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Agroforestry based forage production systems for hills

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Agroforestry based forage production systems for hills

  1. 1. WELCOME
  2. 2. Agroforestry Based Forage Production Systems for Hills Speaker : Sunil Kumar (A-2012-40-004)
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION
  4. 4.  The hilly region of India is presently under heavy stress on account of a large scale exploitation for fuel wood, timber and fodder, mismanagement of forest resources and frequent fires.  There is acute shortage of fodder especially green nutritious fodder, which is the major cause of low productivity of the livestock, especially in hilly area.  The main reasons for low productivity is insufficient and low quality fodder and feed including grazing facilities.
  5. 5. Present status of fodder resources  Low yield of cultivated fodders – (rainfed cultivation; low priority crops of farmers).  Pastures and grazing lands – Over grazing and continuous grazing – Short growing season of grasses – Absence of legumes – Low production potential of native species – Dominance of weeds and unproductive grasses  Weak seed production programme.  Wide gap between demand and supply of fodder.
  6. 6. States Forests Pastures & grazing lands Net area sown Arunachal Pradesh 5154 18 212 Assam 1853 160 2811 Himachal Pradesh 1103 1500 542 Jammu & Kashmir 2023 120 735 Manipur 1742 1 233 Meghalaya 946 .. 283 Mizoram 1585 5 123 Sikkim 584 .. 77 Uttarakhand 3485 198 741 GOI 2013 Major land use pattern in the hills (‘000 ha)
  7. 7. Livestock population Species India (million) HP (million) Cattle 199.07 2.23 Buffalo 105.34 0.76 Sheep 71.56 0.90 Goat 140.54 1.24 Horses, Camels, Pigs, Mules and Donkeys 18.14 0.04 Total 530 5.17 Livestock Census 2007
  8. 8. Demand and Availability of Fodder in India and HP (million tonnes) Feed Demand Supply GAP % GAP India Dry Fodder 416 253 163 40 % Green Fodder 222 143 79 36 % Himachal Pradesh Dry Fodder 4.60 2.30 2.30 50 % Green Fodder 2.45 1.98 0.47 20 % Anonymous 2011
  9. 9. Year Supply Demand Deficit as % of demand Green Dry Green Dry Green Dry 1995 379 421 947 526 60 20 2000 384 428 988 549 61 22 2005 389 443 1025 569 62 22 2010 395 451 1061 589 63 23 2015 400 466 1097 609 63 23 2020 405 473 1134 630 64 25 2025 411 488 1170 650 65 25 IGFRI 2011 Supply and demand scenario of forage and roughage till 2030 in India (million tonnes)
  10. 10. Silvopasture Alley cropping Windbreaks Forest farming Agroforestry Agroforestry is indeed the best land management system, which brings harmony between forestry and agriculture for meeting the rural requirements of timber, food, fuel, fodder etc. without disturbing the ecosystem.
  11. 11.  Landscape  Environmental  Climate change mitigation  Increased production  Economic  Social  Animal Welfare  Protect soil and water resources  Conserve energy  Sustainability Benefits of Agroforestry Systems
  12. 12. Characteristics of tree species for agroforestry  Sparse branching  Tolerance to side shading  Nutrient addition to soil  Ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen  Nutritive and palatable fodder  Optimum light penetration to ground  Absence of competition at root zone level  Self pruning or capacity to withstand heavy pruning  Production of fodder/timber/firewood/green manure on sustained basis
  13. 13. Agroforestry key traits Intentional: Combinations of trees, crops or animals are intentionally designed and managed as a whole unit, rather than as individual elements that may occur in close proximity but are controlled separately. Intensive: Agroforestry practices are intensively managed to maintain their productive and protective functions; these practices often involve annual operations such as cultivation and fertilization.
  14. 14. Interactive: Agroforestry management seeks to actively manipulate the biological and physical interactions between the tree, crop and animal components. The goal is to enhance the production of more than one harvestable component at a time, while also providing conservation benefits such as non-point source water pollution control or wildlife habitat. Integrated: The tree, crop or animal components are structurally and functionally combined into a single, integrated management unit. Such integration utilizes more of the productive capacity of the land and helps balance economic production with resource conservation. conti…
  15. 15. Objectives of Agroforestry Biomass production Soil improvement Moderation of microclimates Conservation of production base Promotion of agro-based cottage industry
  16. 16. Agro-climatic zone Agroforestry system Tree component Crop/grass Western Himalayas Silvipasture Grewia optiva, Morus alba Setaria spp. Agrihorticulture Malus pumila, Prunus persica Millets, wheat Maize, Soybean Eastern Himalayas Agrisilviculture Anthocephalus Cadamba Paddy Agrihorticulture Alnus nepalensis Large Cardamom/Coffee Silviculture Bamboos, Morus alba Silvipasture Bauhinia variegata, Ficus, Morus alba Napier grass Eastern Plateau & Hills Agrisilviculture Gmelina arborea, Acacia nilotica Paddy, linseed Silviculture Acacia mangium, Acacia nilotica Silvipasture Leucaena leucocephala Chrysopogon, Pennisetum, Dicanthium Improved agroforestry systems for various Agro-climatic zone
  17. 17. Agro-climatic zone Agroforestry system Tree component Crop/grass Central Plateau & Hills Agrihorticulture Psidium gujava, Emblica officinalis Bengalgram/Groundnut, Blackgram/Greengram Agrisilviculture Acacia nilotica Leucaena leucocephala Soyabean, Blackgram- Mustard/Wheat Silvipasture Albizia amara, Leucaena leucocephala Chrysopogon, Stylosanthes hamata, S. scabra Western Plateau & Hills Agrihortisilvi Tectona grandis Paddy, Maize Agrihorti Areca catechu Black pepper, Cardamom Silviculture Prosopis julifora Silvipasture Acacia mangium Cenchrus Southern Plateau & Hills Agrisilviculture Eucalyptus Cotton Silviculture Leucaena leucocephala Agrihorti Tamarindus Chilli Improved agroforestry systems for various Agro-climatic zone
  18. 18. Agroforestry Systems Silvipasture Alley Cropping Hortipasture Forage production on terrace risers/bunds
  19. 19. Silvipasture system
  20. 20. Silvipasture system  It combines trees with forage (pasture or hay) and livestock production.  Established by adding trees to existing pasture, or by thinning an existing forest stand and adding (or improving) a forage component.  Trees are managed for high-value sawlogs, provide shelter for livestock, protecting against temperature stresses.  Forage and livestock provide short-term income while sawlogs are being grown, providing diversified economic returns.
  21. 21. Silvipasture system benefits Improved plant vigor Lower animal stress Reduced wildfire risk Improved wildlife habitat Soil improvement Productivity in fodder tree plantation Increased income opportunities
  22. 22. Treatment Grasses Albizia lebbek Average dry forage yield (t ha-1 yr-1) Coppicing height (cm) Leaf fodder yield (t ha-1 yr-1) Fuel wood yield (t ha-1 yr-1) Hybrid napier + A. lebbek 35.28 5.0 1.49 1.72 Cenchrus setigerus + A. lebbek 10.44 15.0 1.19 3.97 C. ciliaris + A. lebbek 7.83 30.0 2.81 9.29 C. hybrid + A. lebbek 7.4 45.0 1.76 8.26 Forage and fuel wood production in Albizia lebbek based silvi-pastoral system Gupta et al. 2007Jammu
  23. 23. Effect of tree management practices on productivity (q ha-1) of mixed tree species based silvopastoral system Treatments Leaf biomass Branch biomass Grass biomass Total biomass Grewia optiva 4m + Grass 11.40 17.54 97.00 125.94 Leucaena 1m + Grass 7.99 33.76 47.83 89.58 G. optiva 4m + Leucaena 1 m + Grass 8.53 23.90 71.69 104.13 Leucaena 2m + Grass 10.72 40.64 48.28 99.64 G. optiva 4m + Leucaena 2 m + Grass 8.31 19.65 54.11 82.06 Morus alba 4 m + Grass 7.85 28.90 84.45 121.21 Morus alba 4m + Leucaena 1m + Grass 4.09 14.38 75.21 93.67 CD (5%) 3.05 8.27 21.46 20.71 Yadava et al. 1997Solan
  24. 24. Dry matter production and carrying capacity of improved grassland and a silvi-pastoral system Treatments Dry matter (t ha-1) Carrying capacity Animal unit ha-1 annum -1 Crude protein (%) Control 06.90 2.70 3.05 Setaria 15.10 6.60 6.27 Setaria + Siratro 15.50 6.10 6.39 Setaria + Siratro + Leucaena 17.10 7.20 6.59 Setaria + Siratro + Robinia 18.40 7.40 7.04 Palampur Anonymous 1995
  25. 25. Yield of improved and local grasses under Pine and Deodar trees Grass species Green forage yield (t ha-1) Pine trees Deodar trees Pangola 14.0 13.6 Rhodes 4.78 3.06 Para 0.48 2.06 Guinea 0.41 2.04 Local 0.25 0.22 Koranne and Singh 1989Almora
  26. 26. Treatments Green Dry 2000 2004 2001-04 2000 2004 2001-04 Local system 38 115.9 102.8 14.3 43.9 38.2 Improved Grasses 109 240.8 203.6 43.2 87.2 74.8 Improved legumes 91.7 214.6 184.8 29.7 77.3 64.1 Improved grasses + legumes 126.3 250.4 230.9 40.7 91.5 82.4 Improved grasses + legumes + salix 123.7 288.2 235.7 40.6 97.2 82.1 Improved grasses + legumes + salix + Robinia 121.3 279.0 234.3 41.7 87.3 79.7 CD (5%) 13.7 15.7 11.9 5 8.4 4.1 Green and dry forage yield (q ha-1) of local pasture, improved grasses, legumes and trees in the cold arid region of Himachal Pradesh Improved Grasses : Fescue grass + Orchard Grass Improved legumes : Red Clover + Lucerne Shrub : Salix Fodder tree : Robinia
  27. 27. Alley Cropping Alley cropping involves growing crops (grains, forages, vegetables, etc.) between trees planted in rows. The spacing between the rows is designed to accommodate the mature size of the trees while leaving room for the planned alley crops.
  28. 28. Advantages of alley cropping over sole cropping  Green fodder during lean period, when no green fodder is available from crops.  Higher total biomass per unit of land in comparison to sole cropping.  Additional employment during off season .  More effective in soil and water conservation than sole cropping.  Efficient use of off season precipitation if any in comparison to sole cropping which is confined to rainy season alone.
  29. 29. Types of alley cropping systems Forage alley cropping system Forage-cum-mulch alley cropping system Forage-cum-pole alley cropping system
  30. 30. Average yield of crops, fodder and fuel wood under different alleys Alley Width Crop yield (kg ha-1) Fodder yield kg tree-1 ya-1 Fuel wood tonnes ha-1 Rabi Kharif 2 m 950 1164 5.31 10.30 1.5 m 845 1080 5.40 14.42 1 m 820 798 8.43 13.09 Mughal et al. 2003Srinagar
  31. 31. Green fodder yield of sorghum and oats in agrisilviculture system (t ha-1) Treatment Sorghum Oat Populus deltoides + Fodder crop 12.31 13.09 Catalpa bignoniodes + Fodder crop 12.83 12.97 Fodder crop (Pure) 14.03 14.45 CD (5%) 1.01 1.01 Quisar et al. 2007Srinagar
  32. 32. Biomass (Fodder + Fuel wood) productivity of Populus and Catalpa in association with fodder (Sorghum and Oats) Treatment Dry fodder (t ha-1) Fuel wood (t ha-1) Total biomass (t ha-1)2003 2004 Pooled 2003 2004 Pooled Populus deltoides + Fodder crop 0.41 0.57 0.50 0.87 0.22 0.51 1.01 Catalpa bignoniodes + Fodder crop 0.54 1.42 0.98 1.19 1.78 1.48 2.46 P. deltoides 0.28 0.34 0.31 0.39 0.07 0.23 0.54 C. bignoniodes 0.34 0.78 0.56 0.69 0.83 0.76 1.32 CD (5%) 0.29 0.27 0.46 Quisar et al. 2007Srinagar
  33. 33. Overall productivity (t ha-1 yr-1) in agrisilviculture system compared to sole agriculture system in different sites Ranichauri Bijalwan et al. 2008 Study site Components of agrisilviculture system Total Sole Ag. CropTrees Shrubs Herbs Ag Crop N1 3.7 0.8 1.0 3.5 9.2 5.5 N2 1.7 1.0 1.3 4.5 8.7 6.7 N3 3.6 1.1 1.3 3.8 10.0 5.4 Mean 3.0 1.0 1.2 3.9 9.3 5.9 S1 3.1 0.8 1.2 3.6 8.8 5.3 S2 2.9 1.0 1.1 4.1 9.2 6.0 S3 2.1 1.0 1.4 3.5 8.1 5.6 Mean 2.7 0.9 1.2 3.7 8.7 5.6 Overall Mean 2.8 0.9 1.2 3.8 9.0 5.7
  34. 34. Average yield of Oats and M.P. Chari (q ha-1) during 5 year period in different treatments Treatments Oat M.P Chari Control 199.6 251.4 Around tree 146.0 163.9 0.5 m away from tree 153.8 181.9 1.5 m away from tree 157.8 184.2 2.0 m away from tree 161.7 195.3 CD (5%) 7.85 23.33 Mughal et al. 2003Srinagar
  35. 35. Hortipasture system Horticulture is common pursuit of farmers in temperate areas. The interspaces of orchards remain barren during summer and these can be utilized as perennial pastures.
  36. 36. Species Green forage yield (t ha-1) Dactylis + Red clover 42 Ryegrass + Red clover 48 Brome grass + Red clover 39 Timothy + Sub-clover 35 Fodder production in Apple Orchard Misri 1998Srinagar
  37. 37. Pasture species Forage yield (t ha-1) Red clover 2.6 White clover 2.4 Lucerne 2.5 Rye grass 3.1 Orchard grass 2.7 Canary grass 2.1 Control 1.8 CD (5%) 0.6 Uttrakhand Forage yield of different pasture species in apple orchard Singh 1995
  38. 38. Green forage yield (t ha-1) of pastures and legumes in almond orchard Name of Grass Green forage yield % increase over natural vegetation Natural Vegetation 14.6 - Dactylis glomerata 22.0 56 Festuca pratense 28.0 91 Trifolium repens 24.9 70 Trifolium pratense 24.5 62 CD (5%) 7.2 Makaya and Gangoo 1995Srinagar
  39. 39. Treatment Green forage yield (t ha-1) Dry Forage yield (t ha-1) Pearl millet Cowpea Total Pearl millet Cowpea Total Sole Aonla - - - - - - Aonla + Pearl millet single cut + Cowpea 19.6 7.5 27.1 5.19 1.06 6.25 Aonla + Pearl millet multicut + Cowpea 22.1 8.3 30.4 5.14 1.19 6.33 Pearl millet single cut + Cowpea 19.1 7.9 27.0 4.22 1.14 5.36 Pearl millet multicut + Cowpea 21.6 6.8 28.4 4.92 0.95 5.87 CD (5%) 0.73 0.08 0.83 0.67 0.03 0.05 Anonymous 2011 Fodder production in 14 year old aonla orchard under agri-horti system Jammu
  40. 40. Aboveground biomass and productivity of Eucalyptus tereticornis at different densities (7 years old) Attribute Density (trees ha-1) D1 (27,778) D2 (12,346) D3 (6,944) Biomass (t ha-1) 127.0 70.85 49.50 Productivity (t ha-1) 18.15 10.12 7.07 Verma et al. 2003Solan
  41. 41.  A non-competitive land use system for the forage production in the hills is to grow improved grasses on terrace bunds and risers.  There is added advantage to produce forge without any fertilizer or manure since it is available from the cropped terrace.  The field experiments conducted in U.P. hills reveal that growing grasses on terrace riser was found significantly beneficial for increasing the grain yield of rice and wheat over control.  The performance of different improved grass species was statistically similar but superior to local species. Forage production on terrace risers/bunds
  42. 42. Terrace grasses Grain yield (t ha-1) Forage yield of grasses Rice Wheat (t ha-1) Nandi grass 1.04 1.14 10.8 Guinea grass 1.01 1.16 10.4 Hybrid Napier 1.08 1.21 15.0 Rhode grass 0.98 1.04 9.9 Indian couch grass 0.91 1.02 8.6 Control 0.97 0.98 1.2 C.D. 5% NS NS 0.6 Performance of some grasses on terrace risers and their effect on main crops Singh 1995Almora
  43. 43. Biomass Systems Above ground biomass Below ground biomass Horti pastoral 15.26 5.37 Silvi pastoral 32.72 11.50 Agri siliviculture 34.05 11.97 Horti silvipastoral 18.20 6.40 Natural grassland 3.44 1.03 CD= 0.05 13.31 4.45 Khaki and Wani (2011) Biomass production (t ha-1) under different land use systems Paonta Sahib
  44. 44. FUTURE THRUST  Forage production must be taken up as a first management goal and 25 per cent of the forest area should be put under trees with regulated accessibility to the farmers.  Fodder tree improvement programmes for higher leaf fodder have to be initiated.  Growing forage grasses and fodder trees on terrace risers/bunds- a non competitive land use system.  Conservation of native biodiversity for future improvement.  Breeding biotic, abiotic, stress tolerant cultivars of forage species suitable for area not used under arable agriculture.  Participatory techniques to be adopted to identify the problems and to carry out the improvement programme.  Controlled grazing to maintain the productivity of pasture (grazing should be allowed as per carrying capacity).
  45. 45. CONCLUSIONS  Forage production situation is very alarming and corrective measures have to be taken to improve the same.  Both grazing and forage cultivation have to be considered complementary to each other and simultaneous efforts are required to improve the both.  Agroforestry systems can be advantageous over conventional agricultural and forest production methods through increased productivity, improved economic benefits and social outcomes and the enhanced ecological goods and services provided.
  46. 46. THANKS

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  • Last priority in Himalayan regions because climatic constraints only allow farmers to grow a single crop per year and agricultural product yielded from this one harvest are almost exclusively used for human consumption only.
  • According to livestock census 2007 it was observed that livestock population is increasing in last few years and now its 530 millions in India overall in hp 52.26 lakhs
  • Alley cropping is an agroforestry practice. But what is agroforestry? Although there are many definitions on agroforestry one of the simplest definitions is the intentional combining of agriculture and working trees to create sustainable farming systems. In agroforestry systems, trees or shrubs and their products are intentionally used within agricultural systems, livestock, or forests and are cultured with woody plants (e.g. trees and shrubs). Knowledge, careful selection of species, and good management of trees and crops are needed to optimize the production and positive effects within the system and to minimize negative competitive effects. Agroforestry systems can be advantageous over conventional agricultural and forest production methods through increased productivity, improved economic benefits and social outcomes and the enhanced ecological goods and services provided. This system is used world-wide today.




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    Also in the Format Picture dialog box, click Glow and Soft Edges in the left pane, and in the Glow and Soft Edges pane, do the following:
    Under Glow, click the button next to Presets, click No Glow.
    Under Soft Edges, in the Size box enter 2.5 pt.
    Right-click the rectangle, click Edit Points, right-click the top edge of the rectangle, and then click Add Point to add a new point. Repeat this step to add about 15 new points to the top edge. Do the same for the bottom edge. Individually select each point you added, and then drag up or down to create a ragged edge.
    Move rectangle to the right half of the slide area.
    Select the rectangle. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Arrange, point to Align, and then click Align Middle.

    To reproduce the picture effects on this slide, do the following:
    On the Insert tab, in the Images group, click Picture. In the Insert Picture dialog box, select a picture and then click Insert.
    Select the picture. Under Picture Tools, on the Format tab, in the Size group, click the Size and Position dialog box. In the Format Picture dialog box, resize or crop the image so that the height is set to 4.74” and the width is set to 3.4”. To crop the picture, click Crop in the left pane, and in the right pane, under Crop position, enter values into the Height, Width, Left, and Top boxes. To resize the picture, click Size in the left pane, and in the right pane, under Size and rotate, enter values into the Height and Width boxes.
    Also in the Format Picture dialog box, click Picture Color in the left pane, and in the Picture Color pane, under Color Tone, click the button next to Presets, and then click Temperature 5300 K.
    Also in the Format Shape dialog box, click Shadow in the left pane, and in the Shadow pane, do the following:
    Click the button next to Presets, and then under Outer click Offset Center.
    In the Transparency box, enter 80%.
    In the Size box, enter 101%.
    Position the picture over the rectangle.
    Press and hold CTRL, and then select the rectangle and the picture. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Arrange, point to Align, and then do the following:
    Click Align Selected Objects.
    Click Align Middle.
    Click Align Center.

    To reproduce the other shapes on this slide (arched shadows), do the following:
    On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Shapes, and then under Rectangles click Rectangle.
    On the slide, drag to draw a rectangle.
    Select the rectangle. Under Drawing Tools, on the Format tab, in the Size group, enter .50” into the Height box and 3.9” into the Width box.
    On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Shapes, and then under Basic Shapes click Oval.
    On the slide, drag to draw an oval.
    Select the oval. Under Drawing Tools, on the Format tab, in the Size group, enter 2” into the Height box and 6.83” into the Width box.
    Position the oval so that it overlaps the bottom edge of the rectangle.
    Press and hold CTRL, select the rectangle, and then select the oval. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Arrange, point to Align, click Align Selected Objects, and then click Align Center.
    Press and hold CTRL, select the rectangle, and then select the oval. On the Quick Access Toolbar, click Combine Shapes, and then click Shape Subtract.
    Select the new shape. Under Drawing Tools, on the Format tab, in the Shape Styles group, click the Format Shape dialog box launcher. In the Format Shape dialog box, click Fill in the left pane, in the Fill pane, click Gradient fill, and then do the following:
    In the Type list, select Linear.
    In the Angle box, enter 90°.
    Under Gradient stops, click Add gradient stops or Remove gradient stops until two stops appear in the slider.
    Also under Gradient stops, customize the gradient stops as follows:
    Select the first gradient stop in the slider, and then do the following:
    In the Position box, enter 0%.
    Click the button next to Color, and then under Theme Colors click Black, Text 1 (first row).
    In the Transparency box, enter 50%.
    Select the other gradient stop in the slider, and then do the following:
    In the Position box, enter 100%.
    Click the button next to Color, and then under Theme Colors click Black, Text 1 (first row).
    In the Transparency box, enter 100%.
    Also in the Format Shape dialog box, click Line Color in the left pane, and in the Line Color pane, select No line.
    Also in the Format Shape dialog box, click Glow and Soft Edges in the left pane, and in the Glow and Soft Edges pane, do the following:
    Under Glow, click the button next to Presets, and then click No Glow.
    Under Soft Edges, in the Size box enter 2.5 pt.
    Select the transparent, gradient-filled rectangle. On the Home tab, in the Clipboard group, click the arrow to the right of Copy, and then click Duplicate.
    Position one of the transparent rectangles over the bottom edge of the texture-filled rectangle.
    On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Arrange, and then under Order Objects click Send Backward. Repeat this process until the shape is partially hidden by the texture-filled rectangle.
    Select the other transparent rectangle. Under Drawing Tools, on the Format tab, in the Size group, enter 0.34” into the Height box and 3.36” into the Width box.
    Position the transparent rectangle over the bottom edge of the picture. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Arrange, and then under Order Objects click Send Backward. Repeat this process until the shape is partially hidden by the texture-filled rectangle.
    Press and hold CTRL, select the picture, select both transparent rectangles, and select the texture-filled rectangle. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Arrange, point to Align, and then do the following:
    Click Align Selected Objects.
    Click Align Center.

    To reproduce the text effects on this slide, do the following:
    On the Insert tab, in the Text group, click Text Box.
    On the slide, drag to draw a textbox.
    Enter text in the text box, and then select the text. On the Home tab, in the Font group, select Corbel from the Font list, select 36 pt. from the Font Size list, and then select Black, Text 1 from the Font Color list.
    Position the text box on the left side of the slide.

    To reproduce the background effects on this slide, do the following:
    On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Shapes, and then under Rectangles click Rectangle.
    On the slide, drag to draw a rectangle.
    Select the rectangle. Under Drawing Tools, on the Format tab, in the Size group, click the Size and Position dialog box launcher. In the Format Shape dialog box, click Size in the left pane, and in the Size pane, enter 7.5” into the Height box and 10” into the Width box.
    Also in the Format Shape dialog box, click Line Color in the left pane, and in the Line Color pane click No line.
    Also in the Format Shape dialog box, click Fill in the left pane, and in the Fill pane, click Picture or texture fill. Click the button next to Texture and choose Woven Mat (first row).
    Also in the Format Picture dialog box, click Picture Corrections in the left pane, and in the Picture Corrections pane, do the following:
    Under Sharpen and Soften, click the button next to Presets, and then click Soften: 25%.
    Under Brightness and Contrast, in the Brightness box enter 14%.
    Also in the Format Picture dialog box, click Picture Color in the left pane, and in the Picture Color pane, under Recolor, click the button next to Presets, and then click Sepia (first row).
    On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Shapes, and then under Rectangles click Rectangle.
    On the slide, drag to draw a rectangle.
    Select the rectangle. Under Drawing Tools, on the Format tab, in the Size group, click the Size and Position dialog box launcher. In the Format Shape dialog box, click Size in the left pane, and in the Size pane, enter 7.5” into the Height box and 10” into the Width box.
    Select the rectangle. Under Drawing Tools, on the Format tab, in the Shape Styles group, click Shape Fill, point to Gradient, and then click More Gradients. In the Format Shape dialog box, click Fill in the left pane, in the Fill pane, click Gradient fill, and then do the following:
    In the Type list, select Linear.
    In the Angle box, enter 90°.
    Under Gradient stops, click Add gradient stops or Remove gradient stops until four gradient stops appear in the slider.
    Also under Gradient stops, customize the gradient as follows:
    Select the first stop in the slider, and then do the following:
    In the Position box, enter 0%.
    Click the button next to Color, click More Colors, and then in the Colors dialog box, on the Custom tab, enter values for Red: 48, Green: 50, and Blue: 30.
    In the Transparency box, enter 30%.
    Select the next stop in the slider, and then do the following:
    In the Position box, enter 29%.
    Click the button next to Color, and then under Theme Colors click White, Background 1 (first row).
    In the Transparency box, enter 18%.
    Select the next stop in the slider, and then do the following:
    In the Position box, enter 51%.
    Click the button next Color, and then under Theme Colors click White, Background 1 (first row).
    In the Transparency box, enter 30%.
    Select the last stop in the slider, and then do the following:
    In the Position box, enter 100%.
    Click the button next to Color, click More Colors, and then in the Colors dialog box, on the Custom tab, enter values for Red: 78, Green: 81, and Blue: 61.
    In the Transparency box, enter 20%.
    Also in the Format Shape dialog box, click Line Color in the left pane, and in the Line Color pane select No line.
    Press and hold CTRL, and then select both rectangles. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Arrange, point to Align, and then do the following:
    Click Align to Slide.
    Click Align Middle.
    Click Align Center.


  • Common grasses are Eragrostis spp., Apluda spp., and chrysopogon spp.
  • Ulmus wallichiana; crops –pea (rabi) and beans (kharif); agrisilvi model so devised can help in stabilizing the degraded environment and at the same time help in food, fodder and fuel wood production.
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