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  2. 2. ANDALUSIA Country Spain Capital Seville President José Antonio Griñán (Socialist) Extension 87.268 km2 Population 8.285.692 Density 94.9/km2 (245.9/sq mil) Percent 17,84% of Spain Anthem La bandera blanca y verde Oficial lenguages Spanish (Andalusian) Statute of Autonomy December 30, 1981 Parlament Cortes Generales Coin Euro (€)
  3. 3. Biogeographically, Andalusia forms part of the Western Mediterranean subregion of the Meditarrean Basin. Five floristic provinces lie, in whole or in part, within Andalusia: along much of the Atlantic coast, the Lusitanian-Andalusian littoral or Andalusian Atlantic littoral; in the north, the southern portion of the LusoExtremaduran floristic province; covering half of the region, the Baetic floristic province; and in the extreme east, the Almerian portion of the AlmerianMurcian floristic province and a small portion of the Castilian-Maestrazgan-Manchegan floristic province. These names derive primarily from past or present political geography: "Luso" and "Lusitanian" from Lusitania, one of three Roman provinces in Iberia, most of the others from present-day Spanish provinces, and Maestrazgo being an historical region of northern Valencia. Aquilegia Pyrenaica Cazorlensis Narcissus longipatus
  4. 4. In broad terms, the typical vegetation of Andalusia is Mediterranean woodland, characterized by leafy xeroophilic perennials, adapted to the long, dry summers. The dominant species is the Holly Oak ). Also abundant are Cork Oak , various pines, and Spanish Fir (Abies pinsapo). Due to cultivation, there are also olive and almond trees . The dominant understory is composed of thorny and aromatic woody species, such as Rosemary , Thyme , and Cistus. In the western areas with acidic soils, the most abundant species are the Oak and Cork Oak, and the cultivated Eucalyptus. In the woodlands, leafy hardwoods of genus Populus and Ulmus are also abundant; poplars are cultivated in the plains of Granada. Olea europaea Prunus dulcis Abies pinsapo
  5. 5. The Andalusian woodlands have been much altered by human settlement, the use of nearly all of the best land for farming, and frequent wildfires. The degraded forests become shrubby and perfect for a risk of fire. Extensive areas have been planted with trees which do not belong to this area, such as pines. There is now a clear conservation policy for the remaining forests, which survive almost exclusively in the mountains.
  6. 6. The biodiversity of Andalusia extends to its fauna as well. More than 400 of the 630 vertebrate species existing in Spain can be found in Andalusia. Andalusia is on the migratory route of many of the numerous flocks of birds that travel annually from Europe to Africa and back. Iberican Fox
  7. 7. The Andalusian wetlands host a rich variety of birds. Some are of African origin, such as the Red-knobbed Coot , the Purple Swamphen , and the Greater Flamingo . Others originate in Northern Europe, such as the Grevlag Goose . Birds of prey include the Spanish Imperial Eagle also known as Adalbert's Eagle, Aquila adalberti, the Griffon Vulture ), and both the Black and Red Kite . Lynx pardinus
  8. 8. Among the herbivores, are several deer species, notably the Fallow Deer and Roe Deer ; the European Mouflon , a type of sheep; and the Spanish Ibex (Capra pyrenaica, which despite its scientific name is no longer found in the Pyrenees). The Spanish Ibex has recently been losing ground to the Barbabry sheep , an invasive species from Africa, introduced for hunting in the 1970s. Among the small herbivores are rabbits—especially the European Rabbit —which form the most important part of the diet of the carnivorous species of the Mediterranean woodlands. Isabellae (andalusian butterfly)
  9. 9. The large carnivores such as the Iberican Wolf and the Iberican Lynx are quite threatened, and are limited to the Doñana, Sierra Morena, and Despeñaperros. Stocks of the Wild boar , on the other hand, have been well preserved because they are a popular with hunters. More abundant and in varied situations of conservation, are such smaller carnivores as Otters, very abundant Foxes, the European Badger , the European Polecat ), the Least Weasel , the Wildcat , the Common Genet , and the Egyptian Mongoose . Other notable species are Vipera latasti, a venomous snake, and the endemic and endangered fish Aphanius baeticus. Iberican Wolf
  10. 10. Andalusia has many unique ecosystems. In order to preserve these areas in a manner compatible with both conservation and economic exploitation, many of the most representative ecosystems have been given a protected status. Natural Park of Cazorla
  11. 11. There are various levels of protection within the Network of Protected Natural Spaces of Andalusia (Red de Espacios Naturales Protegidos de Andalucía, RENPA). RENPA integrates all protected natural spaces located in Andalusia, whether they are protected at the level of the local community, the autonomous community of Andalusia, the Spanish state, or by international conventions. There are 150 protected spaces, that is two national parks, 24 natural parks, 21 periurban parks (on the fringes of cities or towns), 32 natural sites, two protected countrysides, 37 natural monuments, 28 nature reserves, and four concerted nature reserves . They are all part of the European Union's Natura 2000 network. Under the international ambit are the nine Biosphere Reserves, 20 Ramsar wetland sites, four Specially Protected Areas of Mediterranean Importance and two UNESCO Geoparks.
  12. 12. In total, nearly 20% of the territory of Andalusia lies in one of these protected areas, which are approximately 30% of the protected territory of Spain. Among these many spaces, some of the most notable are the Sierras de Cazorla, Segura y Las Villas Natural Park, Spain's largest natural park and the second largest in Europe, the Sierra Nevada National Park, Doñana National and Natural Park, the Tabernas Desert, and the Cabo de Gata-Níjar Natural Park, the largest terrestrial-maritime reserve in the European Western Mediterranean Sea. Geranium Alfilerillos
  13. 13. Andalusia is in the warm-temperate region. In general, it has a Mediterranean climate. Andalusia has more than 300 "sunny" days a year. The average temperature in Andalusia throughout the year is over 16 °C (61 °F). The coldest month is January and the hottest are July and August, with an average temperature of 28.5 °C (83.3 °F). Córdoba is the hottest capital, followed by Seville. The Guadalquivir valley has the highest temperatures recorded in Europe, with a maximum of 46.6 °C (115.9 °F) recorded at Córdoba and Seville. Do not visit this regions in summer!
  14. 14. Andalusia has rivers that flow into both the Atlantic and the Mediterranean. Flowing to the Atlantic are the Guadiana, Odiel-Tinto, Guadalquivir, Guadalete, and Barbate. Flowing to the Mediterranean are the Guadiaro, Guadalhorce, Guadalmedina, Guadalfeo, Andarax and Almanzora. The Guadalquivir river is the longest in Andalusia and one of the fifth longest rivers in Spain, 657 kilometers.
  15. 15. There are two important mountain ranges, Sierra Morena and the Baetic Range. In Andalusia, the Baetic Depression, the basin of the Guadalquivir, lies between these two mountainous areas. Sierra Morena separates Andalusia from the Central Plateau. The Baetic Range consists of two mountain ranges: the Penibética Range and the Subbética Range.
  16. 16. Sierra Nevada (Penibética Range) in the province of Granada has the highest peaks in Iberian Peninsula: El Mulhacén at 3,478 meters and El Veleta at 3,392 meters. In Andalusia we find the Iberian peninsula's highest mountains. Sierra Nevada
  17. 17. Monuments
  18. 18. Seville • The Giralda is the bell tower of the Cathedral of Seville . One of the largest churches in the world and an outstanding example of the Gothic and Baroque architectural styles. The tower is 97.5 m in height and it was one of the most important symbols in the medieval city. The copper sphere that originally was at the top of the tower fell in an earthquake in 1365. Christians replaced the sphere with a cross and bell. The Giraldillo, the new statue has crowned the top of the tower since its 1568.
  19. 19. Seville • The Gold Tower is a dodecagonal military watchtower. It was built in Seville by the Berbers during the Almohad dynasty in order to control access to Seville through the Guadalquivir river. It was constructed in the first third of the 13th century. The tower served as a prison during the Middle Ages and as a secure enclosure for the protection of precious metals which were brought by the boats coming from the Indies. This could be another possible origin for the tower's name.
  20. 20. Cádiz • One of Cadiz's most famous landmarks is its cathedral. It sits on the site of an older cathedral, completed in 1260, which burned down in 1596. The reconstruction, which was not started until 1776, was supervised by the architect Vicente Acero, who had also built the Granada Cathedral. Acero left the project and was succeeded by several other architects. As a result, this largely baroque-style cathedral was built over a period of 116 years, and, due to this drawn-out period of construction, the cathedral underwent several major changes to its original design. Though the cathedral was originally intended to be a baroque edifice, it contains rococo elements, and was finally completed in the neoclassical style. Its chapels have many paintings and relics from the old cathedral and monasteries from throughout Spain.
  21. 21. Málaga • • The Museo Picasso Málaga is a museum in Málaga, the city where artist Pablo Ruiz Picasso was born .One of the world's many Picasso museus, it opened in 2003 in the Buenavista Palace, and has 155 works donated by members of Picasso's family. In 2009, the Fundación Paul, Christine y Bernard Ruiz-Picasso that owned the collection merged with the Fundación Museo Picasso Málaga that operated the museum, which is based in the home on Málaga's Plaza de la Merced that was Picasso's birthplace, and is now the Museo Casa Natal ("Birthplace Museum"). The new merged foundation is the "Fundación Museo Picasso Málaga. Legado Paul, Christine y Bernard Ruiz-Picasso" . Besides its role displaying the work of Picasso, the museum has also committed itself to relaunch the city's cultural life, and to focus not only on tourism but on the local culture.
  22. 22. Huelva • • La Rábida Monastery (in full, Monasterio de Santa María de la Rábida) is a Franciscan monastery in the town of Palos de la Frontera( Huelva). The monastery is located 13 km south of the city of Huelva, where the Tinto and Odiel rivers meet. The Monastery of La Rábida has been Franciscan property since the thirteenth century. It was founded as a monastery in 1261; the evidence is a papal bull issued by Pope Benedict XIII in that year, allowing Friar Juan Rodríguez and his companions to establish a monastic community on the coast of Andalusia. The first Christian building on the site was constructed over a small pre-existing Almohad building that lends its name (rábida or rápita, meaning "watchtower" in Arabic) to the present monastery. The Franciscans have held great influence in the region ever since.
  23. 23. Jaén • The most monumental cities of Jaén are: Úbeda and Baeza. • Ubeda and Baeza in Jaén, is an UNESCO World Heritage Site. • Superimposed on its historic Arab city plan is Spain’s best collection of Renaissance buildings. • Beautiful handcarved stone and white washed facades transport the visitor back in time. • This regional commercial and cultural center in surrounded by majestic parks and wilderness preserves (Cazorla, Segura, Las Villa, Sierra Magina, etc.)
  24. 24. Córdoba • • • • • • During its great days of splendor, was probably one of the most beautiful cities in the world. And even now, you can admire its old glory. There is a magnificent mosque, one-of-a-kind buildings and gardens. That’s why Cordoba is named as one of the World Heritage Sites. Cordoba has a rich and fascinating culture. You can readily see this in their music, art, architecture and food. Cordoba’s museum contains some of the highly interesting and very varied glimpses of this culture. In Cordoba you can enjoy its atmosphere , its shops, restaurants, parks and gardens, and nightlife. Cordoba is an ideal start-off point to Andalusia’s other cities and towns, which are easily accessible by train. The tourist can travel to historic Medina Zahara and then to La Sierra Norte. The tourist can also go on a wine tasting tour of Los Valles del Sur.
  25. 25. Granada • Alhambra was build by the Nazaris in 1238. It was a fortress and a residential area. • It was built on the top of the hill “Sierra Elvira” in Granada as a small town with beautiful gardens and decorations. The Generalife palace was constructed in the 14th century next to the Alhambra. It was a residence for the Nazari Monarchs. The palace is full of incredible Moorish architecture, sculptures and gardens. • The Catholic Kings ordered the construction of the cathedral of Granada in 1503 after conquering the town from the Moors. The cathedral was designed by the architect San Juan Evangelist. It is a mixture between Gothic and Renaissance styles. The catholic kings are buried in the Royal Chapel in this Cathedral (1512).
  26. 26. SHORT HISTORY • Andalusia is in the extreme south of Europe, it is a gateway between Europe and Africa. Andalusia has a strategic position between the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea. It has got rich deposits of minerals and agricultural wealth. For this reason a lot of civilizations have arrived in Andalusia since prehistoric times .And Andalusia has also been important in the history of Europe and the Mediterranean. • Some theories believe that the first hominids in Europe were in Andalusia. They went across the Straight of Gibraltar. • The earliest known cultures in Andalusia ( archaeological sites at Los Millares, El Algar, and Tartessos), were influenced by cultures of the Eastern Mediterranean who settled on the Andalusian coast and influenced the cultures of the interior. • Andalusia then went through a period of protohistory, when the region did not have a written language of its own, but we know about the existence of these cultures by the literature. They were the Phoenicians and Ancient Greeks. • The kingdom of Tartessos developed in Andalusia, during the second millennium BCE.
  27. 27. Carthaginians and Romans • • • • • • Ruins of Baelo Claudia. After the fall of the Phoenician cities, Carthage was the most important city of the western Mediterranean Sea. It was very important for trade partner with the Phoenician towns along the Andalusian coast. "Al-Andalus" was applied to a much larger area than the present Andalusia, and in some periods it referred almost the whole Iberian peninsula. Nevertheless, the Guadalquivir valley in present-day Andalusia was the heart of Muslim power in the peninsula, with Córdoba as its capital. The Umayyad Caliphate of Córdoba had such leaders as Abd-ar-Rahman III (ruled 912–961) and his son, Al-Hakam II (ruled 961–976). Under these rulers, Spanish Islam reached its highest point, and Córdoba was a centre of global economic and cultural importance. Great Mosque of Córdoba. Already in the 10th century, the Christians of northern Spain had begun what would eventually become the Reconquista: the reconquest of Spain for Christendom. Abd-arRahman suffered some military defeats, but often managed to play off the Christian kingdoms against one another. Al-Hakam generally maintained peace and retained his status as the dominant figure of Iberia. Almanzor (effective ruler after Al-Hakam's death) achieved military successes, but at the expense of uniting the Christian kings of the north against him.
  28. 28. • Internal divisions after the death of Almanzor (1002) led to the first of several decompositions of the Caliphate (1031). New centers of power appeared, each ruling a “taifa” . The taifa of Seville was especially influential, but the Emirate of Granada was the last to survive( from 1228 until 1492) • After the conquest of Toledo in 1086 by Alfonso VI, Christian rule dominated the peninsula. The main taifas needed help from various Muslim powers across the Mediterranean. A number of different Muslim dynasties of North African origin( Almoravids and Almohads) dominated a less powerful Al-Andalus over the next following centuries. • Between the First and Second Punic Wars, Carthage extended its control beyond Andalusia to include all of Iberia except the Basque Country. Andalusia was an important place for the war with Rome led by the Barkid Hannibal. The Romans defeated the Carthaginians and conquered Andalusia “ Baetica” .It was incorporated into the Roman Empire, and from this region came many Roman magistrates and senator, as well as the emperors Trajan and Hadrian.
  29. 29. Vandals and Visigoths • The Vandals moved briefly through the region during the 5th century AD before settling in North Africa, after which the region fell into the hands of the Kingdom of the Visigoths. The Visigoths in this region were practically independent of the Visigothic kingdom based at Toledo. This is the era of Saints Isidore of Seville and Hermenegild. During this period, around 555 AD, the Byzantine Empire conquered Andalusia under Justinian. Though their holdings were quickly reduced, they continued to have interests in the region until they lost it in 624.
  30. 30. Muslim period • The Caliphate of Córdoba c. 1000, at the most powerful point of Almanzor's rule. • The Visigothic era came to quick end when the Umayyad general Tariq ibn Ziyad, a Berber, conquered Visigothic Hispania in 711. Tariq is known in Spanish history and legend as Tariq el Tuerto ("Tariq the One-eyed"). The Muslim conquest of the Iberian Peninsula in 711–718 marked the collapse of Visigothic rule. Andalusian culture was very influenced by over half a millennium of rule by a series of Muslim states.
  31. 31. HISTORICAL OUTLINE • 2500 BC: - First metalworking. • 11. - 6. BC: - Kingdom of "Tartessos". • 900 BC: - Phoenician settle the Iberian peninsula and found Cádiz. • 8. Jh. BC: - Foundation of Hispalis (Seville). • 600 BC: - Greek settlements along the Andalusian coast. • 500 BC: - Carthaginian (Punic) settlements • 264 BC: - Begin of the Punic War (1st).
  32. 32. HISTORICAL OUTLINE • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 218 BC: Begin of the Punic War (2nd). 216 BC : Hispalis is destructed by the Romans. 205 BC: Scipio founds Italica. 19 BC: Foundation of the "Baetica" province. 98 – 117: Trajan: Roman emperor, the first to be born outside Italy. 117 – 138: Hadrian, Trajan's nephew and successor as Roman emperor. 3rd C: Growing influence of the Christian religion.
  33. 33. HISTORICAL OUTLINE • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 409 – 429: Reign of the Vandals. 476 Foundation of the Visigoth Kongdom. 484 – 507: King Alarich 2nd 589: The Visigoth convert to the Catholic belief. th-7th C.: The bishops Leander and Isidor are the main protagonists of the Visigoth reign. 711 – 716: Arab military troops under Tarik-ibn-Ziyad conquer the region. 756: Abd ar-Rahman.I. founds the Emirate of Córdoba.
  34. 34. HISTORICAL OUTLINE • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 929: Abd ar-Rahman III. proclaims himself Caliph of Córdoba. 1031: Decline of the Caliphate. since 1086: Reign of the Almoravids. Mid 12th C.: Reign of the Almohads. 1212: Christian troops defeat the Almohads close to Las Navas de Tolosa. 13th C.: The Kastilian rulers conquer large parts of Andalusia. 1232 – 1492: Nasrid Kingdom in Granada
  35. 35. HISTORICAL OUTLINE • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Oct. 1492: Columbus reaches the West Indies. 1503: Seville has the trade monopoly for the New World. 1516: Charles V inherits the Spanish crown: 16th C.: Suppression of two Arab revolts 1556: Philipp II successor of Charles V. 1588: The "invincible" Spanish "Armada" is destroyed by England. 1609: Deportation of the last Moors.
  36. 36. HISTORICAL OUTLINE • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 1621: Philipp IV accesses the throne. 1641: Revolts in the big Andalusian cities. 1649: Seville loses half of its population by the pest desease. 1680: Cádiz obtains the trade monopoly from Seville. 1701-15: Spanish War of Succession. 1704: Gibraltar becomes British. 1788: Cádiz loses the monopoly for the trade with the New World.
  37. 37. HISTORICAL OUTLINE • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 1812: First Spanish Constitution (Cádiz). 1834-39: Wars for the Spanish throne. 1873: First Spanish Republic. 1875: Restauration of the monarchy under Alfonso XII 1892: Revolts in Jerez de la Frontera. 1898: Lost of the last Spanish colonies. 1900-31: Period of social and economic tensions. 1923-30: Dictatorship under General Primo de Rivera.
  38. 38. HISTORICAL OUTLINE • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 1929: Ibero-American world exposition in Seville. 1931-36: 2nd Republic. 1936-39: Civil War. 1939-75: Dictatorship of General Franco. 1975: Juan Carlos I. King of Spain. 1977: Free elections in Spain. 1982: Andalusia receives the status of an autonomous region. Regional Parliament elections. 1986: Spain becomes member of the European Community (Today: European Union). 1992: EXPO in Seville.
  39. 39. Spanish or Castilian (español or castellano in Spanish) is a Romance language in the Ibero-Romance group that evolved from several dialects and languages in the northern fringes of the Iberian Peninsula during the 10th century and gradually spread through the Kingdom of Castile, becoming the foremost language for government and trade in the Spanish Empire. Latin, the basic foundation of the Spanish language, was introduced to the Iberian Peninsula by Romans during the Second Punic War around 210 BC. During the 5th century, Hispania was invaded by Germanic Vandals, Suevi and Visigoths, and other eastern peoples (Alans), resulting in numerous dialects of Vulgar Latin. After the Moorish Conquest in the 8th century, Arabic became an influence in the evolution of Iberian languages including Castilian. Modern Spanish developed with the Readjustment of the Consonants that began in 15th century. The language continues to adopt foreign words from a variety of other languages, as well as developing new words. Castilian was taken most notably to the Americas as well as to Africa and Asia Pacific with the expansion of the Spanish Empire between the fifteenth and nineteenth centuries. As of 2010, 329 to 358 million people speak Spanish as a native language and a total of 417 million people speak it worldwide. It is the second most natively-spoken language in the world, after Mandarin Chinese. Mexico contains the largest population of Spanish speakers. Spanish is one of the six official languages of the United Nations.
  40. 40. In Andalusia we speak Spanish.The Andalusian variety of Spanish (also called andaluz/andalú) is spoken in Andalusia, Ceuta, Melilla, Gibraltar and parts of southern Extremadura. Andalusian has a number of distinguishing phonological, morphological, syntactic and lexical features. It is perhaps the most distinct of the southern variants of peninsular Spanish, differing in many respects from northern varieties as well as from Standard Spanish. Many words of Mozarabic, Romani and Old Castilian origin occur in Andalusian which are not found in other dialects in Spain. There are also many words of Andalusi Arabic origin that have become archaisms , together with multitude of sayings. Due to the large population of Andalusia, the Andalusian dialect is the second most spoken dialect in Spain, after the transitional variants between Castilian and Andalusian (for example the one from Madrid). Because of the massive emigration from Andalusia to the Spanish colonies in the Americas and elsewhere, many American Spanish dialects share some fundamental characteristics with Andalusian Spanish. Andalusian is the language of Flamenco music. Unfortunately, the Andalusian accent is often the mark of comic characters because of its particular accent.
  41. 41. How much does it cost? ¿Cuánto es? Do you understand English? Do you speak English? ¿Entiende el inglés? ¿Hablas inglés? I am... Estoy... Happy Birthday Feliz cumpleaños! Can you help me? ¿Me puede ayudar? I am from Soy de... I am called... (My name is...) Me llamo... Happy New Year! Feliz Año Nuevo!
  42. 42. I don't know. No lo sé. I am fine. Estoy bien Good morning Good afternoon Buenos días Buenas tardes I am happy. I don't like it. No me gusta. Estoy alegre. Good-bye. I am hungry. Tengo hambre. Adiós Good evening Buenas noches I am sad. Estoy triste. I am sick. Estoy enfermo. Good night Buenas noches.
  43. 43. Where is the bathroom? ¿Donde esta el baño? How are you? ¿Cómo estás? What time is it? ¿Que hora es I would like... Me gustaria... I like it. Me gusta. when cuándo where? dónde Where is the bathroom? ¿Donde esta el baño? maybe quizá I need a doctor. Necesito un médico. which? cuál who quién ?? My name is... Me llamo... please por favor Where are you from? ¿De dónde eres? I love you. Te amo. Please help me. Ayúdeme, por favor. You're welcome. De nada. Please repeat that. ¿Podria repetir, por favor?
  44. 44. • Bullfighting started in the village squares, and became formalised, with the building of the bullring in Ronda (Málaga) in the late 18th century. From that time, it began to follow a particular sequence of events: the entrance of the bull, the picador, the banderilleros, and finally the matador (bullfighter). Many of the picadors' horses were injured , so these heavy horses now wear protection.
  45. 45. • A matador is usually wears a satin suit of lights which is generally decorated in gold. His Assistants tend to wear suits decorated in silver. A matador’s suit is hand-made, taking six people a month to create and costing from 1.500 EUR to 2.400 EUR, the whole outfit usually costs over EUR 4.000.
  46. 46. • There are over seventy bullrings in Andalusia registered by the Regional government. Real Maestranza de Sevilla Ronda bullring
  47. 47. • The Carnival in Cádiz is one of the best-known carnivals in the world. The city participates in the carnival for more than two weeks each year, and the presence of this fiesta is everywhere in the city because there are rehearsals, recitals, and contests held throughout the year.
  48. 48. • The style of the music is absolutely free and unstructured. It can be a well-known form, an original composition, or even a spoken-word recitation. • The Couplet is sung by the chirigotas, comparsas, choirs, and quartets. They are short satirical songs with a refrain. It is always related to the costume and the characterization of the group. • The Pasodoble is a longer song without a refrain, and it is usually (but not always) serious. It criticizes something that happened during the previous year or rendering an homage to someone. • The Tango, with its characteristic “gaditano” rhythm is sung only by the choirs, accompanied by their orchestras, and they are mostly poetical compositions. • All groups sing The Potpourri,. They change the lyrics of a very popular song of the year or any other kind of music. They are very funny.
  49. 49. • Throughout seven days. The streets and squares in Andalusian cities and villages are full of people. They go out to see the wooden statues of the Virgin and Christ with the music that accompany them to the Cathedral . There are “costaleros” who carry the weight of the ”pasos”(wooden structure which carries the statues) and their sculptured representations of the biblical scene. Also, there are "nazarenos“, people dressed in tunics, hoods and masks and women dressed in traditional costumes. The high point of the procession is when the “PASO” exits and enters its church. When the procession exits and enters the church, some people sing the “saeta”. The “saeta” is a song that people sing to the Virgin or Christ and they express their personal feelings . The most important Virgin is the Macarena. It is very beautiful and when you can see her beauty and her emeralds shining. And the most famous Christ is Gran Poder. It is in Seville too and it is the oldest statue in the city.
  50. 50. • • • • • • • • The Rocio Pilgrimage is the most famous in the region. 1 million people go to celebrate The Rocio Pilgrimage. This is a tradition that began in the 15th century when a hunter from the village of Villamanrique discovered a statue of the Virgin Mary in a tree trunk near the Doñana Park. Devotion to this particular version of the Virgin was initially a local affair. It became more and more important; there are a lot of tourists who come from a broad and different places in Spain. People pay tribute to El Roció Virgin .It is brought out for display and veneration just for the occasion. To reach the village of El Rocio, pilgrims must go across part of the Doñana Park, which is a protected natural area. There are people working to keep both participants and Doñana safe every year. The climax of the festival is the weekend before Pentecost Monday (12 May 2008, 1 June 2009, 24 May 2010). In the early hours of this Monday the Virgin is brought out of the church. People stay in El Rocío for the weekend and they have a good time dancing, drinking, eating but also praying and singing to the Virgin.
  51. 51. • • • • The Seville Spring Fair, La Feria de Abril de Sevilla, is held in the capital of Andalusia, Seville. The fair generally begins two weeks after the Holy Week. The fair officially begins at midnight on Tuesday, and it lasts six days until Sunday. During past fairs, however, many activities have begun on the Saturday prior to the official opening. Each day the fiesta begins with the parade of carriages and riders, at midday, carrying Seville's richest and most popular citizens. People go to the bullring, La Real Maestranza. It is one of the most famous bullrings in the world. “La Feria” takes place in a big area on the bank of the Guadalquivir River. There are rows of casetas (individual decorated tents which people build on the fairground). Some of these casetas belong to the prominent families of Seville, some to groups of friends, clubs, trade associations or political parties. You will find crowds partying and dancing "Sevillanas", drinking Jerez, manzanilla wine, and eating tapas from midday until six or seven the following morning, at first in the streets and later only within each caseta.
  52. 52. • He was an Andalusian poet, a prolific writer who received the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1956. One of Jiménez's most important contributions to modern poetry was his advocacy of the French concept of "pure poetry." • Jimenez was born in Moguer, near Huelva, in Andalusia, on 24 December 1881. The main subjects of many of his poems were music and color, which, at times, he compared to love or lust. • In Platero y Yo (1914), his most important book, Juan Ramón pictures daily life in his native land. The book can be defined as prose poetry and it is full of references to Andalusian way of life. Platero is a donkey which really existed, the animal is still buried in the place described by the poet at the end of the book.
  53. 53. • Was born in Seville in 1875. He was a poet and one of the leading figures of the literary movement known as the Generation of '98.His most important works are “Soledades” wrote in 1903, Galerías y Otros poemas wrote in 1912, Campos de Castilla, in 1917, and Nuevas canciones, in 1936.
  54. 54. • (5 June 1898 – 19 August 1936) was a poet, dramatist and theatre director born in Granada. García Lorca achieved international recognition as an emblematic member of the Generation of '27. He was executed by Nationalists at the beginning of the Spanish Civil War. • Some of the most distinguished works from García Lorca are Poema del Cante Jondo, Canciones y Suites, Romancero gitano, Poeta en Nueva York, Llanto por Ignacio Sánchez Mejías. Doña Rosita la soltera, Bodas de sangre, la zapatera prodigiosa y Mariana Pineda are too important Works of him.
  55. 55. • He was born in Córdoba in 4th century b.C. • He was a Roman stoic philosopher, statesman, dramatist and humorist, of the Silver Age of Latin literature. • He was tutor and later advisor to emperor Nero. He was later forced to commit suicide for complicity in the Pisonian conspiracy to assassinate this last of the Julio-Claudian emperors; however, he may have been innocent. • He died in the year 65th a.C.
  56. 56. • • • • He was born in Seville the 53th year a.C. Was the 13Th Roman Emperor, who reigned from AD 98 until his death in AD 117. Trajan rose to prominence during the reign of emperor Domitian, serving as a general in the Roman army along the German frontier, and successfully crushing the revolt of Antonius Saturninus in 89. On September 18, 96, Domitian was succeeded by Marcus Cocceius Nerva, an old and childless senator who proved to be unpopular with the army. After a brief and tumultuous year in power, a revolt by members of the Praetorian Guard compelled him to adopt the more popular Trajan as his heir and successor. Nerva died on January 27, 98, and was succeeded by his adopted son without incident. He died 117th year a.C.
  57. 57. • He was born in Seville at 1885. Blas Infante was an andalusian politician, writer, historian and musicologist, known as the "Father" of Andalusia. He was killed at the beginning of the Spanish Civil War because his ideals did not agree with those of the Franco’s .
  58. 58. • He was born the 11th of July 1561 • He was a Spanish Baroque lyric poet. Góngora and his rival, Francisco de Quevedo, were the most prominent Spanish poets of their age. His style is characterized by what was called culteranismo, also known as Gongorism (Gongorismo). This style existed in s contrast to Quevedo's Conceptismo. • He died 24th May 1627.
  59. 59. • He was born in Seville , 1836 and died in Madrid in 1870. He was an Andalusian post-romanticist writer of poetry and short stories. Now he is considered one of the most important figures in Spanish literature. He adopted the alias of Bécquer as his brother Valeriano Bécquer, a painter, had done earlier. He was associated with the post-romanticism movement and wrote while realism was enjoying success in Spain. He was moderately well known during his life, but it was after his death that most of his works were published.
  60. 60. • (November 23, 1876 – November 14, 1946) He was a Spanish composer of classical music.
  61. 61. • (25 October 1881 – 8 April 1973) was a Spanish painter, draughtsman, and sculptor. He is best known for co-founding the Cubist movement and for the wide variety of styles embodied in his work. Among his most famous works are the proto-Cubist Les Demoiselles d'Avignon (1907) and Guernica ,1937 which describes the Spanish Civil War with a portray of the German bombing of Guernica during the Spanish Civil War.
  62. 62. • (January 21, 1923 – May 16, 1995). Her real name was María Dolores Flores Ruiz. She was an Andalusian flamenco singer, dancer, and actress. She was very popular abroad.
  63. 63. • (Born 5 March 1942) is a Spanish socialist politician. He was the General Secretary of the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE) from 1974 to 1997. So far, he remains the longest-serving Prime Minister of Spain, after having served four successive mandates from 1982 to 1996.
  64. 64. • (September 18, 1946 – June 1, 2006) was a Spanish singer and actress. She was born in Chipiona, Cádiz, Spain and was nicknamed "La más grande" ("The Greatest"). Jurado was once married to boxer Pedro Carrasco, with whom she had a daughter, Rocío Carrasco. Divorced, she married bullfighter José Ortega Cano, and they adopted two children, Gloria Camila and José Fernando. She was one of the best flamenco singers.
  65. 65. • (Born in August 10, 1960), better known as Antonio Banderas. He is a Spanish film actor, film director, film producer and singer. He began his acting career at age 19 with a series of films by director Pedro Almodóvar and then appeared in Hollywood films including Assassins, Evita, Interview with the Vampire, Philadelphia, Desperado, The Mask of Zorro, Spy Kids and the Shrek sequels.
  66. 66. • He was born in Algeciras, Cádiz on December 21, 1947. He is a Spanish composer and guitarist. Recognized as a virtuoso flamenco guitarist all over the world, he is a leading proponent of the Modern Flamenco style, and is one of the very few flamenco guitarists who has also successfully crossed over into other genres of music. He enjoys, and has been a successful musician in, many styles such as classical, jazz and world music. He is the winner of the 2004 Prince of Asturias Awards in Arts.
  67. 67. Salmorejo: it’s a cold soup made with hard bread, mature garlic, water, oil, tomatoes. Gazpacho: it’s garlic, water, pepper, tomatoes. Fried Pescaito: an assortment of fried fish, big holes, small cuttlefishes, calamari’s, picots, Pavia… flavored Potatoes: cooked potatoes, green and red pepper, oil vinegar and salt. Rabbit with rice: meat of rabbit and rice stew. Fritá: a great marrow, green peppers, mature tomatoes, onion, pepper, olive oil, garlic and salt. Pipirrana: a salad eat with mature tomatoes, green pepper, red pepper, oregano, egg, garlic, vinegar, oil and salt.
  68. 68. Tail of Ox Stew: A tail of ox, onion, laurel, ground pepper, carrots, nails, white wine, water and salt. Fish and shellfish: With five coastal provinces, the consumption of fish and shellfish is rather high: white shrimp from the Bay of Cádiz; prawns; murex; anchovies; baby squid; cuttlefish; "bocas de la Isla", a dish found in San Fernando that uses a local crab that can regenerate its claw; flound; smelts etc.
  69. 69. Pringá is a Spanish dish which is particularly popular in rural Andalusia. It consists of roast beef or pork, cured sausages such as chorizo and morcilla, and beef or pork fat that is slow cooked for many hours until the meat falls apart easily. To eat, people break off pieces of crusty bread and use it to pull away a little meat, sausage, and fat. Then, they mash the bread in the meat and enjoy. It is a social dish eaten around the family dinner table.
  70. 70. dough made of flour and wheat. Fried with olive oil. milk, rice, cinnamon in branch lemon rind, rind of orange and worn out cinnamon. potax, cakes, sugar and milk flan. bread soaked in milk, refrito in oil, sugar or honey.
  71. 71. Ray: It is a wine that did not reach the aroma of an odorous one, having less refinement and consequently they are considered of smaller quality. Manzanilla: it is a wine that grows up in the warehouses of the Spanish city of Sanlúcar de Barrameda (Andalusia), Is a very pale wine, of characteristic sharp aroma, slight to the palate, dry and little acid, with a graduation that until years ago oscillated between 15.5 y17% of alcohol in volume. At the moment manzanilla has 15 alcohol degrees. Pedro Ximénez :Also call Pedro Ximén. The wine takes the name from the grape with which it is elaborated, Being chaste the dominant one in Montilla-Moriles, where it is used to elaborate the same types of wines that in She Odorous Amontillado Summer red
  72. 72. Andalusia is the best place to eat as a “tapeo” as it is usually said here. In Andalusia we eat in small plates with small portions of food so that people eat small quantities of everything at the same time. “Tapas” always go accompanied with some drinks. in this case usually a beer.