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Methods of Fertilizer Application.pptx

  1. Methods of Fertilizer Application
  2. Villegas and Malixi (1977) stated that to get the maximum benefit, the fertilizer must be applied where the plant can readily absorb it. Proper placement of fertilizer will provide an efficient and continuous supply of plant nutrients and will prevent salt injury to the seedlings. The following are the different methods of fertilizer application:
  3. 1. Broadcast method The fertilizer material is applied uniformly over the entire area before planting or while the crop is growing. Topdressing refers to the broadcast application on growing crops. Uniform distribution of the fertilizer enables the safe application of large quantities of fertilizer without injuring the crop. However, it may reduce fertilizer efficiency because of fertilizer fixation or by volatilization.
  4. 2. Localized Application The fertilizer is applied close to the seed or plant, either in a band adjacent to the plant rows (side dressing) or by the plow-sole application. In the plow-sole method, the fertilizer is covered lightly with soil before seeding or planting. Localized application is essential for high rate applications of high analysis fertilizers. This method is commonly used for most vegetables.
  5. 3. Foliar application Plant nutrients may be applied to the aerial part of the plant. The dissolved nutrient must penetrate the cuticle of the leaf or the stomata and then enter the plant cells. This method is usually employed only in applying micronutrients. Marginal leaf-burn could occur with the application of high concentrations of fertilizer.
  6. 4. Applied with the seed – Fertilizer is broadcast together with the seeds or the seeds are coated with fertilizer using an adhesive such as selloffs or gum Arabic. 5. Fertigation – This involves dissolving the fertilizer materials in water and then applying it with the use of a sprinkler.
  8. Handling of Fertilizers •Fertilizers shall not be left unattended to when not in use; •Fertilizers shall be prepared by mechanical means in closed vessels. However, if closed mechanical preparation is impracticable: •Tall vessels and long-handled implements shall be used to reduce the risk of splashing; •Vessels shall not be filled to avoid splashing.
  9. • Unbreakable vessels shall be used in the preparation of toxic fertilizers. • Protective clothing, like boots, gloves, goggles, and face shields shall be used when mixing, diluting, spraying, or spreading toxic fertilizers. • Spillage of fertilizers and contamination shall be prevented. Spillage shall be thoroughly cleaned immediately. • Whenever practicable, apply toxic fertilizers by mechanical means.
  10. •Immediately after spraying toxic fertilizers in a greenhouse, the employersshall: a. requires all persons entering the greenhouse to be properly protected; b. post notices on all gates of the greenhouse stating how long the area is to remain closed before the entry of persons without proper protection are allowed.
  11. • Workers using toxic fertilizers shall not: a. blows out blocked spray pipes or nozzle with the mouth; b. spray or spread fertilizers against the direction of the wind. • • Decontaminate the exterior of all tanks and containers in which toxic fertilizers are stored. • Securely close the opening of all tanks and containers in which toxicfertilizers are
  12. •Tanks and piping shall: a. be regularly checked for damage and b. Be provided with stop valves or other devices that can effectively prevent or limit the escape of the substance. •Fertilizers shall be transported only in suitable vehicles to ensure protection to the driver and other users of the vehicles.
  13. •Handling of organic fertilizers shall be by mechanical means to minimize direct contact with such fertilizers or in the absence of mechanical means, proper protection during handling shall be required. (14) Personal protective equipment shall be provided too, and used by workers when applying mineral fertilizers.