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Problem, process, and solution part 1

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Problem, process, and solution part 1

  1. 1. Stefan Rathert
  2. 2.  Problem-solution texts The structure of problem-solution texts Language focus: Midposition adverbs Process
  3. 3. •problem-to-solution movement underlying structure in academic writing•frequently used in introductions and critiques
  4. 4. •procedure and process often components in problem-solution structure•procedure: steps required to solve a problem•process: description of sequence of events, e.g. how a problem emerges
  5. 5. •problem-to-solution texts usually argumentative and evaluative•researcher perceptive and questioning
  6. 6. THE SITUATION
  7. 7. THE PROBLEM
  8. 8. THE SOLUTION
  9. 9. THE EVALUATION
  10. 10. SITUATION PROBLEM SOLUTIONEVALUATION
  11. 11. There are various benefitsthat student-teachers canaccrue from researching theirown practice as they focus THE SITUATIONtheir intellects, academicknowledge, and personalexperience on conductingclassroom-based research(Steinberg and Kincheloe1998).
  12. 12. Unfortunately,however, manyteachers rarelyengage in research THE PROBLEMunless encouragedto do so by teachereducation (Borg2009a).
  13. 13. To help teachers becomeresearch active, Borg (2009b)suggests that teacher educationcourses can be organized andstructured in certain ways. Forexample, they can include THE SOLUTIONawareness-raising activities (….)Teachers may thus beempowered, pedagogically,cognitively, and politically(Steinberg and Kincheloeop.cit.), to become more activein supporting learning.
  14. 14. However,notwithstanding thework of Atay (op.cit.),writing in a Turkish THE EVALUATIONcontext, little of thissupporting evidencecomes from the field ofELT (Borg 2009a).
  15. 15. In addition, with sufficient space and time,participating teachers may more easily developtheir ideas.Teachers may thus be empowered, pedagogically,cognitively, and politically (Steinberg andKincheloe op.cit.), to become more active insupporting learning.
  16. 16. The provisions of the law must be applied with care.The provisions of the law must carefully be applied.In chapter 10, Ellis describes in only a couple ofparagraphs seven theories of SLA.In chapter 10, Ellis briefly describes seven theories ofSLA.
  17. 17.  Figure 1 illustrates the interaction of acquisition and learning in adult second language production.  Fig.1. Model for adult second language performance
  18. 18.  Krashen, S. (1981). Second language acquisition and second language learning. Pergamon Press: University of Carolina (First internet edition 2002) Retrieved from: http://sdkrashen.com/SL_Acquisition_and_Learn ing/SL_Acquisition_and_Learning.pdf Swales, J.M. and Feak, C.B. (1994). Academic writing for graduate students. Essential tasks and skills (2nd Edition). The University of Michigan Press: Michigan. Wyatt, M. (2011). Teachers researching their own practice. ELT Journal 65/4, p. 417-425.

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