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For him who has obtained a
body ablaze with the fire of
Yoga , there is no disease, no
aging, no death
The word Yoga has been derived from
the Sanskrit word “ YUG ” which means
to join or to Unite.
Yoga is the Union of the Individual soul
with the Absolute or Divine Soul.
Yoga also means the unification of
physical, mental, intellectual and
spiritual aspects of human being.
Yoga is the science of development of a
1. Physical Purity.
2. Cures and Prevention from Disease.
3. Reduces Mental Tension.
4. Beautification of Body.
5. Provides Relaxation.
6. Keeps the Correct Posture of Body.
7. Yoga can be Performed Easily.
8. Spiritual Development.
9. Increases Flexibility.
10. Reduces Obesity.
11. Improves Health.
12.Enhances Moral and Ethical Values.
1. Physical Purity
Internal organs of our body can be cleansed by
various Yogic exercises.
As per Ayurveda, our body is made of Vaat, Pitt
and Kaph. To remain healthy, balance of vaat ,
Pitt and kaph in our body is necessary.
Dhoti, Nauli, Basti, Kapalbhati,Tratak etc. are
such yogic exercises which keep the internal
organs of our body in Clean state.
2. Cures and Prevention from Disease
Yoga not only prevents many diseases but also
Various Yogic exercises increases the immunity
of the body.
Diseases such as Bronchitis, Sinusitis, Arthritis,
Gastritis, Asthma, High bloods pressure,
Stress , Back pain, Urinary disorders etc. can
be prevented as well as can be cured by
3. Reduces Mental Tension
Yoga helps in reducing the mental tension.
Pratyahar, Dharana and Dhyan plays vital role
in reducing the mental stress.
Asanas like Makarasana, Shavasana, Shalabhasana
and Bhujangasana are beneficial for releasing
stress and tension.
4. Reduces Obesity & Beautification of Body
Obesity is becoming a worldwide problem.
Obesity makes a person prone to many
Research studies have shown that mental
tension and stress could be one of the reason
Pranayam & Yogica Asanas releases mental
stress, reduces obesity and makes body strong
Mayurasan is one such asanas.
5. Provides Relaxation
Rest and relaxations are essentials for
Research studies have shown that Yogic
asanas and Panayama relaxes the body
Padamasana , Shavasana and Makarasana
are some of such asanas.
6. Keeps the Correct Posture of Body
Postural deformities are very common
nowadays due to lifestyle followed which
effects efficiency negatively.
Doing Yoga asanas regularly , a person can not
only have the correct posture, but can also
cure the postural deformities .
Vajrasana , Sarvangasana , Mayurasana ,
Chakrasana ,Bhujangasana etc.
7. Yoga can be Performed Easily
In fast life of today, every one claims
to be very busy , hardly any time left
Doing Yogic exercise need only a small
space , where as others need much of
money and time.
8. Spiritual Development
One can have good control on
mind by doing Yogic exercises and
move towards the spiritual
Padmasana and Siddhasana
enhances the meditation power.
Pranayam is also useful for
9. Increases Flexibility
Flexibility is very significant as it helps
in movement of the body efficiently .
Muscles becomes more flexible and
prevents sports and other injuries.
Chakrasana , Dhanurasana , Halasana ,
Bhujangasana etc. are very beneficial
in increasing body flexibility.
10. Reduces Obesity
Very common problem now a days.
Regular Yogic exercise like pranayama and
asanas reduces obesity .
Research studies have shown that obesity is
also caused by mental stress and tension.
Meditative asanas are the perfect solution for
11. Improves Health
Yoga not only maintains but improves our
Muscles becomes more strong .
Various system of body like respiratory ,
circulatory , nervous , excretory etc. becomes
more efficient resulting improvement in over
12. Enhances Moral and Ethical Values
Yoga is very significant for human being in
By following first two steps of Ashtanga Yoga
: Yama and Niyama (Ahimsa , Satya , Asteya ,
Santosh , Tapa etc. ) these values are
An individual can attain perfect health and
lead a content life by performing yogic
Evidences shows that history of Yoga is related to
the Indus Valley civilization (3300- 1300 BC ).
Yoga is also mentioned in Upanishads, Mahabharata
Maharishi Patanjali gave Yoga Sutra around 147
It can be said authentically that history of Yoga is as
old as India’s history. Yoga has been the main element
of Indian culture from the ancient period.
1. Pre-Vedic Period ( 3300-1300 BC)
The excavation of Mohenjodaro and Harappa in
Indus valley reveals that Yoga was practiced in
some form at that period. Idols, statues &
seals excavated are in various yogic postures.
2. Vedic Period ( 1750-500 BC)
Some concepts of Yoga which were
developed later on, are seen in Vedas.
Yoga & Yogis are not used in Vedas but
“Yunjate” used in RigVeda gives the
idea of the Yoga for sense control.
3. Upanishadic Period
The real basis of Yoga is found in Upanishads.
Prana and Nadis are important topics discussed
in Upanishads. Various Yogic practices and
their physiological effects are mentioned in
4. Epic Period(1000-600 BC)
Ramayana and Mahabharata are the vital
source of information about various types of
Yogic practices which were used during that
period. Bhagwad Gita deals with the three
paths of Yoga ,namely Gyan, Bhakti and Karma
5. Sutra Period
Maharaishi Patanjali gave “Yoga sutra”
approximately in 147 BC. YogaSutra is divided
into four parts. Maharishi Patanjali described
Ashtanga Yoga or eight limbs of Yoga. The
scriptures related to Buddhism and Jainism
reveal that Yoga was also a main part of life of
6. Smriti Period
Smritis were written till about 1000 AD.
During this period , we find various changes
in ideas, beliefs worship and customs.
Pranayama and other purification techniques
were used in many religious rituals.
7. Medieval Period
During this period , the two cults – Natha
cult and Bhakti cult very famous. Hatha Yoga
was evolved and was very popular in Natha
Cult. Saints of this period were following
8. Modern Period
Swami Vivekananda, Yogananda, Maharishi
Raman, Sri Aurobindo played important role
in spreading Yoga out of India.
Yogacharya B K S Iyenger , Baba Ramdev has
inspired millions of Indians and foreigners to
use Yoga to make them healthy and release
mental stress and tension.
8. Modern Period
At 69th Session of UN General Assembly in New York
on 27-09-2014, PM of India urged the need to
celebrate “International Yoga Day” for the harmony
and peace in the world
21 June declared as “International Yoga Day” by
First “International Yoga Day” was celebrated on
21st June 2015.
a. Ahimsa: Causing no harm to
any living thing. Anxiety ,
jealousy, hate ,anger are
b. Satya: Truthfulness. We must
be truthful in thoughts,
speech and deeds. We must
not speak to others in
c. Asteya: Non-stealing. The
inclination to use others
objects, money and thoughts
for one’s own benefit is
stealing. Abstaining from it is
d. Brahamcharya : Conserving
one’s energy . Using your
energy for the benefit of the
individual & society, not for
e. Aparigraha : Non-
or non-greediness. Aparigraha
refers to keeping the desire
for possessions to what is
necessary or important,
depending on one's life stage
a. Saucha: It is purification
of Internal organs,
external body and
mentally. Shatkarmas are
to be performed for
purification of the
internal organs of the
body. Neti, Dhoti,
Basti are the six kriyas (
b. Santosh: Feeling of satisfaction in
c. Tapa: To endure the difficulties,
obstacles and complex situation
easily in achieving the goal.
d. Swadhyaya: It is considered as
the study of teaching and
scriptures, self study is
preferred.It also means
introspection and self study by
asking questions like who I am,
What should I do, Aim of Life.
e. Ishwara Pranidhan: To dedicate
all the deeds to God. One
surrenders oneself to God
expelling pride, ego and other
impurities from mind
Asana means position or posture of body. It
also means to sit in easy posture. These
are slow stretching activities performed to
keep the body flexible agile and young.
It is the control of the process of the breathing. It
means appropriate control over inhalation and
exhalation. It helps in regulating the metabolic
activity and enhances the function of heart and
lungs. It also provides longevity to life.
Control over senses is Pratyahara. The
senses no longer respond to external objects
that hinder mental concentration.
It is the concentration of mind
at one focal point. It is a mental
exercise which enables a Yogi to
go ahead towards Dhayan and
Dhyana is a complete
constancy or concentration of
The union of individual’s soul with the
supreme soul is called Samadhi.
It is checking or destruction of all the
impulses of mind.
During Dhyana, when the disappearance of
self awareness takes place , the Yogi attains
the stage of Samadhi.
Experiences the divine pleasure.
Meaning of Asanas: स्थिरसुखमासिम ् ॥४६॥
A position which is steady and comfortable.
In Asanas, body is kept in various positions in such
a way that the activity of the organs and glands of
body becomes more efficient and finally improve
the health of mind and body
Classification of Asanas
Meditative Asanas Relaxative Asanas Cultural or
Meditation power of
an individual is
Removes fatigue and
relaxes an individual
different activities of
the body and finally
provides the energy
to the body
Classification of Asanas
Meditative Asanas Relaxative Asanas Cultural or
Padmasana Shashankasana Sheerasasan
Meaning of Pranayama :
It is comprised of two words :
“prana” + “ayam”
vital life force + control
“the control or regulation of prana”
Parts of Pranayama
Purka Rechaka Kumbhaka
Inhalation Exhalation Retaining the breath
To retain the
To retain the
Meaning of Meditation
Meditation is a process of complete constancy
According to Patanjali , “The concentration of
Chitta (mind) on an Vritti (impulse) without any
divergence , is called Dhyana .
The stage when perception starts directly is
called real Dhyanavastha.
Dhayna is not a practise but it is a stage of
mind in which there is a continuous dynamic
consciousness without any obstruction.
Like any machine, human body also
require internal and external cleanliness
Cleanliness of internal organs of our
body is done by six actions(shatkarmas)
. It increases blood flow and slows the heart rate.
. Increases exercise tolerance.
. Leads to a deeper level of physical relaxation.
. Good for people with high blood pressure.
. Decreases muscle tension
. Helps in chronic diseases like allergies, arthritis etc.
. Enhances the immune system.
. Enhances energy, strength and vigour.
. Helps with weight loss
. Reduction of tissue damage
. Higher skin resistance
. Drop in cholesterol levels, lowers risk of cardiovascular disease.
. Improved flow of air to the lungs resulting in easier breathing.
. Decreases the aging process.
. Cure headaches & migraines
. Reduced Need for Medical Care
. Less energy wasted
. More inclined to sports, activities
. Significant relief from asthma
. Improved performance in athletic events
. Normalizes to your ideal weight
. Harmonizes our endocrine system
. Relaxes our nervous system
In modern age ,almost everyone is indulge in sedentary lifestyle.
No healthy eating habits and regular physical activities.
Remote controls and vehicles are used in abundance instead of manual
work and walking.
Such lifestyle creates many diseases like:
Such diseases are called common life style diseases.
These are one of the primary cause of death.
WHO is alarmed by the increasing number of such patients.
These are preventable and manageable diseases.
Can be reduced by changes in diet , lifestyle and environment.
It is the excess accumulation of fats resulting
increased body weight.
Non consumed fat of the body get deposited under
the skin, areas like abdomen, waist, chest, shoulder,
It leads to many health risks like loss of physical
efficiency, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases ,
arthritis ,respiratory problems etc.
Due to so many health risk occurs by Obesity, it is
declared a disease.
Body weight is more in proportion to height
(according to ht. and wt. chart).
Body fat % is calculated. If body fat % is more
than the requirement, he/she is obese.
Out of these 3 methods, height and weight
chart is more preferred as it is easily available.
Underweight < 18.5
Normal weight 18.5 to 24.9
Overweight 25 to 29.9
Obesity Class I 30 to 34.9
Obesity Class II 35 to 39.9
Obesity Class III > 40
Two types of preventive measures for Obesity
which are directly related to sports (exercise)
and lifestyle management.
1. Exercise _ related preventive measures.
2. Diet _ related preventive measures.
1) Regular Physical exercise :
Children need an hour of moderate to vigorous exercises
daily to prevent obesity. Exercises taken can be aerobic ,
jogging, running, cycling etc.
2) To Play Games and Sports regularly:
Regular games and sports prevents obesity. Children should play
games like football , basketball, hockey etc. for at least one
hour daily . It should be a regular phenomenon for the whole
3) Weight Training exercises:
The research studies indicate that weight training programmes
for children are safe and effective for preventing and curing
obesity , if supervised properly . Earlier it used to be
considered harmful for children as it put stress on joints.
4) Resistance Exercise:
These exercise cure and prevent obesity . Improves
muscular strength , strength of tendons and strength of
bones of children . For these exercises focus should be on
the technique and number of repetitions (12 to 16) rather
than amount of weight.
5) Yogic Exercises :
Help in preventing and curing obesity. Research has
shown that stress and tension tend to increase weight.
Pranayam and meditative asanas help in releasing the
stress ,thus preventing and curing obesity , where as
other asanas help in making the body flexible and
1) Avoid Fatty Foods:
Fats are having maximum number of calories. The extra
calories which are not consumed by the body are
accumulated in the body as fat.
2) Avoid Junk and Fast Foods:
The junk and Fast food like pizza, burger, chips,
chocolates and cold drinks consists of high calories.
Intake of such foods leads to obesity .
3) Avoid overeating:
Overeating leads to intake of excess calories than what is
required by our body. These extra calories are than
accumulated in the body as fat.
4) Don’t Eat Frequently:
Eating frequently leads to taking in extra calories.
5) Avoid Rich Carbo hydrated Foods:
Carbohydrates are necessary part of our daily diet but
food like sugar, rice, potatoes, sweets should be avoided
6) Don’t skip Meals:
Skipping meals increases hunger and it results in greater
food consumption in the next meal.
7) Take low calorie diet:
Take low calorie diet with essential constituents and
8) Avoid Alcohol, Smoking and Drugs :
Alcohol is directly absorbed from the stomach in the
blood streams and easily stored as fat. Similarly
smoking and drugs leads to obesity.
9) Balancing the intake and consumption of Calories:
* Intake of excess calories results in accumulation of
*Less intake and more consumption of calories
results in loss of weight.
* When Intake and consumption of calories is same ,
it keeps your body weight constant.
It is concluded that both the measures i.e. Exercise and
Diet related measures are required to prevent and cure
1) Consists mainly of dieting and physical exercises.
2) Diet programs are good for short period
3) Weight is reduced by taking low fat, low carbohydrate,
low calorie diet
4) Aerobic exercises like walking, running, cycling,
dancing etc. reduces body fat. Exercise 60 min a day ,
5 days a week
5) Anti-obesity medicines. These medicines should be
taken under doctor’s guidance and generally has many
6) Surgery. Called Bariatric or weight-loss surgery.
Recommended for individuals having BMI over 40.
a. Size of intestine is reduced which reduces the food
Insulin( Hormone) in our body controls the level of sugar in blood.
When body does not produce sufficient amount of Insulin or when
insulin does not work properly, Diabetes occur.
People with obesity are prone to Diabetes
Common symptoms of Diabetes :
Feeling of tiredness
Need to urinate frequently
Numbness in Hands & Feet
Excessive weight gain or weight loss
Unhealing of wounds
Type I TYPE II
No Insulin is produced by Pancreas Sufficient amount of Insulin is NOT
Rare type of Diabetes Insulin produced is not used properly
Daily Insulin injection is required for
Frequent type of Diabetes
1. Regular Exercises:
Regular exercise can reduce the sugar level in blood. It also
improves the production of Insulin and strengthen the heart.
Regular exercise of 60 min per day can prevent and manage
Type II diabetes.
2. Maintain a healthy Weight:
One should maintain a BMI between 18.5 to 25. Hence Intake of
calories should be monitored according to the consumption of
3. Reduce the Intake of Saturated Fat:
Intake of Saturated Fat in more amount leads to Obesity which in
turn makes a person Diabetes prone
4. Avoid Rich Carbohydrate Food:
Digestive system breaks down carbohydrates into sugar which is
absorbed in the blood thus raising the sugar level in the blood.
5. Eat Healthy Foods:
Vegetables, fruits and fibre-rich whole grains help in preventing
diabetes. More vibrantly coloured fruits and vegetables like
spinach, carrot, peaches and berries have more nutrients and help
in prevention of diabetes. Whole grains like oatmeal, barley,
brown rice, whole wheat, corn etc. should be included in the diet
6. Eat Small Portion of Meals:
Take small meals ( every 2 to 3 hrs.) instead of big meals, as it will
raise the blood sugar level high. It will also prevent blood sugar
level going below normal
It aims to help persons who are suffering from high blood sugar
levels and want to minimize the risk of developing further
complications in life. Few life style changes may help in
managing the disease.
1. Eat Balanced Diet:
For type II diabetes ,patient should consult dietician for proper
diet to keep their blood sugar level within the normal range.
2. Regular Exercises :
Regular exercise program can improve blood sugar, decrease the
risk of heart disease . The exercises should include aerobics and
moderate & resistance training.
3. Maintain a healthy weight:
One should maintain a healthy weight which will have a positive
effect on blood sugar control
4. Have plenty of sleep:
6 to 8 Hrs sleep will provide required rest to the body and keeps
the body stress free . It will have positive effect on controlling
the blood sugar level.
5. Manage stress:
Stress is one of the reasons for disorder of blood sugar level.
Asanas and Pranayama helps in keeping the body stress free.
6. Take regular medicine:
Type II diabetes can be tackled by healthy diet and regular
exercise in initial stage . In advance stage, regular medicine is
required in form of tablets and insulin injections.
It means increased blood pressure .
It has two components Systolic and
It is measured in millimetre of mercury (
120/80 mm/ Hg is considered normal
blood pressure of an adult person
Earlier hyper tension was considered
middle and old age problem. But
nowadays, the youngsters are also facing
hypertension due to not practising
positive life style
Hypertension usually can not be cured but can
be prevented as well as managed , if one
follows the below mentioned points:
1.Change in Life style :
Change in life style can be a boon to the
person having hypertension. One should
take a balanced diet. One should lead
active and healthy life style and
Sedentary life should be avoided as it
leads to depression. Alcohol, smoking and
other stimulants should be avoided.
2. Exercises or Sports Activity:
Sports activity are helpful in prevention
and treatment of hypertension. Moderate
exercise with high intensity are very
effective for a long term blood pressure
lowering program. The exercises should
be performed regularly for good result.
3. Reduce Obesity:
Reducing body weight is the most
effective way to prevent & manage
hypertension. To achieve this, one should
go for balanced diet and quality program
of exercises under guidance of an expert.
4. Take proper Diet:
Reduce intake of Sodium(salt),take food
containing potassium, calcium ,
magnesium, high fibre, whole grains ,
vegetables etc. Researches indicate that
such diet is beneficial .
5. Relieve Stress:
Relieving from stress reduces
hypertension. One should try to indulge
in recreational activities as well as in
meditation, regular walk, mixing with
6. Take medicines:
If measures like change of life style,
exercise and diet are not able to prevent
hypertension( 140/90 mm/ Hg or higher), one
requires regular medication. These medicines
do not cure hypertension but only controls it
within normal limits and one has to take these
medicines for the life time.
Consequently, it can be said that by
following the above mentioned points on
regular basis hypertension can be prevented
and managed effectively.
Back Pain is a common problem all over the world
It generally originates from the bones, joints,
muscles or nerves etc.
It can be in the cervical, thoracic or lumbar region
it can be constant, stay in one place or radiate to
other parts such as arms , hips or legs.
The affected person is unable to do his work
efficiently and smoothly
Reasons for back pain may be wrong body postures,
lack of physical activity, overweight, excessive
smoking, lack of flexibility or undue stress on back
Regular exercises are helpful in enhancing
strength and keeping the body weight in control.
Aerobic exercises are considered best as these
exercises do not strain or jerk the back. Along
theseexercises, the flexibility exercises such as
bending forward , backward, sideways and sit ups
should be performed regularly.
2. Maintain Appropriate Body weight:
Overweight and obese persons are
at the greater risk of developing back
pain . To maintain an appropriate body
weight, regular exercise and balanced
diet are mandatory
3. Proper Sitting Posture:
Proper sitting posture is mandatory for
prevention of back pain. One should sit
with erect & straight back on chair and
feet should be flat on the floor . In
sitting right posture there will not be
undue stress on the back, which is
beneficial in preventing back pain.
4. Proper Standing Posture :
One should keep back straight and
balance body weight evenly on both
feet while standing .Toes should be
3” to 4” apart . Knees should be
5. Avoid lifting Heavy weight :
Lifting heavy weight without using
proper technique , causes injury to
the back. Keep the back straight,
head up, squat properly & then lift
the weight. Keep the object close to
the body. Don’t straighten the legs
before lifting the weight.
6. Use Lumber Support Belt:
The persons who are engaged in
lifting weights should use Lumber
Support Belt to avoid injury to their
7. No Smoking:
On the basis of the recent research, it is
concluded that the higher percentage of
smokers have more back pain incidences
in comparison of non-smokers of same
height, age and weight.
8. Lying or Sleeping on Bed:
Use a mattress that keeps the spine straight and normal size
pillow so that neck is not in a steep angle. A hard mattress is
9. Refrain from Strenuous Activities:
Strenuous activities leads to fatigue. Working under fatigue
may lead to back injury.
10. Move and Lift the Object Properly:
Push the object instead of pulling it. while lifting an Object
look straight ahead , not up or down, to keep one’s back and
neck in straight line
Aim is to achieve maximum reduction in the intensity of
the pain as early as possible, so that the affected person may
restore his strength to perform daily routine activities. It can
be managed with various therapies and corrective exercises.
Surgery is required in rare cases.
1. Heat Therapy :
Heat therapy reduces the pain . Hot bath gives best
2. Cold Compression Therapy :
Back Pain is relieved by Cold Compression Therapy (ice or
cold pack) also
3. Massage :
It is very effective in relieving the pain, but must be
performed by an expert.
It is beneficial in reducing pain. Muscle relaxants may be
effective but only for short term.
5. Physical Exercise :
Stretching exercise such as bending forward , backward, side ways
are very effective. Asanas such as Tadasan , Shavasan , Shalabhasan,
Bhujangasan, Dhanurasan etc. can be used for managing back pain.
Physical exercise can also be beneficial but should be done under
6. Surgery :
Though its requirement is rare but can be very effective for
individuals with major disc problems or scoliosis.
7. Other Therapies :
Electro Therapy and Inversion therapy are also used to
manage the back problem but these are applicable for