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NS421_Evolution_of_Warfare_Warfighting

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NS421_Evolution_of_Warfare_Warfighting

  1. 1. NS321 Evolution of Warfare Warfighting Capt Corbeill Marine Officer Instructor
  2. 2. NS321- Warfighting Reference
  3. 3. NS321- Warfighting Introduction “Very simply, this publication describes the philosophy which distinguishes the U.S. Marine Corps. The thoughts contained here are not merely guidance for action in combat but a way of thinking. This publication provides the authoritative basis for how we fight and how we prepare to fight. This book contains no specific techniques or procedures for conduct. Rather, it provides broad guidance in the form of concepts and values. It requires judgment in application.” -- Gen C. C. Krulak, USMC
  4. 4. NS321- Warfighting “Battles are won by slaughter and maneuver. The greater the general, the more he contributes in maneuver, the less he demands in slaughter.” -- Winston Churchill
  5. 5. NS321- Warfighting Chapter One- The Nature of War “In war the chief incalculable is the human will.” --B.H. LIDELL HART
  6. 6. NS321- Warfighting What is war?
  7. 7. Definition of War NS321- Warfighting Defined: – “War is a violent clash of interests between or among organized groups characterized by the use of military force.” Essence – “The essence of war is a violent struggle between two hostile, independent, and irreconcilable wills, each trying to impose itself on the other.” Objective- Impose our will on the enemy Remember, the enemy gets a vote!
  8. 8. NS321- Warfighting What are some Attributes of War?
  9. 9. Attributes of War NS321- Warfighting Friction Uncertainty Fluidity Disorder Complexity
  10. 10. Attributes of War NS321- Warfighting What is Friction? Uncertainty Fluidity Disorder Complexity
  11. 11. NS321- Warfighting Friction “The force that makes the apparently easy so difficult” Clausewitz
  12. 12. NS321- Warfighting What are some sources of Friction?
  13. 13. Sources of Friction NS321- Warfighting  Mental- indecision over a course of action  Physical – Effective enemy fire – Terrain obstacles  External – Imposed by enemy action – Terrain, weather, or mere chance.  Self-induced – Lack of a clearly defined goals – Lack of coordination – Unclear or complicated plans – Complicated technologies
  14. 14. NS321- Warfighting How can we overcome friction?
  15. 15. Overcoming Friction NS321- Warfighting Will Persistent strength of mind and spirit Understanding the effects of friction Realistic training
  16. 16. Attributes of War NS321- Warfighting Friction What is Uncertainty? Fluidity Disorder Complexity
  17. 17. NS321- Warfighting Uncertainty The “fog of war” “All actions in war will be based on incomplete, inaccurate, or even contradictory information.” WWI, 1918
  18. 18. NS321- Warfighting Uncertainty Involves risk – Must be able to estimate and accept risk – “Acceptance of risk does not equate to the imprudent willingness to gamble the entire likelihood of success on a single improbable event” Involves chance – Unforeseeable events that we have no control over – Produces psychological friction – Favors neither side
  19. 19. NS321- Warfighting How do we overcome uncertainty?
  20. 20. Overcoming Uncertainty NS321- Warfighting Judgment – What is possible and what is not? – What is probable and what is not? – One of the main reasons we study military history. Learn to use it/minimize its impact – Simple, flexible plans w/ contingencies – Foster initiative among subordinates – Standard Operating Procedures (SOP)
  21. 21. Attributes of War NS321- Warfighting Friction Uncertainty What is Fluidity? Disorder Complexity
  22. 22. NS321- Warfighting Fluidity The constant flow of actions and counter-actions Requires flexibility on our part Success depends on ability to adapt
  23. 23. Attributes of War NS321- Warfighting Friction Uncertainty Fluidity What is Disorder? Complexity
  24. 24. NS321- Warfighting Disorder In an environment of friction, uncertainty, and fluidity, war gravitates naturally toward disorder The trend is grow increasingly disordered over time “We must not only be able to fight effectively in the face of disorder, we should seek to generate disorder and use it as a weapon against our opponent.”
  25. 25. Attributes of War NS321- Warfighting Friction Uncertainty Fluidity Disorder What is Complexity?
  26. 26. NS321- Warfighting Complexity War is inherently complex Must deal with: – Friction – Uncertainty – Fluidity – Disorder – The human dimension – Ever changing situations
  27. 27. Attributes of War NS321- Warfighting Friction Uncertainty Fluidity Disorder Complexity Questions?
  28. 28. NS321- Warfighting Why do we care about the Attributes of War?
  29. 29. Importance of Understanding NS321- Warfighting the Attributes of War Be able to recognize them in order to… – Overcome the effects on friendly forces – Exploit the effects on enemy forces • Creates opportunities
  30. 30. The Human Dimension NS321- Warfighting
  31. 31. NS321- Warfighting Human Dimension Encompasses all of the failings and achievements of man – Fear, Violence, Danger – Physical, Moral, Mental forces “Human will, instilled through leadership, is the driving force of all action in war.”
  32. 32. NS321- Warfighting How do we overcome fear?
  33. 33. NS321- Warfighting Overcoming Fear  Leaders must foster the courage to overcome fear – Courage is not the absence of fear; it is the strength to overcome fear  Realistic training  Strong leadership which earns the respect and trust of subordinates  Unit cohesion and esprit de corps – “A Marine’s unwillingness to violate the respect and trust of peers can overcome personal fear.”
  34. 34. Evolution of War NS321- Warfighting The nature of war is constant; however, the means and methods evolve continuously “The belligerent who first exploits a development in the art and science of war gains a significant advantage.” British Mark V, WWI Max Speed- 4 mph U.S. M1A2 Tank Max Speed- 42 mph
  35. 35. War as Art or Science? NS321- Warfighting Science- – Effects of weapons – Laws of Ballistics – Weaponry – Mechanics Art – Maneuver – Employment of forces – Human factors • Judgement • Experience “We thus conclude that the conduct of war is fundamentally a dynamic process of human competition requiring both the knowledge of science and the creativity of art but driven ultimately by the power of human will.” p. 19
  36. 36. NS321- Warfighting Questions? WWI recruiting poster
  37. 37. Summary- Chap 1 NS321- Warfighting Attributes of War – Friction – Uncertainty-“Fog of war” – Fluidity – Disorder – Complexity
  38. 38. NS321- Warfighting Chapter Two- The Theory of War
  39. 39. War as an Act of Policy NS321- Warfighting War is an extension, and often last resort, of a nation’s politics, policy, and diplomacy “War must serve policy”
  40. 40. Spectrum of Conflict NS321- Warfighting Small Wars Desert Storm MOOTW Lebanon NEO General War WWII
  41. 41. NS321- Warfighting What are the levels of war?
  42. 42. NS321- Warfighting Tactical Levels of War Tactical Strategic Operational Strategic- application of military force to secure policy objectives. Operational- The level of war at which campaigns and major operations are planned, conducted, and sustained to accomplish strategic objectives within theaters or areas of operations. Tactical- The level of war at which battles and engagements are planned and executed to accomplish military objectives assigned to tactical units or task forces.
  43. 43. Strategic Level of War NS321- Warfighting Highest level of war Involves establishing goals, assigning forces, providing assets and imposing conditions on the use of force in theaters, in order to win wars – National Strategy- coordinates and focuses all the elements of national power to attain the policy objectives. – Military Strategy- the application of military force to secure policy objectives.
  44. 44. Operational Level of War NS321- Warfighting Links the strategic and tactical levels of war – Use of tactics to attain strategic objectives “Deciding when, where, and under what conditions to engage (or refuse/avoid the enemy in battle” “The art and science of winning campaigns”
  45. 45. Tactical Level of War NS321- Warfighting The lowest level of war The use of maneuver and firepower to defeat the enemy at a particular time and place Winning battles!
  46. 46. Initiative and Response NS321- Warfighting Initiative – Dictate the terms of battle to the enemy – Force the enemy to respond/react to your actions “Only through the initiative can we ultimately impose our will on the enemy” Response- – If compelled to respond, focus on seizing the initiative from the opponent
  47. 47. NS321- Warfighting Which is better- Offense or Defense?
  48. 48. NS321- Warfighting Which is better- Offense or Defense? Most important answer at TBS, “It’s situationally dependent”
  49. 49. NS321- Warfighting Offense Offense = striking power “The most obvious way to seize and maintain the initiative is to strike first and keep striking.”
  50. 50. NS321- Warfighting Defense Defense = resisting power However, may be another way of striking at the enemy – “A shield made up of well-directed blows” -Clausewitz Culminating Point– point where we can no longer sustain the attack and must revert to the defense
  51. 51. NS321- Warfighting What are types of warfare?
  52. 52. Styles of Warfare NS321- Warfighting Attrition: Pursing victory through the total destruction of the enemy’s personnel and materials (i.e. trench warfare in WWI). Maneuver: Pursing victory by circumventing the strength of the enemy to attack it from a more advantageous position Attrition Warfare Maneuver Warfare Warfare typically lies somewhere in between the two extremes
  53. 53. Maneuver Warfare NS321- Warfighting Incapacitate the enemy systemically Application of our strength against selected enemy weakness in order to maximize advantage – Requires the ability to identify and exploit weaknesses
  54. 54. NS321- Warfighting What is Combat Power?
  55. 55. NS321- Warfighting Combat Power Total destructive force that can be brought to bear on our enemy at a given time.
  56. 56. NS321- Warfighting Combat Power Total destructive force that can be brought to bear on our enemy at a given time. – Tangibles • Maneuver, tempo, or surprise; the advantages conferred by geography or climate – Intangibles • Morale, fighting spirit, perseverance, or the effects of leadership
  57. 57. NS321- Warfighting Combat Power AC-130H Spectre
  58. 58. NS321- Warfighting How do we generate Combat Power?
  59. 59. Generating Combat Power NS321- Warfighting Speed Focus Surprise Boldness
  60. 60. Generating Combat Power NS321- Warfighting What is Speed? Focus Surprise Boldness
  61. 61. NS321- Warfighting Speed Speed over time = tempo – The consistent ability to operate quickly Speed is a weapon – Superior speed allows us to seize the initiative and dictate the terms of action Speed provides security “Speed is necessary in order to concentrate superior strength at the decisive time and place.”
  62. 62. Generating Combat Power NS321- Warfighting Speed What is Focus? Surprise Boldness
  63. 63. NS321- Warfighting Focus Focus- The convergence of effects in time and space on some objective. “The generation of superior combat power at a particular time and place”
  64. 64. Generating Combat Power NS321- Warfighting Speed Focus What is Surprise? Boldness
  65. 65. NS321- Warfighting Surprise  Surprise– “disorienting the enemy through unexpected events” to increase combat power  “We achieve surprise by striking the enemy at a time or place or in a manner for which the enemy is unprepared.” Victory through surprise… Dec 7, 1941
  66. 66. NS321- Warfighting How do we achieve Surprise?
  67. 67. Achieving Surprise NS321- Warfighting Deception- convince the enemy we are going to do something other than what we are really going to do Ambiguity- to act in such a way that the enemy does not know what to expect. Stealth- to deny the enemy any knowledge of impending action
  68. 68. Generating Combat Power NS321- Warfighting Speed Focus Surprise What is Boldness?
  69. 69. NS321- Warfighting Boldness  Boldness– “unhesitatingly exploiting the natural uncertainty of war to pursue major results rather than marginal ones” – Boldness rules over timidity; but it is not reckless.  Allows you to willingly accept risk to achieve great potential gain. “Boldness can lend wings to intellect and insight; the stronger the wings then, the greater the heights, the wider the view, and the better the results; though a greater prize, of course involves greater risks.” -- Clausewitz, On War
  70. 70. Centers of Gravity & Critical Vulnerabilities NS321- Warfighting Centers of Gravity – Critical factors that the enemy cannot do without, and if eliminated, will cause the enemy to submit to your will. Critical Vulnerabilities – “A vulnerability that, if exploited, will do the most significant damage to the enemy’s ability to resist us.”  “A critical vulnerability is a pathway to attacking a center of gravity.”
  71. 71. Critical Vulnerability NS321- Warfighting …we should focus our efforts against a critical vulnerability, a vulnerability that, if exploited,will do the most significant damage to the enemy’s ability to resist us. Beirut Oct 1982 Mogadishu Oct 1993
  72. 72. NS321- Warfighting Center of Gravity / Critical Vulnerability Prac App
  73. 73. NS321- Warfighting What is the Empire’s Center of Gravity?
  74. 74. Empire’s Center of Gravity NS321- Warfighting Death Star
  75. 75. NS321- Warfighting What is its Critical Vulnerability?
  76. 76. What is its Critical Vulnerability? NS321- Warfighting Two meter, thermal exhaust port
  77. 77. Creating and Exploiting Opportunity NS321- Warfighting Opportunities will evolve through the actions of both sides on the battlefield. As opportunities present themselves, commanders that can identify and take advantage of these opportunities through speed, flexibility, boldness, and initiative, will be able to generate decisive results.
  78. 78. NS321- Warfighting Questions? WWI recruiting poster
  79. 79. Summary- Chap 2 NS321- Warfighting Levels of war Generating Combat Power – Speed, Focus, Surprise, Boldness Center of Gravity / Critical Vulnerability
  80. 80. NS321- Warfighting Chapter Three- Preparing for War Qui desiderat pacem, praeparet bellum. Let him who desires peace, prepare for war. Vegetius
  81. 81. NS321- Warfighting Doctrine A common way of thinking, a common language Provides the basis for harmonious actions and mutual understanding
  82. 82. NS321- Warfighting How is the USMC organized to fight?
  83. 83. Marine Air Ground Task Force NS321- Warfighting (MAGTF)
  84. 84. MAGTF Characteristics NS321- Warfighting Self-sustaining- no need for preexisting infrastructure; they bring their own Task organized to accomplish specific missions with maximum flexibility Can integrate with other MAGTFs and Marine forces to sequentially build in size and capability Capable of forcible entry Strategically mobile via airlift, sealift, or amphibious shipping
  85. 85. NS321- Warfighting What are the four components of a MAGTF?
  86. 86. MAGTF Components NS321- Warfighting Command Element (CE) Ground Combat Element (GCE) Aviation Combat Element (ACE) Combat Service Support Element (CSSE)
  87. 87. Command Element NS321- Warfighting Headquarters- directs the other elements
  88. 88. Ground Combat Element NS321- Warfighting The “pointy end” of the spear Infantry supported by: – Armor (tanks) – Artillery
  89. 89. Air Combat Element NS321- Warfighting “Death from above” Includes: – Aircraft – Pilots – Maintenance personnel – Aviation command and control
  90. 90. Combat Service Support Element NS321- Warfighting Support units for the MAGTF: – Communications – Combat engineers – Motor transport – Medical – Supply
  91. 91. Professionalism NS321- Warfighting
  92. 92. Professionalism NS321- Warfighting “As military professionals charged with the defense of the Nation, Marine leaders must be true experts in the conduct of war.” Officers are expected to have: – A solid foundation in military theory – Knowledge of military history and the timeless lessons to be gained from it
  93. 93. Professionalism NS321- Warfighting Maneuver warfare requires intelligent leaders with a penchant for boldness and initiative; a bias for action Errors stemming from overboldness are a necessary part of learning – Encourage both traits in spite of mistakes Crush errors of inaction or timidity
  94. 94. NS321- Warfighting Professionalism- Tactical Proficiency?
  95. 95. Professionalism NS321- Warfighting Trust is an essential trait among leaders – Abilities of their subordinates – Competence and support of their seniors Trust must be earned Trust is a product of confidence earned from demonstrated professional skill
  96. 96. NS321- Warfighting What happens when trust is lost…
  97. 97. Professionalism NS321- Warfighting Encourage candor among subordinates Subordinates should consider it their duty to provide honest, professional opinions even if it differs from the senior’s opinions – However, once the decision has been reached, juniors then must support it as if it were their own • “Argue to the point of decision. After that, you’re just bitchin’” “Yes-men” will not be tolerated
  98. 98. NS321- Warfighting Professionalism- Honest, professional opinion?
  99. 99. NS321- Warfighting Training
  100. 100. NS321- Warfighting Training Train personnel with the knowledge and skills necessary to be successful on the battlefield Develop leadership and tactical thinking and decision-making Should simulate the conditions of war – Introduce friction in the form of uncertainty, stress, disorder, and opposing wills Use opposed, free-play exercises to practice the art of war
  101. 101. NS321- Warfighting Realistic Training?
  102. 102. Professional Military Education NS321- Warfighting Designed to develop creative, thinking leaders A leader’s career should be viewed as a continuous, progressive process of development “The mind is an officer’s principal weapon”
  103. 103. Professional Military Education NS321- Warfighting The early stages of a leader’s career are an apprenticeship – A Marine’s goal at this stage is to become an expert in the tactical level of war Every Marine has an individual responsibility to study the profession of arms – “A leader without either interest in or knowledge of the history and theory of warfare is a leader in appearance only.” Study in the art and science of war is at least equal to maintaining physical condition
  104. 104. Professional Military Education NS321- Warfighting Not just about you… – “Commanders should see the development of their subordinates as a direct reflection on themselves.”
  105. 105. NS321- Warfighting Conclusion Two basic military functions: – Waging war and preparing for war Cannot separate conduct and preparation “They must be intimately related because failure in preparation leads to disaster on the battlefield.”
  106. 106. NS321- Warfighting Effective Training?
  107. 107. NS321- Warfighting Questions? WWI recruiting poster
  108. 108. Summary- Chap 3 NS321- Warfighting Elements of professionalism – Lifelong student in the art of war – Tactical proficiency – Command of maneuver warfare concepts Elements of effective training – Focused on battlefield skills – Develop leadership and tactical thinking and decision-making – Should simulate the conditions of war – Use opposed, free-play exercises to practice the art of war
  109. 109. NS321- Warfighting Chapter Four- The Conduct of War “There’s only one principle of war and that’s this. Hit the other fellow, as quick as you can, and as hard as you can, where it hurts him most, when he ain’t lookin’!” —Sir William Slim
  110. 110. NS321- Warfighting What is Maneuver Warfare?
  111. 111. Maneuver Warfare NS321- Warfighting “A warfighting philosophy that seeks to shatter the enemy’s cohesion through a variety of rapid, focused, and unexpected actions which create a turbulent and rapidly deteriorating situation with which the enemy cannot cope.”
  112. 112. NS321- Warfighting Translation?
  113. 113. Maneuver Warfare NS321- Warfighting Taking action to generate and exploit some kind of advantage over the enemy – Psychological, technological, temporal or spatial Accomplishing our objectives as effectively as possible “It is through maneuver in all dimensions that an inferior force can achieve decisive superiority at the necessary time and place.”
  114. 114. Maneuver Warfare NS321- Warfighting Render the enemy incapable of resisting effectively by shattering his ability to fight as an effective, coordinated whole – Moral, mental, and physical cohesion “The ultimate goal is panic and paralysis, an enemy who has lost the ability to resist.”
  115. 115. NS321- Warfighting What does Maneuver Warfare require?
  116. 116. Requirements of Maneuver NS321- Warfighting Speed Focus Surprise Ruthless opportunists
  117. 117. NS321- Warfighting What type of leaders does Maneuver Warfare require?
  118. 118. Leaders that Possess: NS321- Warfighting Ability to cope with uncertainty Flexibility of mind to deal with fluid and disorderly situations Willingness to act with initiative and boldness
  119. 119. NS321- Warfighting Maneuver Warfare Leadership Examples LT Ronald Spiers VS LT Norman Dike
  120. 120. NS321- Warfighting What is the most important consideration?
  121. 121. Orienting on the Enemy NS321- Warfighting Focus on the enemy “system” – Knowledge of your enemy, including his doctrine, weapons, and capabilities is essential to identifying critical vulnerabilities, achieving surprise, and shaping the battlefield Consider all your actions relative to the enemy… whenever you think of speed and combat power, it is always in relationship to the enemy
  122. 122. Orienting on the Enemy NS321- Warfighting Get inside the enemy’s thought process • “Do not assume that every enemy thinks as we do, fights as we do, or has the same values or objectives.”
  123. 123. OODA Loop (a.k.a. Boyd’s Loop) NS321- Warfighting  The Time Competitive Decision Cycle:  Timeliness of decisions (especially in the face of uncertainty and disorder) is essential to generating tempo Col. John Boyd, USAF Observe Orient Decide Act
  124. 124. NS321- Warfighting How fast do you need to be?
  125. 125. NS321- Warfighting How fast do you need to be? Faster than the enemy!
  126. 126. NS321- Warfighting OODA Loop
  127. 127. NS321- Warfighting What is our Philosophy of Command?
  128. 128. Philosophy of Command NS321- Warfighting Centralized planning, Decentralized execution
  129. 129. NS321- Warfighting How do we do that?
  130. 130. Philosophy of Command NS321- Warfighting Subordinate commanders making decisions on their own initiative, based on their understanding of their senior’s intent Implicit Communication – Communicate through mutual understanding Commanders leading from where they can best influence the action Competent leadership at all levels
  131. 131. Decision-making NS321- Warfighting If we fail to make a decision, we willingly surrender the initiative to the enemy Time critical – “Select a promising course of action with an acceptable degree of risk and to do it more quickly than our foe” “A good plan violently executed now is better than a perfect plan executed next week.”
  132. 132. NS321- Warfighting Mission Tactics Assign a task and purpose without specifying how Relies on a subordinate's exercise of initiative framed by proper guidance and understanding – Understand how your actions fit into the larger situation Requires uniformity of thinking
  133. 133. NS321- Warfighting How do we ensure everyone’s on the same sheet of music?
  134. 134. Commander’s Intent NS321- Warfighting Guidance that enables subordinates to act in a changing environment without additional orders – “…in order to…” Promotes unity of effort Should understand the intent of the commander at least two levels up
  135. 135. NS321- Warfighting How do focus our effort?
  136. 136. NS321- Warfighting Main Effort The unit assigned to accomplish the main mission – Primary bid for success Directed against a center of gravity through a critical enemy vulnerability  Can be shifted to exploit success
  137. 137. NS321- Warfighting Main Effort Supported by all other units When faced with a decision, think: – “How can I best support the main effort?”
  138. 138. NS321- Warfighting What are surfaces and gaps? Take advantage of the enemy’s unpreparedness; attack him when he does not expect it; avoid his strength and strike his emptiness… Sun Tzu
  139. 139. NS321- Warfighting Surfaces A “hard spot” or enemy strength. – An enemy position, unit, or strength where the enemy has sufficient combat power to detrimentally affect mission accomplishment.
  140. 140. NS321- Warfighting Gaps A “soft spot” or enemy weakness – Exploit existing gaps. If there isn’t any, then we create one.
  141. 141. Surfaces and Gaps NS321- Warfighting Surface in one situation may be a gap in another Gaps will rarely be permanent Quickly seize opportunities
  142. 142. NS321- Warfighting What is combined arms?
  143. 143. Combined Arms NS321- Warfighting The tactics and techniques of employing “the full integration of arms in such a way that to counteract one, the enemy must become more vulnerable to another.” – “Horns of a Dilemma”
  144. 144. NS321- Warfighting Conclusion “Maneuver warfare is a philosophy for generating the greatest decisive effect against the enemy at the least possible cost to ourselves—a philosophy for ‘fighting smart’.”
  145. 145. NS321- Warfighting Questions? WWI recruiting poster
  146. 146. Summary- Chap 1 NS321- Warfighting Attributes of War – Friction – Uncertainty-“Fog of war” – Fluidity – Disorder – Complexity
  147. 147. Summary- Chap 2 NS321- Warfighting Levels of war Generating Combat Power – Speed, Focus, Surprise, Boldness Center of Gravity / Critical Vulnerability
  148. 148. Summary- Chap 3 NS321- Warfighting Elements of professionalism – Lifelong student in the art of war – Tactical proficiency – Command of maneuver warfare concepts Elements of effective training – Focused on battlefield skills – Develop leadership and tactical thinking and decision-making – Should simulate the conditions of war – Use opposed, free-play exercises to practice the art of war
  149. 149. Summary- Chap 4 NS321- Warfighting Maneuver warfare Center of Gravity / Critical Vulnerability Mission Tactics Commander’s Intent Main Effort Surfaces / Gaps Combined Arms
  150. 150. NS321 Evolution of Warfare NS321- Warfighting Warfighting Capt Corbeill Marine Officer Instructor 294-0331

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