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OB Motivation.ppt

  2. After studying chapter six and listening to this lecture, you should be able to: 1. Outline the motivation process. 2. Describe Maslow’s need hierarchy. 3. Contrast Theory X and Theory Y. 4. Differentiate motivators from hygiene factors. 5. List the characteristics that high achievers prefer in a job. 6. Summarize the types of goals that increase performance. L E A R N I N G O B J E C T I V E S
  3. Defining Motivation Key Elements 1. Intensity: how hard a person tries 2. Direction: toward beneficial goal 3. Persistence: how long a person tries
  4. Need Hierarchy Theory Maslow Physiological needs (Survival) Safety needs (Security ?) Social needs (Affiliation & Acceptance) Esteem needs (Recognition , Power etc) Self- actualization needs Lower-order needs Higher-order needs Higher-order needs are satisfied internally (within the person) lower-order needs are predominantly satisfied externally (by things such as pay, union contracts, an tenure).
  5. Going “Beyond the Fringe” in Benefits: Especially Creative Reward Practices Company Apple Computer/TCS Tata Group of Companies Advanta Corporation Westin Hotels/ Taj Group Reader’s Digest Mercedes Benz India Ltd Delta Airlines/Air India Reward Stock purchase options Discounts to Employees on products (CROMA) Opportunity to help train new employees Free meals while on the job Fridays off during the month of May (Lent) Free Use of Company car for LTA with Fuel Free airline travel for employees and spouses
  6. Theory X and Theory Y (Douglas McGregor) Absence of Ambition Capacity Motivation Need Direction Have Capacity & Are Participative with 2 way Com’n
  7. Two-Factor Theory (Frederick Herzberg) Two Factor Theory : A theory that relates intrinsic factors to job satisfaction and associates extrinsic factors with dissatisfaction. Also called motivation hygiene Theory. hygiene factors: Factors—such as company policy and administration, supervision, and salary—that, when adequate in a job, placate workers. When these factors are adequate, people will not be dissatisfied.
  8. intrinsic factors extrinsic factors Two-Factor Theory (Frederick Herzberg)
  9. Herzberg dual continuum: 1.The opposite of “satisfaction” is “no satisfaction,” and 2. opposite of “dissatisfaction” is “no dissatisfaction.” Two-Factor Theory (Frederick Herzberg)
  10. David McClelland’s Theory of Needs nAch nPow nAff A theory that states achievement, power, and affiliation are three important needs that help explain motivation.
  11. self-determination theory & Self -Concordance Self-determination theory by psychologists Edward Deci and Richard Ryan,first introduced their ideas in their 1985 book Self-Determination and Intrinsic Motivation in Human Behavior, This led to Cognitive Evaluation Theory A recent outgrowth of self-determination theory is self-concordance , which considers how strongly peoples’ reasons for pursuing goals are consistent with their interests and core values. If individuals pursue goals because of an intrinsic interest, they are more likely to attain their goals and are happy even if they do not. OB research suggests that people who pursue work goals for intrinsic reasons are more satisfied with their jobs, feel they fit into their organizations better, and may perform better.
  12. Goal-Setting Theory (Edwin Locke)1960 intentions to work toward a goal are a major source of work motivation. That is, goals tell an employee what needs to be done and how much effort is needed.
  13. Goal Setting: Some Impressive Effects Percentage of Maximum Weight Carried on Each Trip Before goal After Goal Four-Week Periods 50 60 70 80 90 100 1 2 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Seven Years Later 94 There was a dramatic improvement in per- formance after a goal was set Performance at the goal level was sustained seven years after the goal was first set Goal level 3
  14. Self-Efficacy Theory (Albert Bandura) Self-efficacy (also known as social cognitive theory or social learning theory ) refers to an individual’s belief that he or she is capable of performing a task. The higher your self-efficacy, the more confidence you have in your ability to succeed. Four ways self-efficacy can be increased: 1. Enactive mastery. (gaining relevant experience with the task /job) 2. Vicarious modeling.(becoming more confident because you see someone else doing the task.) 3. Verbal persuasion.((becoming more confident because someone convinces you that you have the skills necessary to be successful.) 4. Arousal. (Arousal leads to an energized state, so the person gets “psyched up” and performs better)
  15. Self-Efficacy Theory (Albert Bandura)
  16. Reinforcement Theory Concepts: Behavior is environmentally caused. Behavior can be modified (reinforced) by providing (controlling) consequences. Reinforced behavior tends to be repeated. it does provide a powerful means of analyzing what controls behavior Operant conditioning theory, the most relevant component of reinforcement theory for management (B.F. Skinner), argues that people learn to behave to get something they want or to avoid something they don’t want. Unlike reflexive or unlearned behavior, operant behavior is influenced by the reinforcement or lack of reinforcement brought about by its consequences.
  17. Reinforcement – Relevant Processes Models are central to the social-learning viewpoint. Four processes determine their influence on an individual: 1. Attentional processes. People learn from a model only when they recognize and pay attention to its critical features. We tend to be most influenced by models that are attractive, repeatedly available, important to us, or similar to us in our estimation. 2. Retention processes. A model’s influence depends on how well the individual remembers the model’s action after the model is no longer readily available. 3. Motor reproduction processes. After a person has seen a new behavior by observing the model, watching must be converted to doing. This process demonstrates that the individual can perform the modeled activities. 4. Reinforcement processes. Individuals are motivated to exhibit the modeled behavior if positive incentives or rewards are provided. Positively reinforced behaviors are given more attention, learned better, and performed more often.
  18. Equity Theory Referent Comparisons: Self-inside Self-outside Other-inside Other-outside
  19. Equity Theory: A Summary and Example INEQUITABLE RELATIONSHIP Andy is overpaid compared to Bill Bill is underpaid compared to Andy Bill’s outcomes ($25,000/year) Bill’s inputs (40 hours/week) Andy’s outcomes ($30,000/year) Andy’s inputs (40 hour/week) Andy feels guilty Bill feels angry EQUITABLE RELATIONSHIP Andy’s outcomes ($30,000/year) Andy’s inputs (40 hour/week) Andy is equitably paid compared to Bill Bill’s outcomes ($30,000/year) Bill’s inputs (40 hours/week) Bill is equitably paid compared to Andy Bill feels satisfied Andy feels satisfied
  20. Equity Theory (cont’d) Based on equity theory, employees who perceive inequity will make one of six choices: 1. Change inputs (exert less effort if underpaid or more if overpaid). 2. Change outcomes (individuals paid on a piece-rate basis can increase their pay by producing a higher quantity of units of lower quality). 3. Distort perceptions of self (“I used to think I worked at a moderate pace, but now I realize I work a lot harder than everyone else.”). 4. Distort perceptions of others (“Mike’s job isn’t as desirable as I thought.”). 5. Choose a different referent (“I may not make as much as my brother-in-law, but I’m doing a lot better than my Dad did when he was my age.”). 6. Leave the field (quit the job).
  21. Overview of Vroom”s Expectancy Theory (Peoples Actions are in line with expectations & Motivation= E Valence X Expectancy) Effort Expectancy Instrumentality Valence of reward Performance Reward MOTIVATION Role perceptions and opportunities Abilities and traits JOB PERFORMANCE X X Strength of Preference For an Outcome + or neutral
  22. ERG Theory (Clayton Alderfer) Core Needs Existence: provision of basic material requirements. Relatedness: desire for relationships. Growth: desire for personal development. Concepts: More than one need can be operative at the same time. If a higher-level need cannot be fulfilled, the desire to satisfy a lower- level need increases.
  23. Matching Achievers and Jobs
  24. Flow and Intrinsic Motivation Theory
  25. Ken Thomas’s Model of Intrinsic Motivation  Employees are intrinsically motivated when rewards an employee gets from work result from: – Choice– the ability to freely self-select and perform task activities. – Competence– the sense of accomplishment from skillfully performing chosen tasks or activities. – Meaningfulness– pursuing a task that matters in the larger scheme of things. – Progress– the feeling of significant advancement in achieving the task’s purpose.
  26. Equity Theory (cont’d) Propositions relating to inequitable pay: 1. Overrewarded employees produce more than equitably rewarded employees. 2. Overrewarded employees produce less, but do higher quality piece work. 3. Underrewarded hourly employees produce lower quality work. 4. Underrewarded employees produce larger quantities of lower-quality piece work than equitably rewarded employees
  27. Equity Theory (cont’d)
  28. Expectancy Theory E X H I B I T 6-8
  29. Performance Dimensions E X H I B I T 6-9
  30. Motivation and Performance Work Performance is an outcome of Motivation and is affected by various factors 1. Motivation: Motivation based on a Motive (need) causes a positive tension resulting in goal directed behavior (Work). 2, Sense of Competence : Depending upon the Locus of Control (intrinsic – by self), or (External –By events/People/Chance) would be high or otherwise 3. Ability : More real and an outcome of Knowledge and Skill reflects on Performance 4. Role Perception : Individuals ability to identify with the Assigned Role and clarity will impact performance .Role ambiguity (Lack of Clarity in knowing of demands on the Role) and Role Conflict (Between two roles that one may perform) affects performance. 5. Organisational Resources : Physical & Psychological (Reward, T & D etc) facilities Work Environment ,Leadership etc impact facilitation and motivation
  31. Theories of Motivation –Maslow (need Hierarchy), Frederick Herzberg(Two-Factor Theory ) and David McClelland's (3 Needs) and Alderfer’s ERG Theory Physiological needs (Survival) Safety needs (Security ?) Social needs (Affiliation & Acceptance) Esteem needs (Recognition, Power etc) Self- actualization needs Lower order needs Higher order needs Need for Achieveme nt n/ACH Need for Power n/PWR Need for Affiliation n/AFF Maslow Herzberg McClelland E X R G Alderfer