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Metals, alkali metals and halogens found in solid fuels cause various operational problems in boilers and furnaces: emissions, ash melting, ash deposition and corrosion. The role of ash-forming elements found in plastics has received little attention in the literature. In this review publication metals, halogens, sulfur and earth alkaline metals found in polymers and polymer additives are introduced. The work presents the chemical formula of the additive compounds, its typical targets of use and also estimates the concentration range of the elemental sulfur/metal/halogen in the final polymer.