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Gender-Responsive Age-Sensitive Social Protection (GRASSP): A framework

Zahrah Nesbitt-Ahmed and Nyasha Tirivayi's presentation at the Kampala Capital City Authority’s (KCCA) Urban Social Protection Research Symposium in December 2020.

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Gender-Responsive Age-Sensitive Social Protection (GRASSP): A framework

  1. 1. Gender-responsive age-sensitive social protection (GRASSP): A Framework Dr. Zahrah Nesbitt-Ahmed and Dr. Nyasha Tirivayi KCCA Research Symposium 10 December 2020
  2. 2. • To ultimately contribute to gender equality outcomes across the lifecourse in LMICs. • To build a robust evidence base focused on ‘what works’, ‘how’ and ‘why’ on gender-responsive social protection GRASSP aims in short…. for every child, answers A child-sensitive social protection system Social Protection Across the Life-course FCDO-FUNDED, FIVE YEAR (2018-2023) RESEARCH PROGRAMME Life-course focus … • Early childhood • Children • Adolescence and youth • Adulthood and reproductive age • Old age Gender integration continuum
  3. 3. A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
  4. 4. Gender discriminatory Gender blind Gender sensitive Gender responsive Gender transformative Intentionally or unintentionally takes advantage of gender stereotypes in programme outcomes and may reinforce gender inequalities. Ignores gender roles, norms and relations, and often assumes that the programmes or interventions will affect women, girls, men and boys equally, potentially worsening inequalities. Acknowledges and address gender needs and vulnerabilities, without tackling the root causes that contribute to gender inequalities. Acknowledges gender dynamics and deliberately responds to women’s, girls’, men’s and boys’ specific needs to achieve positive outcomes. Explicitly seeks to transform unequal gender relations to promote shared power, control of resources, decision-making, and support empowerment The Gender Integration Continuum is a diagnostic tool to evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention in addressing gender inequalities in programme design, implementation, monitoring or evaluation. Source: UNICEF Office of Research- Innocenti (2020) ‘Gender-responsive age-sensitive social protection: A conceptual framework’, Innocenti Working Paper, UNICEF Office of Research - Innocenti, Florence (2020) WHAT IS THE GENDER INTEGRATION CONTINUUM
  5. 5. Gender discriminatory Gender blind Gender sensitive Gender responsive Gender transformative A conditional cash transfer that makes women only responsible for fulfilling conditions related to children in order to be eligible for and to receive the social protection benefit. A contributory (only) social insurance schemes (e.g. pensions) which does not account for the lower likelihood of women to work in the formal sector. The provision of childcare support to mothers in public works to reduce the constraints associated with their unpaid care and domestic work. The provision of individual cash benefits to men and women rather than combining them in one household transfer A cash ‘plus’ intervention that, includes a behaviour change component targeting men and boys to promote shared responsibility in unpaid care and domestic work. Source: UNICEF Office of Research- Innocenti (2020) ‘Gender-responsive age-sensitive social protection: A conceptual framework’, Innocenti Working Paper, UNICEF Office of Research - Innocenti, Florence (2020) SOCIAL PROTECTION EXAMPLES ACROSS THE GENDER INTEGRATION CONTINUUM
  6. 6. GRASSP In Practice
  7. 7. Objectives • Unpack the independent and complementary effects of aspects of design and implementation at different points across the gender-integration continuum (i.e. gender neutral to gender transformative) across the life-course on gender equality and primary outcomes of social protection programmes. • Investigate the moderating effects of key gender-specific contextual factors and gender norms on gender- responsive and age-sensitive/life-course appropriate social protection programming. • Advance understanding and evidence around gender- responsive policy and programming in crisis contexts, and programmes’ cost-effectiveness. Research Questions • What design and implementation features of a social protection programme can be shown to have a positive impact on gender equality outcomes? • What are the key gender-relevant moderating and mediating factors for social protection programmes in achieving gender equality outcomes – including contextual factors (e.g. crisis contexts and social and gender norms)? • What evidence is there on cost-effectiveness of gender- responsive and life-course social protection programmes? UNPACKING DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION FEATURES
  8. 8. COUNTRY CASE STUDIES Gender integration continuum Life-course focus Gender- neutral Quasi-experimental Burkina Faso Cash plus Nutrition for PLWs WASH for schools Adulthood, adolescence and childhood Gender- sensitive Process Evaluation Ethiopia Productive Safety Net Programme (PSNP) Adulthood Gender- sensitive RCT (Additional wave) Tanzania Adolescent cash plus programme Adolescence
  9. 9. EXAMPLE FROM THE TANZANIA STUDY Alignment with the GRASSP Conceptual Framework Adolescent cash plus (PSSN) Tanzania programme Change pathways Gender- integration continuum Life-course focus Gender equality outcomes Adolescents and their households Gender-neutral (with potential to be gender transformative) Outcomes for Tanzania study • Improved health (HIV and SRH knowledge, testing and treatment; health seeking) • Bodily integrity and mobility (violence experiences) • Enhanced voice and agency + Improved psychosocial wellbeing (gender equitable attitudes, self-esteem and entrepreneurial attitudes) Core change pathways study focuses on • Encouraging investments in households’ human development (intergenerational well-being) via mentoring, livelihood and SRH-HIV life skills training and linkages with health services/facilities • Increasing voice and agency beyond the household through mentoring, SRH-HIV life skills training and linkages and productive grant • Changing social and gender norms and attitudes which can have lasting impacts on future relationships, making them more gender equitable and reducing the risk of future IPV. Focus of Tanzania study: • Gendered impacts of Irregular cash transfers and Coping strategies • Longer-term impacts of plus- component and its implementation on gender equality outcomes Evaluation Design: Quantitative Cluster randomised control trial (cRCT)
  10. 10. Dr. Zahrah Nesbitt-Ahmed Gender & Development Manager (Research) znesbitt-ahmed@unicef.org Dr. Nyasha Tirivayi Social Policy Manager jtirivayi@unicef.org
  11. 11. Thank you

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