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  1. Advertising Design Different Appeals
  2. Seven major types of advertising appeals  FEAR  HUMOR  SEX  MUSIC  RATIONALITY  EMOTIONS  SCARCITY
  3. Which appeal to be used?  Should be based on a review of the creative brief  The objective of the ad. And  The means-end-chain to be conveyed
  4. Final choice could depend on: 1. The product being sold 2. The personal preferences of the advertising creative and the account executive 3. The wishes of the client 4. Ad. Experts do know that certain appeals are not effective in certain cases like sex appeals not being effective when used in the context of products unrelated to sex
  5. Fear  Insurance companies use ads. that deal with consequences of untimely death  Shampoo and mouthwash ads. Invoke fears of dandruff and bad breadth  Advertisers use fear appeals plainly because it works
  6.  Fear increases both the viewer’s interest in an ad. and the persuasiveness of the ad. Many individuals remember ‘fear’ ads. far better than the ones dealing with warm and upbeat messages. Consumers who pay more attention to an ad. is likely to process the information it carries. Various incidents can lead to negative and positive consequences which then might affect future behavior.
  7. Example an ad. on “Smoking and Fear: Which wins out?”
  8.  Fear ads. match well with certain types of goods and services, especially products that eliminate problems or threats to a consumer’s sense of personal security. We should however decide if fear is a good choice or if some other type of appeal offers greater promise.
  9. Humor  Humor has proven to be one of the best techniques for cutting through clutter. Humor can be effective at both getting attention and keeping it. Something that is funny has intrusive value and grabs attention.
  10.  Humor is used in about 24% of prime time television ads. and 35% of radio ads. Humorous ads often win awards at the International Advertising Film Festival at Cannes.  Humor causes consumers to: 1. Watch 2. Laugh 3. And most importantly remember
  11.  A funny ad captures the viewer’s attention, cuts through ad clutter, enhances recall, and elevates people’s moods. Happy consumers can associate a good mood with the advertiser’s products .  Humorous ads can go wrong; humor fails when only the joke in the ad only is remembered and not the product or the brand!
  12.  Sarcasm and joke made at someone’s expense are often popular with younger audiences but not necessarily among older generations or the affluent. Put downs and cruel jokes may not be liked by older people.  Humor is universal; but it should not hurt the cultural sentiments of the locals, minorities, and others. Humorous ads are difficult to design. Humor ads that do not work can create negative image for the company.
  13. Ford Ka This humorous ad shows a pigeon sitting on tree branch with a Ford Ka parked nearby. The bird swoops down to bomb the car, but at the last minute the car hood springs up and knocks the bird out.
  14. Sex  Sexual appeals are often used as means to break through clutter. Nudity and other sexual approaches are common. Sex, however no longer sells the way it used to as it seems to have lost shock value.
  15.  Sexuality has been employed in advertising in five ways: 1. Subliminal techniques – approaches that place sexual cues or icons in advertisement in the attempt to affect a viewer’s subconscious mind.
  16. 2. Nudity or partial nudity – used to promote sale of clothing, perfume, and cologne
  17. 3. Overt sexuality – using overt sexuality in ads for products that are sexually oriented is normally accepted, but it often becomes controversial when used for other products.
  18. 4. Sexual suggestiveness
  19. 5. Sensuality Many respond more favorably to a sensual suggestion than an overtly sexual approach
  20. Are sex appeals effective?  There have been numerous studies of sexual appeals and nudity. Most of them conclude that sex and nudity do increase attention, regardless of the gender of the model in the ad or the gender of the audience. Normally, the attention is greater for opposite-sex situations than same-sex situations. To encourage both males and females to pay attention to its ads, Guess often uses a male and female in a sexually provocative manner in a single advertisement.
  21.  Although sexually oriented ads attract attention, brand recall for ads using sex appeal is lower than ads using other appeals.
  22. Musical Appeals  Music helps capture the listeners’ attention. Music is linked to:  Emotions  Memories and  Other Experiences
  23.  Music can be intrusive that it gains the attention of somebody who was not previously listening to or a watching a program.  Music can tie up a product or service with a certain jingle or musical piece. For example the ‘Intel” tune is immediately recognized by computer buffs
  24.  Musical memories are often stored in long-term recall areas of the brain. Most people can remember tunes even from their childhood days.  Music plays a number of roles in ads. Sometimes the music is incidental and in other cases, it may be the primary theme of the ad.
  25.  The use of music can sometimes misdirect the audience for a surprise ending. In a Volkswagen commercial shot in the streets of New Orleans people are seen sweeping streets, bouncing basketball, and unloading a truck with the end line “ That was Interesting” and the VW logo followed.
  26.  Sometimes a decision involves about the selection of a familiar tune versus creating original music for an ad. Common approach is to prepare an original jingle or musical score specifically for the advertisement. Background or mood- inducing music is usually instrumental and advertisers often pay musicians to write music that matches the scenes in the ad.
  27.  Using a well-known tune in an ad has its own advantages. The primary benefit is that the listeners have already developed an affinity for the song. Brand awareness, brand equity, and brand loyalty are easier to develop when consumers are familiar with the music. This happens when consumers transfer an emotional affinity for the song to the product.
  28. Rational Appeals  A rational appeal follows the hierarchy of effects stages of awareness, knowledge, liking, preference, conviction, and purchase. Creatives design ads for one of the six steps.  An ad oriented to the knowledge stage will transmit a basic product information.  In the preference stage, the ad shifts to presenting logical reasons why one brand is superior such as the mileage of a motor cycle or safety record of a pressure cooker.
  29.  A rational ad leads to a stronger conviction about a product’s benefits so that it might lead toward a purchase.  Rational appeals rely on consumers actively processing the presented information . The consumer may pay attention to the commercial , comprehend the message, and compare the message to knowledge embedded in a cognitive map.
  30. Print media offer the best outlets for rational appeals. Print ads allow readers greater opportunities to process copy information. Unlike in the case of TV and Radio, the audience can pause and deliberate on the contents. B2B advertisers profusely use print media. Many advertising account executives believe that the trade journals are the best media to reach the buying center.
  31.  Conventional advertising wisdom is that the rational appeals are well suited for high involvement and complex products. High-involvement decisions require considerable cognitive activity , and consumers spend more time evaluating the attributes of the individual brands. Rational appeals is superior to other appeals in developing or changing attitudes and established brand beliefs.
  32. Emotional Appeals
  33.  Emotional appeals are based on three ideas: 1. First, consumers ignore most advertisements 2. Second, rational appeals go unnoticed unless the consumer is in the market for a particular product at the time it is advertised. 3. Third, emotional advertising can capture a viewer’ attention and foster an attachment between the consumer and the brand.  .
  34.  Emotional advertising is often used for developing brand loyalty. Emotional appeals reach the most creative right side of the brain. Visual cues in ads are important in emotional appeals. The visual elements in the New Balance Ad shown above contribute to a feeling or mood of serenity.
  35. Emotions used in advertising  Trust  Reliability  Friendship  Happiness  Security  Glamour-luxury  Serenity  Anger  Protecting loved ones  Romance  Passion  Family bonds with parents siblings children extended family members
  36.  TV is the best media for emotional appeals. TV offers advertisers intrusion value and can utilize both sound and sight. Models in the ads can be “real people”. Facial expressions can convey emotions and attitudes. Consumers learn about a particular product and develop attitudes based on those vicarious experiences.
  37. Scarcity Appeals  Scarcity appeals urge consumers to buy a particular product because of a limitation. Platforms are:  Limited number of products available  Products are available for limited time McDonald’s, Wendy’s and Burger King offer sandwiches (McRib, Hot N’ Spicy Chicken, Dollar Whoppers) for limited time periods through out the year.
  38.  It is also used for musical compilations or books which are limited in availability  A manufacturer may advertise a limited price discount for a car or an apartment, say up to December 31St  Primary benefit of scarcity appeals is that they encourage action from the customers
  39. The Structure of an Advertisement Usually all ads would contain following five ingredients: 1. The promise of a benefit, or the headline 2. The spelling out of the promise, a subheadline 3. Amplification 4. Prof of the claim 5. Action to take
  40. Headlines  In print ads headlines are crucial: after seeing the visual first, the reader would scan the headline. To keep the potential customer interested, some method (rational, emotional, humor) is used to move the reader to the rest of the copy. Typical features of a headline are that the words are short, simple, and limited (less than 12), inviting or interest-provoking, and action oriented and portray enough information to let the buyer know about the product while appealing most directly to the target audience.
  41.  A headline should not be mistaken for a tagline.  A tagline is the key phrase within the advertising copy.  Subheadline, or spelling out the promise, accompanies the headlines. In some instances where the headlines are very powerful enough by itself, subheadlines will be missing.
  42.  Amplification is the text or the body copy. The wording should be concise. The unique selling proposition or the major selling idea is portrayed in the copy. The company can be factual, imaginative, or emotional in its approach. Amplification copy is more important in the case of B2B ads. Where complex features of a product may have to be divulged.
  43.  Proof of the claim include seals of approval (e.g., Good Housekeeping), guarantees (money back if not fully satisfied), trial offers and samples, warranties, demonstrations, and testimonials.  ‘The action to take’ : ‘buy now’, ‘stop by for a free sample’, ‘tell your friends’, ‘give us an opportunity to serve you’, ‘take a test drive’. The action may follow the route of the hierarchy of effects model: awareness, knowledge, liking, preference, conviction, or purchase