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Architecture and town planning _Unit 3_SPPU_Town planning and various levels of planning by S. R. Kate

• Goals and Objectives of planning; components of planning; benefits of planning.
• Levels of planning: Regional plan, Development Plan, Town Planning Scheme.
• Neighborhood plan; Types of Development plans: Master Plan, City Development Plan,
Structure Plan.

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Architecture and town planning _Unit 3_SPPU_Town planning and various levels of planning by S. R. Kate

  1. 1. UNIT 3 TOWN PLANNING AND VARIOUS LEVELS OF PLANNING Mr. Shrikant R. Kate M. Tech (Civil - CM)
  2. 2. TOWN PLANNING It is the term used to indicate the arrangement of various components or units of a town in such a way that the town as such attains the significance of a living organism - S. C. Rangwala The town planning is a science as well as an art too …… •Collecting •Correlating •Analysis •Beautiful •Convenient •Economical •Efficient unit
  3. 3. OBJECTIVES OF TOWN PLANNING 1. Beauty 2. Convenience 3. Environment 4. Health Principles of Town Planning 1. Green belt – Limitation of town size 2. Housing – Accommodation to various categories ofpeople 3. Public buildings – well balanced grouping and distribution 4. Recreation centers – Social binding 5. Road systems – Layout of its road 6. Transport facilities – Minimum loss of time 7. Zoning – Commercial zone, Industrial zone, residential zone,etc.
  4. 4. STAGES OF TOWN DEVELOPMENT (INDIAN) Town Basic Village Service Town Rural town Town Population 400 -500 souls Primary occupation Agriculture Stability Primary school, open well, Murom roads, mobile dispensary, etc. Population 2000-3000 souls Primary occupation Cultural, commercial and administrative Stability Secondary school, tube well, Murom roads, mobile dispensary, community hall, etc. Groups 10-15 basic villages Population 5000-7000 souls Primary occupation Small scale industries over and above the agricultural employment Stability colleges, pipe water supply, Macadam roads, health center, community hall, etc. Groups 25-30 basic villages Last level of settlement Population City 50,000 – 1,00,000 Great – City 1,00,000 – over Super – City More than 3 Lacs. Metropolis 1 cr and above Megalopolis 5 cr and above
  5. 5. LEVELS OF PLANNING To maintain the continuity in the planning process, following Levels of planning are considered; 1.Local planning 2.Country planning 3.Regional planning 4.National planning 5.International planning
  6. 6. LOCAL PLANNING Planning is based on creation of healthful living and working environment for the majority of the inhabitants of the town with due consideration to the physical background, economic limitations, public administration, finance and change in technology, etc. The development plan for city or town aims at proper distribution of population densities, regulation of green belts, suitable division of the area in various zone of the area in various zone, etc.
  7. 7. COUNTRY PLANNING at controlled development of area1. The planning aims surrounding a town. 2. A town is surrounded by villages and rural planning becomes necessary for the proper functioning of town. 3. For this surrounding villages should be linked up with suitable transport facilities. 4. Encouragement should be given for the growth of small scale industries such as dairy , poultry forming, basket and rope making, hand looms etc. 5. Planning aims to achieve proper balance between agriculture and industries.
  8. 8. REGIONAL PLANNING Regional planning helps in controlling and reshaping major towns in the region. Term region is used to define as an area separated not merely or exclusively by natural boundaries but equally by political or administrative boundaries. Four methods of determining a region is advocated; 1.Geographic boundaries, 2.Economic considerations, 3.Administrative convenience, and 4.Metropolitan influence.
  9. 9. Country planning cannot be divorced from town and regional planning, because the town and country are not two separate entities but are complementary to each other REGIONAL PLANNING It avoids the wasteful duplication of facilities. It ensures the most profitable utilization of the resources at minimum expense for the maximum benefit. Provides information regarding the economic functions. It grants mutual control over the areas in the region. It grants planned and harmonious development. It involves planning in terms of regional dimensions. It reveals new town-planning and building principles. It serves as a link of co-operation and co-ordination between the areas of the region.
  10. 10. NATIONAL PLANNING National planning involves careful study of the social, education, economic, industrial and other problems facing a country and suggests measures to be adopted to obtain realistic solution thereto. It accounts for country‟s existing and potential resources in men, materials, power, manufacturing industry, etc and draw out a phased programme of action for achieving the targets set in the various spheres of activity. whole country is considered as a single unit and an overall picture of development is kept in view, while striving to strike a balance between the various states In India, the various five year plans are an example of National Planning.
  11. 11. NATIONAL PLANNING Vision: A.Development of nation in terms of its administrative or political system. B.Development of various economic sectors such as agriculture, fishing, mining, quarrying, etc. C.Developments in terms of social sector such as clothing, housing, food, education, health, employment, recreation, etc. D.Development at various level i.e. international level to local level or vice versa.
  12. 12. INTERNATIONAL PLANNING International planning came in to picture with the formation of United Nation Organization (UNO). It involves numerous study and surveys in the fields such as health, education, housing, food and agriculture. The studies helps in findingout remedies and solutions of complicated problems at an international level. UNESCO, WHO, LIC, GROUP 8 SUMMIT, SAARC, UNISEF
  13. 13. LAND USE PLANNING
  14. 14. LAND USE PLANNING Definitions: • Refers to the rational and judicious approach of allocating available land resources to different land using activities and for different functions consistent with the overall development vision/goal of a particular city • Refers to a document embodying a set of policies accompanied by maps and similar illustrations which represent the community desired pattern of population distribution and a proposal for the future allocation of land to the various land-using activities. • refers to the manner of utilization of land, including its allocation, development and management.
  15. 15. OBJECTIVES • • • • • To promote efficient utilization, acquisition and disposition of land ensure the highest and best use of land To direct, harmonize and influence discussions and activities of the private and public sectors relative to the use and management of lands To reconcile land use conflicts and proposals between and among individuals, private and government entities relative to the present and future need for the land To promote desirable patterns of land uses to prevent wasteful development and minimize the cost of public infrastructure and utilities and other social services to preserve areas of ecological, aesthetic, historical and cultural significance
  16. 16. ZONING Term zoning in planning Sense include two aspects; 1. Allocation of land for specific purpose, and 2. Control of use, height and construction of buildings It is defined as the regulation by law of the use of land and (or) buildings and of the height and density of buildings in specific areas for the purpose of securing convenience, health, safety and general welfare of the community.
  17. 17. Zoning Applied for certain type of general use Reservation Confined to the uses of specific nature such as; Gardens, schools, markets, police station, playground, etc. ZONING Zoning regulations Meant for character, the use of height and density and they prescribe how parcel of land in a community may be put to use Structural regulations Impose restrictions on the building materials and workmanship in the form of specification.
  18. 18. ZONING Uses of land Profit-making uses of land Non-profit making land 1. Offices 2. Residences 3. Industries 1. Roads 2. Parks 3. Play grounds 4. Educational buildings 5. Government offices They work hand to hand
  19. 19. ZONING Objects 1. The town planner gets ample opportunities for designing the future growth and development of the town. 2. The zoning affords proper co-ordination of various public amenities. 3. Effective tool for making town planning scheme effective and successful.
  20. 20. ZONING 1. Arrangement of zones 2. Boundaries 3. Existing towns 4. Flexibility 5. New towns Principles of Zoning 1. Danger from fires 2. Future developments 3. General amenities 4. Health of community 5. Population distribution 6. Public utility services Advantages
  21. 21. CLASSIFICATION OF ZONING
  22. 22. ZONING Aspects of Zoning 1. Density zoning 2. Height zoning 3. Use zoning
  23. 23. ZONING Density Zoning 1. The front, side and rear margins from the boundaries are specified. 2. The maximum height of the building is specified. 3. The minimum size of allotment for each house is specified. 4. The number of houses per unit area is specified. 5. The ration of total site area to the total built-up floor area is specified Gross density The average density of population per unit area of the whole residential zone Net density The average density of population per unit of housing area including local roads and excluding open spaces
  24. 24. DENSITY ZONING In a broad sense, it is measure of the intensity of land use. It is expressed as the number of persons living on an acre or any other unit of land which indicates the concentration of people living thereon. Large number of people living per acre (overcrowding) is termed as higher density, and treated as evil. Lower densities are desirable
  25. 25. Types of densities Densities are of three types; 1. Net density 2. Gross density 3. Overall density Yet another kind of density is; - Town density DENSITY ZONING © mzsengineeringtechnologies
  26. 26. HEIGHT ZONING Light plane Its is an check applied to the height of one building does not obstruct ventilation of the property on the other side of the road. A light plane is marked at a suitable angle from the edge of road on other side and the height of building is suitably curtailed of to allow the light plane to pass. The angle of light plane is 450 or 63.500
  27. 27. Floor Space Index (FSI) or Floor Area Ratio (FAR) The ratio of the total built-up area inclusive of walls of all the floors to the area of the land on which the building stands is known as floor space index (FSI) or floor area ratio (FAR) It may different for different areas and for different buildings of the town The Floor Area Ratio is the total building square footage (building area) divided by the site size square footage (site area). Area of theplot © mzsengineeringtechnologies Totalcoveredarea on all floors of all buildings on a certain plot Floor Area Ratio  HEIGHT ZONING
  28. 28. HEIGHT ZONING The zones are usually classified into following four categories; 1. Residential zone ………………40% to 50% 2. Commercial zone ……………..2% to 5% 3. Industrial zone………………… 2% to 25% 4. Recreational zone …………….. remaining Advantages: Best use of land for which it is reserved. Stabilization of land values. Unnecessaryintrusion of factories and industries in residential area is avoided.
  29. 29. 3. ZONING BY USE 6 1.Residential Zone  40-50 % area of Town  Most imp  Ideal location ?  Peace, Distant, Privacy,  Greenery, Transportation 2. Commercial Zone  2-5% area of town  Ideal location ? Centre of Traffic, Road Side 3.Industrial Zone  5-20%  Sub classification  Ideal location ?  Leeward side  Depending on Industry type 4.Civic Zone  2-3 % area of Town  Public buildings  Ideal location ?  ??? 5. Institutional Zone  1-2% area of town  Schools etc  ???. 6.Recreational Zone  15-20%
  30. 30. IMPORTANCE/BENEFITS OF ZONING 4  Optimum use of land based on suitability/capability, e.g. use of prime agricultural land for agricultural purposes.  Promotion of public health and safety through compatible arrangement of various lands uses; e.g. residential area should maintain considerable distance from industries.  Preservation of desirable character and real estate values of the zone.  Promotion of the rational and orderly growth of the community. o Prevent encroachment o Isolation of residential area o Height control o Reservation for Recreational area o Effective use of amenities
  31. 31. REGIONAL PLAN Region is a contiguous geographical area, which has a fair degree of uniformity, in administration, economic linkages or natural environment. It is relatively a large area, with hierarchy of settlements and varying landscape. (Source-URDPFI Guidelines) 2015 Example- Southern Regions (Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala) ,European Economic Market, SAARC, Damodar Valley, Mumbai Metropolitan Region etc. Region Introduction About the Region Constituted areas: Region, Sub‐region, Functional areas, Growth centres etc. Ratio of Urban and rural developmen t Region Morphology Analysis of regional resources • Physical setting • Geography of the Region • Demography (Region and Sub‐region wise) • Settlement pattern • Transportation • Physical and Socio Economic linkages • Environment Projected requirement s Implementation Plan Major proposals and projects • Regional policy & Development strategy • Regional land use and Development Controls • Regional infrastructure • Disaster Risk Mitigation measures • Tourism • New and Modified Policies • Implementation strategies for the region for land and resource mobilisation • Co‐ordination of local bodies and authorities and integrated management • structure for the region • Estimation of the Fiscal requirement phase‐wise and source of fund. Specifying • projects to be taken up under PPP • Priorities of the developmental projects and further detailing of plans • Framework of monitoring and its mechanism According To the project needs and suitability (Source-URDPFI Guidelines) 2015
  32. 32. Considering the importance of regional planning at the district level and with the view to integrating the urban and regional development, the DPC and MPC were created through the 73rd and 74th CAA. PLANNING REGION Administrative Region Investment Region Special Region • New investment Manufacturing zones • Industrial Corridor & freight Corridor • Special Investment Regions • Eco Sensitive regions • Culturally Sensitive regions • Socio-Economic Sensitive regions District Regions Metropolitan Region Delineation Legal Provision for a regions Planning Effects Administrative Setup As per ConstitutionalAmendment Act Administrative setup of these regions have to be decide by state Legislature Some states have provision Source- Compilation From 73rd & 74th CCA, 1992, Administrative setups & Regional Planning Cases in India Region based on Homogeneity, Functional Relationship, Administrative Regions Specific Provisions formulated Legal provision for delineating special regions Very few special regions in India Efforts have been taken by some state for investment regions and at national level Based on the requirements of the region , administrative setup be decide by State or Centre.
  33. 33. DISTRICT AS PLANNING REGION  India has 640 districts and according to Census ofIndia,2011.  67 % districts are urbanized up to 50 % out of which approximately 7 % have crossed the line of 40 % urbanization.  9 % districts are 100 % urbanized. Proposed District Planning process Pre planning Consultation State level Perspective Plan District Level Metropolitan Region Distribution Distribution Compilation Compilation Development Authority Distribution Compilation Distribution Compilation Taluka Level Village Level Ward Level Overlayplans Sortingofissues Draftregionalplanpreparation Publicparticipation Finalregionalplan Source- Compilation From 73rd & 74th CCA, 1992, Administrative setups & Regional Planning examples of Kerala andgoa
  34. 34. ASPECTS OF INVESTMENT REGION PLANNING  The policy in relation to land‐use and the allocation of land for different uses.  Identification of the potential nodes and counter magnets (if required for decongestion) for future and proposals for development.  Integrated transport policy, administration policy, law and order machinery.  Plan for regional infrastructure linkages, a dedicated and sustainable connectivity across the corridor and hinterland. Policy for economic development. Fund flow for development. Indication of the areas which require immediate development as "priority areas". Roles and responsibilities of various stakeholders. Housing and shelter development. Protection of environmentally and ecologically sensitive areas and conservation of heritage. Sustainable development of resources including agriculture and rural development. The perspective plan should define the influence zone of the corridor or define the rationality of selection in case of a node. Monitoring systems and social audit mechanisms to ensure effective implementation of the plan.
  35. 35. CRITERIA FOR DELINEATION OF REGION Parameters & Indicators Environment and land suitability - Soil cover & fertility, Topography, Geology, Geomorphology, Lithology & Drainage, Surface water body & Ground water table, Green & forest cover, Buffer areas, Agriculture cover and intensity of production, Hazardous zone, Other environmentally sensitive areas Demographic, Quality of Life - Population growth rate: percentage increase in population, Urbanism: percentage of urban population to total population, Migration: number of persons migrating to nodal point, Density: population per Ha, Aspect of literacy, Other socio economic aspects, Flows - Goods: Volume of goods traffic, People: Passenger traffic, Finance: banking facilities, Infrastructure links: Supply and management of services such as water supply, waste water and solid waste treatment with focus on recycling and re‐use, Drainage channels, irrigation channels, power house, Information: location of institutes, movement of students and scholars , Telephone calls Economic and investments – Economic, Large investment proposals for developments, Workers Percentage of on‐agricultural workers to total workers, Land ownership and land uses. Others- Contiguity of areas, Integrated development, Adjustment of boundaries with other planning areas, Manageable size of the region from planning point of view. Sources- Various Sources including Reading Material on Planning Techniques by JH Ansari and Mahavir., URDPFI Guidelines
  36. 36. TOWN PLANNING SCHEME  The Bombay Town Planning Act, 1915  Maharashtra regional and town planning act, 1966 MRTP Act1966
  37. 37. LEGISLATION IN INDIA 3 The Bombay Town Planning Act, 1915  i. The preparation of town planningschemes (TPS) for areas in course of development within the jurisdiction of local authority, and  ii. The recovery by planning authority of betterment contribution from the owners of benefitted lands.  It was observed that T.P. schemes prepared under the 1915 act resulted in the piecemeal planninghaving no relation with the adjoining areas.  to have a planned development of every square inch of the land within the municipal limits, the need for new law was needed …….MRTP  The MRTP Act, 1966 promotes and regulates developments in the urban area and well as areas having potentialof being urbanized.
  38. 38. MAHARASHTRA REGIONAL AND TOWN PLANNING ACT, 1966 4Objectives  To make provision for planning the development and use of land in “regions” established for that purpose and for the constitution of Regional Planning Boards;  To make better provisions for the preparation of Development Plans with a view to ensuring that Town Planning Schemes are made in a proper manner and their execution is made effective;  To provide for the creation of New Towns by means of Development Authorities;  To make provisions for the compulsory acquisition of land required for public purposes in respect of the plans;  And for purposes connected with the matters aforesaid
  39. 39. 5 Salient Features  Provisions for Regional Planning, Development plan, Town planning Schemes.  Implementation of schemes i.e. Land Acquisition, Transfer of Development Rights and Plot Reconstitution Techniques. The Finance Aspect (Finance account and Audit) Governance for Plan Enforcement (Planning Authority). The M.R. and T. P. Act includes details such as agency for planning, matters to be included in the various plan, procedure laid down from starting of work to the time plans are finalized, as well as controls over development. MAHARASHTRA REGIONAL AND TOWN PLANNING ACT, 1966
  40. 40. 6  M.R. and T.P. Act is divided into four major categories of planning work at present undertaken in Maharashtra state. These four categories are: 1. Preparation of Regional Plan for selected areas. 2. Preparation for development plans for towns, as an obligatory duty by every planning Authority. 3. Preparation of town planning Schemes for selected urban areas. 4. Preparation of plans for New Towns, as proposed under Regional Plans in first. MAHARASHTRA REGIONAL AND TOWN PLANNING ACT, 1966
  41. 41. 7  The MaharashtraRegionaland TownPlanning Act, 1966 has been exclusively concerned with the orderly development and use of land and compulsory acquisition of land in conjunction with the Land Acquisition Act  Average time taken for completion of a TPS in Maharashtra has been 15 years.  Use of land acquisition act MAHARASHTRA REGIONAL AND TOWN PLANNING ACT, 1966
  42. 42. 8 State Urban and Regional Planning Board State Urban and Regional Planning Board constitute and appoint for the purpose of carrying out the function assignedto it under this act. The board shall consist of a chairperson, a vice chairperson and not more than twenty three member to be appointed by government. Functions of board Board should advice the government in matters related to policy formulation for planning. Development and implementation of state program. Use of rural and urban land in state. Guide direct and assist metropolitan and district planning committees on matters respective area. Take account for various region in the state foe achieving spatial- economic development and social justice MAHARASHTRA REGIONAL AND TOWN PLANNING ACT, 1966
  43. 43. Introduction For a successful town planning there must be a plan which envisages the entire town as a single unit. The development or expansion of a town takes a long time, and therefore, the development is required to be controlled at any time on the basis of a plan. Such a plan is called as 'Development Plan‟ or „Master Plan‟. The development plan is generally prepared to improve the old conditions of the town but it is also equally necessary for the new cities to be planned and built on virgin land. e.g. New Delhi, Gandhinagar, Chandigarh, etc. A development plan is an ideal plan showing the full development of the town at some future date. DEVELOPMENT PLAN 3
  44. 44. DEVELOPMENT PLAN 4 Objectives Of Development Plan It arranges the pattern of a town in such a way so as to satisfy the present requirements without introduction of future improvements by the coming generations. Restricting haphazard and unplanned growth. It helps to bring harmony & understanding between the different groups of the people. It removes the defects of uncoordinated physical growth. It serves as a guide to the planning body for making any recommendations for public improvement. It stimulates wider interest in community problems. To coordinate the physical, economic, social & political forces that govern the structure of the community. To formulate long term & short term action programs with a view to injecting long term considerations into short term actions.
  45. 45. Necessity of Development Plan 1.To control the development of various industries in a systematic way 2.To discourage the an used and unscientific way growth 3.It serves an overall picture and program for the future development 4.To offset the evils which have come up due to overcrowding of population such as acute shortage of houses, traffic congestion, inadequate open spaces and insufficiency in public amenities; etc. DEVELOPMENT PLAN 5
  46. 46. Data to be Collected • Details of trades and industries • Development of airports • Environments of site • Facilities of transport • Geological conditions of the site • Land values and land use pattern • Locations of spots of natural beauty • Locations of water supply units • Meteorological details such as intensity and direction of wind, temperature, rainfall, etc. • Mineral resources • Places of historical origin • Political position of the surrounding area • Population • Requirements for railway stations, goods yards and shipping facilities • Special requirements for power houses, gas works, sewage disposal plant and storm water drainage. DEVELOPMENT PLAN 6
  47. 47. Drawings to be Prepared 1.Boundaries of land of different types such as residential, agricultural, industrial, etc. 2.Boundary of green belt around the town 3.Contours of the whole city 4.Different zones 5.Landscape features 6.Locations of public buildings and town centers 7.Open spaces including parks and playgrounds 8.Positions of natural springs, rivers and streams 9.Positions of public utility services such as water supply station, sewage disposal plant, power plant, etc. 10.Present and proposed communication systems, etc. DEVELOPMENT PLAN 7
  48. 48. Features of Development Plan Keep in mind three fundamental before making “amenity, convenience and health” o Convenience and cheap means of transport o Good sanitation and water supply o Open air spaces o Population density control o Proper situations for places of worship, education & recreation o Rational layout o Requirement and Distribution of Land(Land Use Pattern) o Width of roads etc. DEVELOPMENT PLAN 8
  49. 49. Stages of Preparation General methods normally followed for the preparation are: 1. Planning department of the local government 2. Specialized planning organization 3. Aconsultant 4. State town planning department 5. Collection of data and relevant information from civic survey and other sources. 6. Preparation of a tentative draft of the development plan and notifying the same for comments, suggestions and discussions from experts and the public. 7. Considerations of views received from experts and the public with sympathy and without any prejudice. 8. Preparation of the revised development plan accommodating the good aspects of comments received from experts and the public. 9. Determination of the sequence in which the development plan will be implemented. DEVELOPMENT PLAN 11
  50. 50. NEIGHBOURHOOD PLANNING  Neighborhoods: It is a small unit which serves the local community and encouraged them to foster a neighborhood spirit or relationship which seems to have been lost in modern life.  Neighbourhood planning neighborhood planning is to organize neighborhood residents and seek their input throughout the planning process
  51. 51. NEIGHBOURHOOD PLANNING It is an American idea and is based on the simple principle that one is planning for society and not for aggregate of houses.  In case of big towns, it sometimes becomes difficult to develop a sense of neighbourliness, mainly for two reasons.  They are:
  52. 52.  The neighbours are not dependent on one another’s company and aid because city life gives a wide field of acquaintance and entertainment.  The neighbours may not have common modes and habits of living. The neighbourhood planning is an attempt to form various physical units of residential areas in which people belonging to a particular rank of life settles or stay. It is the intention of a town planner to rejuvenate the valuable idea of neighbourhood which have been lost in busy uncontrolled city life.
  53. 53. All the residential units are now planned on neighbourhood principle. It is a small unit which serves the local community and encourages them to foster a neighbourhood spirit or relationship which seems to have been lost in the modern city life. It should possess the best qualities of small town to faciliitate the acquaintance and neighbourly relations and also be broad enough to accommodate sufficient people to enable each individual to come in contact with people of different strata of society and compatible tastes. (Unity in Diversity)
  54. 54. PURPOSE OF NEIGHBORHOOD PLANNING:  To make the people socialize with one and another.  To enable the inhabitants to share the public amenities and recreational facilities.  To support a safe and healthy environment within the neighborhood.  To provide safety and efficiency to road users and pedestrians.  To maintain, enhance, and improve area for recreational activities.  To determine community’s prospects for the future.
  55. 55. ELEMENTS OF NEIGHBORHOOD PLANNING: Resedential Facilities Recreational FAcilities Road Network Health Facilities Commercial Facilities
  56. 56. PRINCIPLES OF NEIGHBOURHOOD PLANNING 1. Size 2. Boundaries 3. Protective Strips 4. Internal Streets 5. Layout of buildings 6. Shopping Centres 7. Community Centres 8. Facilities
  57. 57. 1. Size The town is divided into self-contained units or sectors of 10,000 population.  This is further divided into smaller units called neighbourhood unit with 2,000 to 5,000 based on the requirement of one primary school. The size of the unit is therefore limited to about 1 to 1. 5 sq km i.e. within walkable distance of 10 to 15minutes.
  58. 58. 2. Boundaries The unit should be bounded on all its sides by main road, wide enough for traffic. 3. Protective Strips These are necessary to protect the neighbourhood from annoyance of traffic and, to provide suitable facilities for developing parks, playgrounds, and road widening scheme in future. These are also called Minor Green Belts.
  59. 59. 4. INTERNAL STREETS  The internal streets are designed to ensure safety to the people and the school going children in particular, since the mothers are anxious every day till the safe return of the child.  The internal streets should circulate throughout the unit with easy access to shops and community centres.
  60. 60. 5. Layout of Buildings To encourage neighbourhood relation and secure social stability and balance, houses to suit the different income group should be provided such as single family houses, double family houses, cottages,flats, etc. 6. Shopping Centres Each shop should be located on the circumference of the unit, preferably at traffic junctions and adjacent to the neighbourhood units.
  61. 61. 7. Community Centres Each community will have its centre with social, cultural and recreational amenities. 8. Facilities All public facilities required for the family for their comfort and convenience should be within easy reach. These include the primary school, temple, club, retail shop, sport centre, etc. These should be located within 1km in the central place so as to form a nucleus to develop social life of the unit.
  62. 62. BENEFITS  It make the people socialize with one and another  It improves communication and focuses ideas.  It helps a neighborhood identify its strengths and evaluate its own resources.  It helps to build consensus about what needs to be accomplished;  It encourages creativity and builds partnerships both within and outside the neighborhood;  It enables others to become more informed and responsive about the policy and financial decisions of local government.
  63. 63. STRUCTURE PLAN  The term „structure‟ here means the social, economic, and physical systems of an area.  A structure plan is one that singles out for attention of certain aspect as  patterns of land use and the development activities they give rise to,  network of communication  location of critical facilities and buildings,  distribution of the population,  The structure plan aims to influence certain key decisions.  The structure plan will need to take account of regional and national policies.  The structure plan for an area will be integrated with the structure plans for adjoining areas  It means that aims, policies and proposals in a structure plan must be coordinated with those for the adjoining areas.
  64. 64. STRUCTURE PLAN ….CONT 4  Function of structure plans 1. Interpreting national and regional policies 2. Establishing aims, policies and general proposals for the area for which the plan is prepared 3. Providing framework for local plans:- the broad policies and proposals of the structure plan form a framework for the more detailed policies and proposals in local plans 1. Indicating action areas, which are priority areas for intensive action 2. Providing guidance for development control in those parts of the area not covered, or not yet covered, by a local plan; 3. Providing basis for co-ordinating decisions between various committees of the planning authority and district councils who deal with various components of development, and other public bodies likely to be concerned with important aspects of the plan. 4. Bringing main planning issues and decisions before minister and public.
  65. 65. STRUCTURE PLAN ….CONT 5  The structure plan is decisions document i.e. only those policies or proposals are included in structure plan which will affect significantly the structure of the area.  The structure plans will not only contain decisions but will also explain how these decisions were arrived at.  A report of the survey supporting the plan and description of examination of alternative decision that may have been considered and the way in which a particular course of action may have been chosen will also form part of the written document accompanying the plan.  Whereas the structure plan needs to contain general development control policies for items of structural importance, detailed development control standards should not be included in the structure plan.
  66. 66. STRUCTURE PLAN ….CONT 6  The structure plan will not relate to a fixed end date, because it is not possible to look ahead over the same period of time for all aspects of the plan.  However, the time perspective will be taken into account by setting priorities for short-term projects, setting-out phases of implementation, by keeping track of projected populations for specific census years, and including policies for long term projects, which may be open-ended, long-term, and in broad outline only.  Since policies in the structure plan are stated in broad terms, considerable flexibility is available to the authority to amend parts of structure plans at the time of working out details, to adjust to situations not foreseen at the time of preparation of the plan.
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• Goals and Objectives of planning; components of planning; benefits of planning. • Levels of planning: Regional plan, Development Plan, Town Planning Scheme. • Neighborhood plan; Types of Development plans: Master Plan, City Development Plan, Structure Plan.

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