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OBJECTIVES
During the discussion, the graduate students would be able to
enhance the following values from this course;
 ...
WHAT IS IDEALISM?
 It is a philosophical belief that material things do not exist
independently in the physical world but...
HISTORY OF IDEALISM
 Plato is the father of Idealism, he believed that the soul is
fully fanned prior to birth and is per...
HISTORY OF IDEALISTIC EDUCATION IN THE
PHILIPPINES
Spanish Educators in the Philippines
 The educational system that was ...
EDUCATIONAL
IMPLICATIONS OF
IDEALISM TO
PHILIPPINE SCHOOLS
AREAS OF EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF
IDEALISM TO PHILIPPINE SCHOOLS
1. The education goals of idealism
2. The school
3. Th...
EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF IDEALISM
TO PHILIPPINE SCHOOLS
The education goals of idealism
 Search for Truth (Highest Aim...
 Character Development (Proper Aim)
i. According to Idealism, man is the most beautiful
creation of God. Hence, the advoc...
EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF IDEALISM
TO PHILIPPINE SCHOOLS
The school
 Preservation of knowledge and schools exposes them...
 Students are also taught to be intuitive learners because
learning does not stop, for the search of the truth is part of...
EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF IDEALISM
TO PHILIPPINE SCHOOLS
The idealistic curriculum
Idealists give more importance to tho...
 Cultivates the basic skills of literacy, numeracy, and civility
that prepare a person for more advanced learning
 Ideal...
EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF IDEALISM
TO PHILIPPINE SCHOOLS
The idealist methodology
Teaching Methods – lectures followed b...
Role of Teacher – To interpret the law and will of God as well
as the authority. Teachers are expected to be a
charismatic...
EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF IDEALISM
TO PHILIPPINE SCHOOLS
Teacher – Learner Relationship
I. Desired qualities of a teache...
MERITS OF IDEALISTIC EDUCATION
 It is only this philosophy wherein a detailed exposition of
aims has been emphasized. Ide...
DEMERITS OF IDEALISTIC EDUCATION
 The common criticism regarding Idealism is that it is an abstract and
vague doctrine.
...
REFERENCES
IDEALISM AND PRESCHOOL EDUCATION, http://goo.gl/qzRSFt
IDEALISM, http://goo.gl/0vTEwV
IMPLICATION OF IDEALISM I...
OBJECTIVES
During the discussion, the graduate students
would be able to enhance the following values
from this course;
 ...
WHAT’S NATURALISM?
 It is the belief that only natural laws and forces operate in the world
 Stresses the mental, moral,...
EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF
NATURALISM TO PHILIPPINE SCHOOLS
1. The education aims of Naturalism to education
2. The schoo...
EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF
NATURALISM TO PHILIPPINE SCHOOLS
The aims of Naturalism in Education
 To develop the individu...
EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF
NATURALISM TO PHILIPPINE SCHOOLS
The school
 Naturalist teaching and learning values experien...
EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF
NATURALISM TO PHILIPPINE SCHOOLS
Naturalist curriculum (Child – Centered Curriculum)
 Its cur...
EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF
NATURALISM TO PHILIPPINE SCHOOLS
The student
 The freedom of child disciplines him and he is ...
EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF
NATURALISM TO PHILIPPINE SCHOOLS
The teacher – learner relationship
 The teacher’s role is to...
EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF
NATURALISM TO WESTERN COUNTRIES
Rousseau’s Contribution
 Education is first of all the benefi...
MERITS OF NATURALISM TO EDUCATION
 It gives the child a very important place in the educational
process. It treats a chil...
MERITS OF NATURALISM TO EDUCATION
 It assigns importance to science subjects, which are real. It
prepares and encourages ...
DEMERITS OF NATURALISM TO EDUCATION
 Unsatisfying aim of education: Naturalists concentrate on natural
environment and na...
DEMERITS OF NATURALISM TO EDUCATION
 Neglects books: Naturalists neglect the bookish system of
education. We cannot negle...
DEMERITS OF NATURALISM TO EDUCATION
 Little role for teacher: Naturalism minimizes the role of the teacher
in the educati...
REFERENCES:
MAJOR PHILOSOPHIES IN EDUCATION, http://goo.gl/Kp2zrW
THE PHOLOSOPHICAL FOUNDATIONS OF EDUCATION,
http://goo.g...
Implication of Idealism and Naturalism to Philippine Education
Implication of Idealism and Naturalism to Philippine Education
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The definition of Idealistic and Naturalistic Education and its effects to Philippine Education

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Implication of Idealism and Naturalism to Philippine Education

  1. 1. OBJECTIVES During the discussion, the graduate students would be able to enhance the following values from this course;  Critical Thinking  Understand Individual Differences  Appreciation of the whole person  Understanding of human thoughts and behavior
  2. 2. WHAT IS IDEALISM?  It is a philosophical belief that material things do not exist independently in the physical world but only in the mind.  A belief wherein the nature of humans and the environment is naturally, constantly and permanently good, true and beautiful.
  3. 3. HISTORY OF IDEALISM  Plato is the father of Idealism, he believed that the soul is fully fanned prior to birth and is perfect and once with the universal being.  He told that there are 2 kinds of world, Spiritual and Mental World – “super nature” - spirit, perfection, eternal, absolute, general, abstract; higher world World of appearance – “nature” - material, corrupt, change, process, concrete, particular, lower world  Neo Platonism – a philosophical system with mysticism and Judeo-Christian ideas posting once source of existence, developed by Plotinus and his followers in the 3rd Century AD  George Wilhelm Friederich Hegel (1770-1831) – He believe that as individuals, our minds attuned to and related to the divine mind called Absolute Mind the mind of the creator
  4. 4. HISTORY OF IDEALISTIC EDUCATION IN THE PHILIPPINES Spanish Educators in the Philippines  The educational system that was established during the presence of the Spaniards was absolutely idealist in nature.  students were passive learners, while the teachers kept on talking to consummate his lessons.  In the Philippine classrooms, a teacher is seen as the master of the class and the students are the receivers of the information that the lecturer is teaching.
  5. 5. EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF IDEALISM TO PHILIPPINE SCHOOLS
  6. 6. AREAS OF EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF IDEALISM TO PHILIPPINE SCHOOLS 1. The education goals of idealism 2. The school 3. The idealist curriculum 4. The attitudinal dimension 5. Idealist methodology 6. Teacher – learner relationship
  7. 7. EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF IDEALISM TO PHILIPPINE SCHOOLS The education goals of idealism  Search for Truth (Highest Aim) i. During their study, they made use of their senses but more importantly, they process all of their observations and feelings through reflection. In this way, the learner examines his own mind and compares or shares it with others in order to seek for the truth.  Self – Realization (Ultimate Aim) i. Students in the Philippines are taught to identify the qualities of heroism and be like them. Students are trained to communicate, debate what is beautiful, what is true and good. ii. Students are also trained to be intuitive and have introspective explorations for their self- development.
  8. 8.  Character Development (Proper Aim) i. According to Idealism, man is the most beautiful creation of God. Hence, the advocates of Idealism lay great stress on the exhalation of human personality. By exhalation of human personality, they mean self-realization. Self-realization involves full knowledge of the self. Hence, the first aim of education according to Idealism is to develop the ‘Self’ of the individual higher and higher till self- realization is achieved. ii. Second, is to develop the child mentally, morally and above all spiritually. Thus, the teacher should so organize education as to develop the child spiritually. iii. To discover and develop each individual's abilities and full moral excellence in order to better serve society
  9. 9. EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF IDEALISM TO PHILIPPINE SCHOOLS The school  Preservation of knowledge and schools exposes them to the wisdom containing the cultural heritage.  The cultural heritage is of immense worth and value. It belongs to whole humanity and it is the purpose of education to preserve, deserve, develop and transmit it. It is for education to acquaint the child with cultural heritage so that he conserves, promotes and transmits it to the rising generation. This is done through the process of self- estrangement.  The students are learned from handling ideas through lecture, discussion, and Socratic dialogue  Students are taught to identify the qualities of their heroism and be like them. They are trained to communicate, debate even, what is good, what is beautiful and what is true.
  10. 10.  Students are also taught to be intuitive learners because learning does not stop, for the search of the truth is part of their lives.  According to Froebel, the school is a garden, the teacher is a cautious gardener and the child is a tender plant. The plant can grow, no doubt, without help but the good gardener sees that the plant grows to the finest possible perfection.  The students in an idealistic set-up are expected to be truth seekers as they study the subjects that bring out critical thinking  School is a place where the capacities of logical thinking, reasoning and evaluating of the child are progressively sublimated and developed by teachers and the school environment into desirable channels so that high spiritual ideals and values are gained. Such noble mission, according to Idealism may be achieved through proper guidance of teacher given in school. Hence, Idealists considered school and its impressionistic environment as greatly essential
  11. 11. EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF IDEALISM TO PHILIPPINE SCHOOLS The idealistic curriculum Idealists give more importance to thoughts, feelings, ideals and values than to the child and his activities. They firmly hold that curriculum should be concerned with the whole humanity and its experiences. These experiences can be imbibed by two ways namely- (1) from the physical environment and (2) from contacts with other fellowmen. In this way, in an Idealistic curriculum, both the scientific subjects as well as the humanities are included.  Science and Art should be taught as fully integrated .  To preserve and advance the culture of human race, as subject like Religion, Ethics, Philosophy, History, and Literature.  Designed to prepare students for adult life  It can be viewed as a hierarchy in which the summit is occupied by the most general disciplines: Philosophy and Theology.
  12. 12.  Cultivates the basic skills of literacy, numeracy, and civility that prepare a person for more advanced learning  Idealism prepares an individual for a holy life. Froebel says.”The object of education is the realization of a faithful, pure, inviolable and hence holy life.”
  13. 13. EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF IDEALISM TO PHILIPPINE SCHOOLS The idealist methodology Teaching Methods – lectures followed by reaction, writing rote memorization and assigned reading. Learners listen to the instruction of the teacher and perform individual task. - Idealists assert that to develop spiritual values in the individuals, pursuit of highest ideals namely- Truth, Beauty and Goodness should be encouraged more and more. The more an individual realizes these ideals, the more spiritually developed he will become.
  14. 14. Role of Teacher – To interpret the law and will of God as well as the authority. Teachers are expected to be a charismatic persuader and an inspiring academic leader expert in the use of the words. Also, the teacher acts as the model of cultural heritage. - In reality an Idealist teacher is imbued fully with high degree of self-knowledge, self-dynamism and essential qualities of spiritualism. By his own model of life, he tries to shape the individuality of the child to a life of purity, virtue and great achievements. He creates a wholesome conducive atmosphere by his own activities and planned experiences for the child. He guides the child with such genuine love, affection and sympathy that he attains his full mental and spiritual development The Classroom – The center of attraction is the teacher’s table and chair. The setting of the classroom is elevated platform and is found in front where the podium is located, so that the teacher can be seen and heard by the learners. Learners occupy their traditional seats by rows facing the instructor. Value Education – students should be exposed to worthy examples and models and exemplars
  15. 15. EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF IDEALISM TO PHILIPPINE SCHOOLS Teacher – Learner Relationship I. Desired qualities of a teacher i. Personify culture and reality for the student ii. Encouraging students to ask questions and to provide suitable environment for learning iii. Infuses the students with a desire to improve their thinking in the deepest possible way iv. Through teacher’s guidance the child can make his natural development into a process leading to perfection and beauty v. Merit student’s friendship. vi. Realize that teaching’s moral significance lies in it’s goal of perfecting human beings vii. Aid in the cultural rebirth of each generation viii. It considers teacher as a spiritual guide for the child. The teacher serves as a living model for the student. He sets the environment in which education takes place. He carries the child from darkness to light.
  16. 16. MERITS OF IDEALISTIC EDUCATION  It is only this philosophy wherein a detailed exposition of aims has been emphasized. Idealistic education emphasizes the inculcation of highest values namely, Truth, Beauty and Goodness. This will lead to the development of a moral character of the child. It aims at self – realization of all individuals by one’s own efforts.  it promotes universal education. In the process of idealistic education, the teacher assigned a very important role. The teacher influences the child by his high ideals of life and by his sympathetic encouraging behavior. This achieves the fullest development of child’s personality.  Idealism respects the individuality of the child and tries to stimulate his creative energies. Thus, Idealism has influenced other philosophies as well. Idealism emphasizes the principle of self-discipline. This principle leads to the development of the ‘Self’ of an individual. Because of the Idealistic philosophy and education, the school has grown into an important social organization.
  17. 17. DEMERITS OF IDEALISTIC EDUCATION  The common criticism regarding Idealism is that it is an abstract and vague doctrine.  It avoids the present realities and prepares the child for the next world. It is concerned with the ultimate end of life.  It avoids the real problem day to day living.  Idealism lays more emphasis on thinking and mental activities. This increases the importance of intellectualism unnecessarily. It emphasizes upon the achievement of immortal VALUES NAMELY, Truth, Beauty and goodness.  Idealistic education gives more importance to teacher in relation to the child. Modern psychology emphasizes the prime and central importance of child.  Idealistic methods of teaching emphasize cramming and rote memory. In modern education, these methods are given little importance.  In idealistic education humanities are given greater importance for the spiritual development of the child, while the present age of science lays great stress upon scientific subjects in the curriculum.
  18. 18. REFERENCES IDEALISM AND PRESCHOOL EDUCATION, http://goo.gl/qzRSFt IDEALISM, http://goo.gl/0vTEwV IMPLICATION OF IDEALISM IN MODERN EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM, http://goo.gl/21taJL
  19. 19. OBJECTIVES During the discussion, the graduate students would be able to enhance the following values from this course;  Critical Thinking  Understand Individual Differences  Appreciation of the whole person  Understanding of human thoughts and behavior
  20. 20. WHAT’S NATURALISM?  It is the belief that only natural laws and forces operate in the world  Stresses the mental, moral, and spiritual nature of an individual and his universe  Naturalism has too kinds, Ontological and Methodological 1. Ontological – refers to the Philosophical study of the nature of reality. Such as the study of the principle of mass, energy, and other physical and chemical properties accepted by the scientific community 2. Methodological – it is the systematic and theoretical analysis of the applied to a field of study. It comprises the the theoretical analysis of the body of methods and principles associated with a branch of knowledge.  The word naturalism believes that people are restricted to the phenomenal world of a scientific education as its theory revolves around nature and other physical elements.  Education does not only mean to memorize or store information and knowledge rather it is the process which results in the development of the child’s nature and personality internally (Rousseau, 1778).
  21. 21. EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF NATURALISM TO PHILIPPINE SCHOOLS 1. The education aims of Naturalism to education 2. The school 3. The naturalist curriculum 4. The student 5. Teacher – learner relationship
  22. 22. EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF NATURALISM TO PHILIPPINE SCHOOLS The aims of Naturalism in Education  To develop the individual in accordance with laws of nature and human development  The natural mode of self expression is Play and learning should be done through cheerful spontaneous and creativity of play. The process of discovery is given importance. The activities like excursions, fieldtrips and practical experiments are recommended to enhance learning.  Biological Naturalism has various educational implications and its aim is self expression. There is no control on any kind over the developing organism is allowed and there has to be complete freedom given. In other words, there is no predetermined aim at all.
  23. 23. EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF NATURALISM TO PHILIPPINE SCHOOLS The school  Naturalist teaching and learning values experiences over books, depth over breadth, wisdom over intelligence. In short, naturalist teaching is about doing. It is one thing to read about making fire by friction, but it's completely different to actually carve a kit and make fire.  Books are useful, of course, especially field guides, but without accompanying experiences, the knowledge can be virtually lifeless. For example, the simple identification of animals without understanding their habitats, growth cycles, behaviors and more. Because naturalists often seek deep knowledge, they can happily sit in the same spot every day, noting and valuing even minute changes.  Whereas science classes are often about abstract processes like global warming, photosynthesis, and mitosis, naturalist classes are about tangible experiences such as identifying a tree by the texture of its bark, or tracking an animal across various surfaces, or exploring what edible plants grow in the neighborhood. These differences are bigger than they first appear to be.  Finally, naturalist teaching often incorporates many other components drawn from indigenous cultures, including storytelling, hunting, cooking, ceremony, mentoring, philosophy and many more. Those interested in other areas typically outside the scope of the traditional classroom can get more ideas for teaching.
  24. 24. EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF NATURALISM TO PHILIPPINE SCHOOLS Naturalist curriculum (Child – Centered Curriculum)  Its curriculum is usually based on the needs, interests and abilities of the child in relation to its levels of development.  It helps the Naturalist to recognize individual differences and experiences of the child should form the core element of the curriculum.  Education must satisfy the basic needs of a man as an individual. It is the role of the education to provide knowledge and skills that are fundamental forces within the individual to seek satisfaction  Education is geared to individual growth. Each child follows a logical pattern of growth and development and that education must be attuned to these natural patterns.  Education is not simply mental in nature, but advocates the education of both mind and body. It encourages the development of moral character, discipline and physical well being.
  25. 25. EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF NATURALISM TO PHILIPPINE SCHOOLS The student  The freedom of child disciplines him and he is naturally controlled by his own learning and experiences. There is stress given to discipline by natural consequences. There should be believers of self-government by the students and co-education has to be adopted as it is more natural means.  Students educate themselves, and it involves self activity. Activities are offered for explanatory purposes and for the development of aesthetics and self expression.
  26. 26. EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF NATURALISM TO PHILIPPINE SCHOOLS The teacher – learner relationship  The teacher’s role is to remain in background. The natural development of child should be stimulated. Since, Nature is considered to be best educator, the teacher should remove himself from the scene.  The teacher has an awareness of the nature of the child. Awareness that natural environment is responsible for the development of the individual differences, each child has a distinct learning needs that require individualized learning activities  Teacher as a guide in the intellectual process. The education and instruction used must be based on the understanding level of the children to naturally develop them according to their needs and interests
  27. 27. EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF NATURALISM TO WESTERN COUNTRIES Rousseau’s Contribution  Education is first of all the benefit of child, not for the sake of any conception. However, of hallowed of function of the teacher, or curriculum or the school  Education should be a practical preparation of life  Naturalistic education is a method of instruction that should be based upon the psychological principles governing the development of the child  This must be provided first-hand contact with physical environment. Added by Spencer  All knowledge should be evaluated in terms of evolutionary naturalistic principles of education which must conform to them  The knowledge that the individual acquires through experiences and verifies and uses to solve his life problems, is utterly superior to that knowledge supplied by traditional sources. Added by Epictus  Education teaches the moral primacy of the will
  28. 28. MERITS OF NATURALISM TO EDUCATION  It gives the child a very important place in the educational process. It treats a child as child and not as an adult. The child is good and pure at the time of birth  It considers Nature as the best teacher in whose company the child learns better.  It lays stress on the psychological development of the child in the lap of Nature  It considers individual interests, aptitude, inclination, needs and capacities while structuring the curriculum  It introduces different methods of teaching techniques such as play-way, observation, and learning by doing, which occupy an important place in modern education
  29. 29. MERITS OF NATURALISM TO EDUCATION  It assigns importance to science subjects, which are real. It prepares and encourages the child to engage in experimentation, discoveries and inventions.  It considers man as a social animal and he has to build societies to meet his requirements. Individual life is not possible on the earth.  It advocates full freedom for the child for his natural development. It motivates the child to acquire more knowledge in the natural environment  It revolts against old, traditional methods and bookish system of education, based on the rote method  It gives direct inspiration to the concept of psychological, sociological and scientific education
  30. 30. DEMERITS OF NATURALISM TO EDUCATION  Unsatisfying aim of education: Naturalists concentrate on natural environment and natural development of the child. If the child is developed according to his natural in the laps of Nature only, the child will become unsocial with no feeling of social service. Thus, the aim of naturalistic education is one sided unsatisfactory  Neglects spiritual world: Naturalism ignores the spiritual world and considers the material world one. For balanced development of the child, it requires knowledge of both the spiritual and the material worlds. The material attitude of the people makes them selfish which is dangerous for a society  Neglects future: Naturalism lays stress on solutions for only the present needs and problems of an individual and neglects his future needs and problems. It has failed to prepare the child for the future life.  Neglects moral and spiritual values: Naturalism advocates for the spiritual values and the remote future. But these values are essential for the balanced development of a child. But these values are essential for the balanced development of a child. Education is futile if it avoids moral and spiritual values.
  31. 31. DEMERITS OF NATURALISM TO EDUCATION  Neglects books: Naturalists neglect the bookish system of education. We cannot neglect the treasure of knowledge contained in the printed materials. They insist that the education of the child should be based on his activities and his life experiences. But these activities and experiences cannot bring about the total development of a child’s personality. Therefore, the role of books in the education system cannot be ignored.  Emphasis on science subjects: Naturalists emphasize scientific education. Like Spencer has given priority to scientific subjects and only a secondary place to humanities in the curriculum. In fact, both are equally important and essential in the development of child’s personality.  Unlimited freedom to child: Naturalism advocates unrestricted freedom for the child to develop himself naturally. This may lead to self-assertion resulting in arbitrary behavior without any consideration for others. This is undesirable, and harmful to the child. Full freedom will never exist in a civilized society.
  32. 32. DEMERITS OF NATURALISM TO EDUCATION  Little role for teacher: Naturalism minimizes the role of the teacher in the educative process. A teacher is an observer, a sympathetic guide and helper in structuring experiences for the child. This attitude is not considered very healthy and desirable in modern democratic countries where various social, moral, and spiritual qualities are to be inculcated among the children by the educational processes. Even in the electronic age, a teacher occupies an important place in the teaching – learning process.  Unappealing principles of discipline: the principle of discipline by natural consequences is quite unsuitable and very often harmful. For instance, lighting of a matchstick without proper guidance may start a conflagration of a gigantic magnitude. This, this principle appears very unjust, hazardous, rash and unhealthy.  Ignores the development of society: Naturalism emphasizes individual development ignoring the society which is equally important. The development of an individual maybe achieved with the close cooperation and development of the others. They are like two sides of the same coin. But this philosophy has failed to emphasize the development of the society.
  33. 33. REFERENCES: MAJOR PHILOSOPHIES IN EDUCATION, http://goo.gl/Kp2zrW THE PHOLOSOPHICAL FOUNDATIONS OF EDUCATION, http://goo.gl/TUQX4O NATURALISM – ANOTHER WAY TO EDUCATION A CHILD, http://goo.gl/N5emm4 NATURALIST TEACHING AND LEARNING, http://goo.gl/hTBb7u A COMPREHENSIVE STUDY OF EDUCATION, https://goo.gl/FU4ma4
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The definition of Idealistic and Naturalistic Education and its effects to Philippine Education

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