the target audience. Advertising can be classified by target audience (consumer, institutional and/or industrial), by geography (local, international), by medium (print, radio, television, internet etc) or by function or purpose (product advertising, noncommercial advertising, action advertising). As a marketing tool, advertising serves several functions viz, it identifies and differentiates products; communicates information about the products/services; induces trial of new products by new users and suggests repurchasing by existing users; stimulates a product's distribution; increases a product's distribution; builds value, brand preference, and loyalty; and lowers the overall cost of sales. Aside from marketing, advertising also serves several other functions in the economy and in society. Some of tlie important roles of advertising have been presented in chapter five. 1.5 New Dimensions of Advertising The global market place consists of an increasingly complex arena of competitors within a rapidly changing international environment. New companies are formed on a daily basis, from small businesses to Internet-based operations, to expanding global conglomerates originating from major takeovers and mergers.^^ Through the history, the purpose of advertising to inform, to persuade has not changed. The presentation, message of advertising has become more and more educative. As new products are being introduced everyday in the market it is becoming essential to educate the common man about the concept or the product. At the start of this year Electronic pagers/mobiles are permitted to use by Department of Telecommunication (DOT) in India. Motorola Inc., a multinational telecommunication giant, launched an educative advertising- campaign in print media through the newspapers and magazines. Rationale was to educate people about the product and its use. 12
  • 14. As the time is ciianging, tlie styie and application of advertising is improving. Non-commercial advertising, which is mostly done for society, is also making waves. In September 1994, when the western part of our country was affected by plague, many of the pharmaceutical organizations made advertisement campaigns on electronic as well as print and outdoor media. These advertisement campaigns were designed to educate people about the preventive-measures and precautions to be taken so as to avoid the infections. Many social organizations also made campaigns for drug prevention and educate people about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), the life taking disease. With advent of new technologies, the use of computers has become a necessary. This change in technology has changed both; design and presentation of advertisements. Earlier town-cryers used to advertise by putting product on a push-cart with a singing bell, but now we have different kinds of media available. Computer Technologies are becoming a very powerful tool in making of advertisement commercials. Computer graphics, morphing and mixing techniques made advertising commercials very effective and humorous. We can change a man into tiger, a motorbike into running cheetah on television screen. Many of the new companies are effectively advertising through all media, and succeeding in raising required capital from public. As common people are being exposed to the happenings of the share market through television, newspapers and magazines, financial advertising is the latest trend. Most of the large business-houses in the country are effectively using the available media for building corporate image in the eyes of public. The average person is exposed to more than 600 advertisements per day. As every marketing manager knows, people are bombarded with messages through an expanding variety of media. Television and radio have long been the staples of advertising programmes, and they compete with newspaper and magazines ads, billboards, signs, direct-mail campaigns, and other traditional channels. Recently the number of ways to contact customers has grown. Ads on the Internet, telemarketing programme, and even messages heard while a consumer is on hold on the telephone create numerous new opportunities to contact potential customers."*^ 13
  • 15. This situation represents a tremendous challenge for marketers. A company simply cannot afford to prepare ads for every possible medium.^'* Choices must be made, and messages must be of sufficient quality to give the company an advantage in a highly cluttered world, and a world in which people are becoming increasingly proficient at simply tuning ads out. To be effective, an ad first must be noticed. Next, it must be remembered. Then, the message of the advertisement should incite some kind of action, such as a purchase, a shift in brand loyalty. The objective of advertising is to increase the awareness of an advertised product, programme or service that ultimately translates into increase in the volume or activity by supporting a thought out and articulated marketing programme. Thus, each effective market programme requires an appropriate advertisement suited for the mission, the message and the target audience. The success of a good market campaign lies in the ability to discern two essential elements of this target market: 1) who they are? & 2) how they buy? Advertising supports the marketing programme by influencing through impressions the "audience". An audience is that part of the target market that can be expected to experience the advertisement or series of advertisements (a 'schedule'). It is a well-defined and measurably quantifiable subset of the target market. The nature of the audience mix in terms of demographics, psychographics and other factors determine the 'composition' of the "audience". The size of the "audience" relative to the target market is referred to as the advertisement's 'reach'. Every time, a member of its audience experiences an advertisement, it is said to have made an impression. These impressions must be effective. The effectiveness of an advertisement is usually measured by recall, i.e., can a member of the advertisement's audience remember the advertisement at a later date? Many an advertisements need to be seen several times before they can be recalled. The number of times a member of audience must be exposed to an advertisement before it can be recalled is referred to as the "effective frequency" of the advertisement. The effective frequency is usually between four to seven for most of traditional media advertising. The emergency of Internet as an information exchange and communication medium, file transfer protocol (ftp) applications such as Archie, 14
  • 16. Gopher & Veronica, Bulletin Board Services, Electronic mail facility, added a new avenue for advertisement. Early advertisements through these media have been in existence for a decade. It is the emergence of the World Wide Web, powered by the 'hypertext transfer protocol' (HTTP) and 'hypertext markup language' (HTML) with multimedia publishing capabilities, which have made it a means for mass communication. Many times a Website is designed for e-commerce, or selling goods on the Internet. Another purpose for a website provides a different function. The goal of a customer service website to support the customer after the sale. E-commerce can take on many different forms. E-commerce also can be a retail operation that sells entirely on the Internet without any physical store or even inventory. Services are offered, deals are mediated, and products are sipped through this range of e-commerce operations. Instead of investigating all of the various forms of e-commerce, the purpose of the section is to provide a short synopsis of why and how setting up an e-commerce site benefits an organization. The marketing functions clearly indicate the potential of the Internet to be a valuable component of the company's Integrated Marketing Communications programme. The advertisers need to entice the Internet users to the forums, or identify appropriate forums. Such as chat rooms, mailing lists, bulletin board services, news groups, ftp archives and web sites. Once attractive forums have been identified, the advertiser using Internet media has several advantages over the regular media advertiser. This is primarily due to the fact that users have a choice whether or not to visit and spend time over the advertisement. Thus, we can assume that any viewer that spends time is an interested one. The Internet users themselves evolve from notice to more sophisticated in using and trusting the electronic gadgets and Internet. The three new market segments seem to have clearly emerged on the horizon. They have been classified as given below: 1. Net-Surfers: This segment consists of newer users of Internet, usually younger persons with shorter attention span. These people tend to hop from site to site, usually trying to discover more and more, if something looks interesting at a site, they may scan it, or download it, othenwise move on to next site. People in this segment may be browsing several documents/sites simultaneously. It is the segment that may be very hard to appeal to, but is 15
  • 17. attractive to marketers and advertisers. Tfie decisions made by the segment tends to impulsive, buying right off the net is a no sweat situation. 2. Net-Buyers: This segment of user who spend lots of time online as apart of their business activity, usually the workplace. The segment tends to be dominated by software professionals, academicians, researchers, engineering's and others employed in online service provider industry. According to first IIML Web usage survey, 1999 the group consists of nearly 60 % of Internet user population in India. 3. Net-Consumers: This segments consists of those users who access the network from their homes. The segment represents the family, and offers the opportunity for retail industry, entertainment industry and convenience stores. It is the segment that holds the biggest promise as we move toward the digital economy. The advertisers and marketers can influence this segment by making it more convenient to shop online than a visit to the local shopping stores. The segment in Indian already has reached 30 % of the Indian Internet users. 1.6 Techniques used in Electronic l/ledia (a) Computer Graphics: Computer graphics have always been one of the most visually spectacular branches of computer technology. The computer has bought new power, versatility, speed and value that enable one to create high quality images or animations for a variety of uses. With the various software available, one can quickly create complex shapes and edit them in a variety of ways to build three-dimensional objects. One can virtually create any kind of material, by combining colour settlings, transparency, and special effects. The materials that can be created are water, glass, and granite, marble among many others. (b) Morphing: Another interesting area within computer graphics is morphing. Morphing is the transition from one image to another in a vary short span of time, such that the move appears to be continuous to the viewer. Using various software tools it is now possible to create real life 3D effects. We take a look at the process involved. 16
  • 18. (c) Animation: 2D animation is displaying a rapid succession of images to create the illusion of movement. Conventionally, 2D animation was done by drawing individual frame-up to many of them, for every second of the animation. So for 10-minute film you'd painstakingly create thousands of individual frames and film them in proper sequence, a time consuming affair. Using the computer to do the same task is much more productive. Packages like 'animator pro' offers a host tools and generate the intervening frames to simulate action and motion automatically. Since 2D or cell animation is generally populated by bitmaps, one can use image processing, paint, special effects and illustration programs to create sophisticated characters, background and scenes for animation. Going beyond 2D or plane animation there's solid object or 3D animation - the stuff movies are made of. This is more complex, since it involves the creating of every object in the scene with proper texture, perspective, lighting, shadows and movement. In fact, 3D animation demands good modeling and visualization abilities. Mapping is important in 3D modeling since it frees you from the effort of having geometrically defined every tiny detail. Packages like 3D study ship with whole host o texture libraries, which you can use for the objects - from brick walls to textile finishes. However, the process of modeling and mapping multiple objects is quite time consuming. To speed it up one can use 3D object libraries, which are like clip art. Once the objects in the scene have been created, and the position of the lights and cameras defined, the process of animating can be started. 1.7 Computer Image Processing Computer imaging is the integration of computer graphics system into the creative process. Artists absorb and assimilate the unique character of computer systems and their capabilities, intuitively using them as a vehicle for visual expression, and for visual communication of information. The computer provides the basis for dynamic new directions in art, with unique application ink painting, drawing photography, print-making, laser images, and in graphic design, product design and television graphics. 17
  • 19. (a) The Imaging Process: Computer imaging as multi-dimensional process consists off four basic components. The four basic components are the input process, involving a variety of input devices; image manipulation or image processing instruction sets or software; the output process using a series of output devices; and finally output media involving the integration of computer imagery with another medium. (b) Image Transformation: One of the most valuable capabilities of computer graphics system is image transformation. This is the process of changing the nature of an object or its state or being a metamorphosis. (c) Assemblage: Figures, objects, and images can be super-imposed to create complex compositions. Using a computer graphics system gives the artist access to any figure or element in a picture or composition. These elements can be extracted, scaled, rotated and repeated, and synthesized with other elements. Another technique involves breaking up a composition or fracturing it into pieces, creating some open areas. These fractured compositions are then super imposed on other compositions. 1.8 The evolving behaviour of Indians No study of the Indian consumer is complete if it doesn't look at the Indian family. Unlike in the West, we are of society consensus-seekers. We rely a great deal on our family. Even out purchase decisions are made jointly. Why is this? it could be a hangover from the past when everyone stayed in large, extended families and was used to making decisions through consensus. Or it could be because unlike in the west, we don't have social security of to fall back on. The family is the only support system we have. Today, Indian families are coming under pressure partly because of the media boom, which has made us more aware about the wider opportunities out there. The dotcom boom and the frequent success stories of Indians who have made it big internationally make us believe we can too. The media is also pushing western value systems into Indian homes. The impact of these forces has been studied, but not in the context of the Indian family. Which is why, earlier this year, JWT short listed 24 families from all over India - DINKs (Double Income with No Kids) in Bangalore, affluent Punjabis in 18
  • 20. Lajpat Nagar, a middle-class family from small town - Bareilly, a middle-class family in Mumbai, an MNC executive, an extended family in Warangal, and so on. Feeling conventional research lays to much emphasis on the individual, JWT relied on anthropology. And had its researchers spend a week with these families, just observing the interplay. This was followed by in-depth interviews with every family member. Their objective was to identify the common pressures acting on each of these families, and how they are responding to these. This is what they found. The World in your Home: This one has been written about ad nauseam. The media boom. Seventy-odd channels, not counting the venerable Doordarshan, modern values knocking at Indian door. Enter, western lifestyles and a generation increasingly comfortable with consumerism. The head of the family: In the old days, the father was the unquestioned head. Today, there is recognition that even parents don't have all the answers. Kids prefer to go to their peers or seniors for career advice. However, there is greater appreciation of parental advice when it comes to areas like managing interpersonal relationships. The importance of self: Till now, we always believed we would lead the sort of life our parents did. Today, people are questioning that. Economic differences and political connections matter less than ever before. Instead, there is an increasing premium on merit - the dotcom boom played a role here. As has the steady steam of neighbourhood kids who got into the IITs. As a result, people are questioning the whole notion of aukaad. (If a person is courageous and is willing to work hard, he can do anything. Uncertainty: Life itself has become much more uncertain. Earlier, once you got a job, you were set for life. But today, we hear about large companies shutting down. People being laid of. All the old certainties are up for grabs. Real estate is not considered a foolproof investment any longer. The stock markets have singed many. Confusion: Indian in metres feel increasingly frustrated when they look at their counterparts in the West. Similarly, in small town India, they aspire to move to the metres. But there are no clear pathways in this confusing new world. So, while people know where they want to be, they don't know how to get there... 19
  • 21. Iconoclasm: Today, there are no role models. There are no successful people who can also occupy the moral high ground. As a result, people are choosing their icons based on narrow definitions of success. For instance, people might want to be like Dhirubhai Ambani purely because of the wealth he accumulated. Back to roots: Paradoxically, there is a renewed interest in Indian culture. People are perverse. Starve them of something, and they will crave for it. Give it to them by the shovelful, and they get choosy. Today, people no longer crave for everything Western. Instead, they are looking only for the things they can identify with. This also because they have seen Indians becoming very successful, they now know their Indianness is not something to be embarrassed about. Materialism: Life may have become uncertain, but unlike our parents who would try to salt away money, this generation is not doing that. Partly because there is nowhere to invest - interest rates are low; stock markets are dicey with no sunrise industry on the horizon. At the same time, they are also developing a taste for instant gratification. This is how the reasoning goes. We life in a high-pressure world with no time for oneself. Ergo, when we do have time, we try to make the most of it. A lot of people told the JWT team that they tried not to spend any weekends at home. If they had to, they would try to make them as enjoyable as possible. Spiritualism: At the same time, to cope with the rising uncertainty, people are becoming more spiritual. Enterprise: There are new opportunities everywhere. New sectors are opening up. In each of these, there are new solutions people can offer. People are becoming more entrepreneurial. The marketing function in India is certainly becoming more complex (Sonal Aganwal, Dirctor, Accord Group, India, 2003). The art, which mainly refers to the manual and intuitive marketing processes of old, is increasingly being supported by the science, which includes sophisticated research tools. Managing customer expectations will be crucial. Besides, the challenge will be to instill the customer value proposition in people across all parts of the company so that there is consistent experience. How's today's marketer changing? Well, he is growing from being a bearer of specialized skills - like market research or brand management - to one who 20
  • 22. understands the context of the business and uses his specialized sl<ills in this context. He is expected to plan, implement and deliver a marketing strategy that is firmly in line with what the business needs. Today's marketing professional cannot be simply ride on a global brand image - he walks the fine line between keeping the global brand alive and creating a local brand that sensitive to the market he operates in. (Adil Malla-Vice President, Coca-cola India, 2002). The greatest challenge for a marketer is to balance two diverse roles - that of an artist and a scientist. Marketers need to actively seek data (environmental, sales or buyer behaviour) for decision-making. There are times when decisions have to be taken even though the data suggests otherwise (Rajesh Jejurkar, Vice-president - Marketing, Mahindra & Mahindra, India, 2001). Success in marketing is critically dependent on deep, holistic consumer understanding - what makes consumer tick, what impacts their life and what are their unmet needs. The ability to get under the skin of the consumer is the single biggest tool encompassing buying behaviour and macro trends that impact consumers' aspirations (Gautam Thakar - Chief Marketing Officer, Baazee.com, India, 2003). Marketing professionals need to be champions of the brands in the sense that they need to get into a consumer's head and understand what he/she wants. And they need to be able to deliver that product/service (Vivek Sharma - Business Director, Ogiivy & Mather, India 2003). Marketing research requires the ability to think clearly and logically. The other important requirement is attention to detail. Any one possessing these capabilities can look fonward to a rewarding and enriching career in marketing research. Marketing research is a little specialized. However, the key skill required is that of logical thinking and common sense (Nehal Medh - Vice President, ORG-MARG, India, 2003) In view of all these aspects, current research tries to fill-up the gap existing as far as 'advertising on electronic media - an analysis of its impact on buying behaviour' is concerned in general and Television & Internet advertising in particular, which helps the marketing professionals to understand and set marketing strategies. Thesis now turns to state research methodology (Chapter 2) adopted for the current research. 21
  • 23. Endnotes & References: 1 Kumar Arvind. (1999), Editor-in-chief, The Electronic Media, Institute for Sustainable Development, Lucknow & Anmol Publications, Pvt. Ltd, New Delhi, p.11. 2 Griffin, C C M. (1981), "Satellite-based Distance Education: Problems and Solutions", paper presented to RSDTA, Penang (Malaysia). 3 New Technologies in Higher Education, Association of Indian Universities, AID House, 16, Kotia Marg, New Delhi, 1986, p.27. 4 Chartrand, R L and Morentz J W. (1979), Information Technology Servicing Society, London, Pergamon. 5 A/ei//Soc/efy, Dec. 1982, p.2. 6 Stonier T. (1983), The Wealth of information, London, Thames Methuen, p.19. 7 Arens and Bovee. (1994), Contemporary Advertising, 5* edition. The Inwin Series in Marketing, Richard D Inwin Inc, USA, p.455. 8 Kenneth E. Clow & Donald Baack. (2002), Integrated Advertising, Promotion, & Marketing Communications, Pearson Education, Inc, p.549. 9 Alan Mitchell, "Marketers Must Grasp the Net or Face Oblivion," Marl<eting Week, Vol.22, No.3, February 18, 1998, p.6. 10 Frank Jefkins, (1999), Advertising, 3/e, Macmillan India Ltd, New Delhi, p. 1. 11 British Code of Advertising Practice, (1989), (eighth edition), (The Advertising Standards Authority, London, December). 12 Kenneth E. Clow & Donald Baack, (2003) Integrated Advertising, Promotion, & Marketing Communications, Pearson Education, (Singapore) Pte. Ltd, Indian Branch, Delhi.p.4. 13 Ibid, p.220. 14 Advertising Worldwide, (1991), Marieke K de Mooij and Warren J. Keegan, PrenticeHall, Hemel Hampstead. References: 1. The Marketing White book - 2003-04, published by Business World, New Delhi. 2. David Hughes (1974), "The Measurement of Beliefs and Attitudes," in Handbook of Marketing Research, ed. Robert Ferber, McGraw-Hill, New York. 22
  • 24. 3. Fred N. Kerlinger (1979), Behavioural Research: A conceptual Approach, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York. 4. Rati.a.Mohammed et.al. (2002) Internet Marketing, Tata McGraw-Hill, edition, New Delhi. 5. Richard.J. Semenik, (2002) Promotion & Integrated Marl<eting Communications, Thomson South-Western A Division of Thomson Learning Inc, Singapore, ISBN: 981-240-372-8. 6. Roger D. Wimmer & Joseph R. Dominick (2000), Mass Media Research, Wadsworth Publishing Company-An International Thomson Publishing Company, Belmount, CA 94002. 23