1. Alternative Fuels
for IC engine
A Seminar Presentation on
Zeal College Of Engineering & Research , Pune.
1) Amol Ghadge (T52067)
2) Shivkumar Swami (T52130)
Prof. A. M. Kasar
2. Why Use Alternative Fuels?
Available Alternative Fuels Vehicle
Alternative Fuel Vehicle Applications
3. Why Alternative Fuels?
High Cost of consventional fuel.
In some cases, alternative fuels are more
Some alternative fuels are more energy
4. Transportation Share of Emissions
Still a major contributor, despite
reductions in new vehicle emissions
achieved over the last decade
5. Alternative Fuels
2. Solar powered
4. Natural Gas (CNG)
5. Hydrogen fuel cell
8. Synthetic Fuels
9. Alcohols fuels – Ethanol and Methanol
6. 1) Electricity
• Electricity is considered an
alternative fuel under the Energy Policy Act of
• Electricity can be produced from a variety of
energy sources, including oil, coal, nuclear
energy, hydropower, natural gas, wind energy,
solar energy, and stored hydrogen.
7. • Vehicles that operate only on electricity require no warm-
up, run almost silently and have excellent performance up
to the limit of their range.
• Pure electric cars still have limited range.
• Batteries have a limited storage capacity and their
electricity must be replenished by plugging the vehicle into
an electrical source.
• Electric Vehicles have lower "fuel" and maintenance
costs than gasoline-powered vehicles.
Features of Electricity as fuel
8. Mahindra electric e20
BATTERY : LITHIUM ION
MOTOR : 3 PHASE AC INDUCTION MOTORS
POWER : 19KW @ 3500 RPM
TORQUE : 70NM @ 1050 RPM
3 KW SINGLE PHASE 16 AMP CHARGER:
7 HR 20MINS
10KW 3 PHASE 32 AMP CHARGER :
1 HR 35 MINS
9. What is a Hybrid Car?
• A hybrid car is a vehicle that runs on not only gasoline but a
• A petrol-electric hybrid car has both an electric motor and a
gasoline motor, it also consists of a rechargeable battery for the
• The fuel in the car is used to power the petrol engine and the
electric batteries supply power to the car’s electric motors.
• Some of the new hybrids are now converting kinetic energy into
electric energy to power than batteries.
11. 2) Solar Energy
• A solar car is an electric vehicle powered by solar energy
obtained from solar panels on the car.
• The solar array consists of hundreds of photovoltaic solar
cells converting sunlight into electricity.
• Photovoltaic (PV) cells convert the sun's energy directly into
Eco-friendly and Quiet: Solar-powered vehicles have zero
emission level, as they don’t utilize non-renewable resources
and burn fuel.
No Fuel Costs: Unlike the conventionally fueled vehicles, solar
vehicles have no fuel costs and a low cost of maintenance.
Driving Comfort: Having aluminum and lightweight
components, the solar-powered cars run faster and more
smoothly than petrol and diesel engine vehicles.
Energy Availability: Solar cars derive their power from the
sun, indirectly, that always shines and provides endless
Expensive Batteries: The efficient solar panels and batteries
and their replacement are way too expensive that need to be
changed so often. This is what makes the solar vehicles a costly
Energy Storage Capacity: The photovoltaic cells or solar panels
can convert 15-30% of sunlight into electricity, depends on the
material used, which is quite limited.
Design Challenge: The solar vehicles require large surface area
on roof for mounted solar panels, have low wind resistance
and space only for two passengers.
15. 3) Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)
Propane or liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) is a
popular alternative fuel choice for vehicles because there is
already an infrastructure of pipelines, processing facilities,
and storage for its efficient distribution.
LPG produces fewer vehicle emissions than gasoline.
Propane is produced as a by-product of natural gas
processing and crude oil refining.
The cost of a gasoline-litre equivalent of propane is
generally less than that of gasoline.
16. LPG Engine - How Does LPG Work?
• An engine powered by LPG is fundamentally the same as a petrol
powered internal combustion engine.
• The two main differences are the fuel itself and the fuel storage
and intake systems.
• The engine block, pistons, spark plugs, ignition system,
lubrication system and electricals all remain the same.
• With an octane rating of over 100, LPG is usable in virtually any
• LPG cars can be OEM single fuel models or dual fuel LPG
conversions that run on either LPG – also known as Autogas – or
17. Advantages of LPG Engines
• lower running costs.
• less expensive than petrol or diesel.
• Engine oil and spark plugs need changing less often with
LPG, for reduced service costs.
• Environmental benefits include reduced particulate, CO2
and NOx emissions.
• Octane ratings over 100 allows for higher compression
ratios, which can increase power output.
20. 4) Compressed Natural Gas (CNG)
• CNG is made by compressing natural gas (which is
mainly composed of methane, to less than 1% of the
volume it occupies at standard atmospheric pressure.
• Compressed natural gas (CNG) (methane stored at
high pressure) is a fuel which can be used in place of
gasoline (petrol), Diesel fuel .
• Can be used in both SI and CI engines.
21. How does a CNG engine works?
• The engine functions the same way as a gasoline engine:
The fuel-air mixture is compressed and ignited by a spark
• The natural gas is stored in a fuel tank, or cylinder,
typically at the back of the vehicle.
• A CNG fuel system transfers high-pressure natural
gas from the fuel tank to the engine.
23. CNG vs LPG
• More economical
• Kit more expensive
• More wear and tear on
• Safer in case of leakage-
lighter than air
• Does not contaminate and
dilute the crankcase oil
• Higher Calorific Value
• Easily Available
• Wears out piston heads
with heavy loads
• Stored at lower pressures
• Non-corrosive and free of
tetra-ethyl lead or any
24. 5) Hydrogen Fuel Cell
• Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vechiles are zero emission and
run on compressed hydrogen fed into a fuel cell
"stack" that produces electricity to power the
• A fuel cell can be used in combination with an
electric motor to drive a vehicle – quietly, powerfully
These are ecologically
acceptable energy sources, that unlike
fossil fuels do not release large quantities of
CO2 and other harmful greenhouse gases into
the atmosphere, causing global warming and
There are many different alternative fuel
options being developed right now.
The future is looking promising with many alternatives that are
inexpensive, efficient, and are environment friendly. By making the right
choices and further developing these technologies we have to power to
save the planet.