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Elements of weather and climate



Elements of weather and climate,Measuring the weather.

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Elements of weather and climate

  2. 2.  Everything which surrounds us may collectively be termed as Environment.  It includes living things and natural forces.  Living things do not simply exists in their environment but they constantly interact with it.  It deals with the interaction amongst plants, animals, soil, water, temperature, light and other living and non- living things. What is Environment???
  3. 3.  weather  climate  Elements of weather and climate.  Measuring the weather CONTENT
  4. 4. Weather  Weather is the day-to-day conditions of a particular place.  Most weather phenomena occur in the troposphere, just below the stratosphere.  Weather is driven by air pressure (temperature and moisture) differences between one place and another.  These pressure and temperature differences can occur due to the sun angle at any particular spot, which varies by latitude from the tropics.  Higher altitudes are cooler than lower altitudes due to differences in compressional heating.
  5. 5.  On Earth, temperatures usually range ±40 °C (100 °F to −40 °F) annually.  The coldest air temperature ever recorded on Earth is −89.2 °C (−128.6 °F), at Vostok Station, Antarctica on 21 July 1983.  The hottest air temperature ever recorded was 57.7 °C (135.9 °F) at 'Aziziya, Libya, on 13 September 1922.  However, weather is not limited to planetary bodies.  A star's corona is constantly being lost to space, creating what is essentially a very thin atmosphere throughout the Solar System.  The movement of mass ejected from the Sun is known as the solar wind.
  6. 6. Sunny weather Cold weather Rainy weather Rainy with Thunder Different types of weather
  7. 7.  Climate is the average weather in a place over many years or the average weather, usually over a 30-year interval.  It is measured by assessing the patterns of variation in temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind, precipitation etc.  It takes hundreds, thousands, even millions of years to change.  Climate is different from weather, in that weather only describes the short-term conditions.  The climate of a location is affected by its latitude, terrain, and altitude, as well as nearby water bodies and their currents. Climate
  8. 8. Elements of Weather and Climate There are several elements that make up the weather and climate of a place. The major of these elements are five: • Temperature • pressure • wind • humidity • precipitation Analysis of these elements can provide the basis for forecasting weather and defining its climate. These same elements make also the basis of climatology study, of course, within a longer time scale rather than it does in meteorology.
  9. 9. • Temperature is how hot or cold the atmosphere is, how many degrees it is above or below freezing. Temperature is a very important factor in determining the weather, because it influences or controls other elements of the weather, such as precipitation, humidity, clouds and atmospheric pressure.
  10. 10. Wind is the movement of air masses, especially on the Earth's surface. Humidity is the amount of water vapour in the atmosphere.
  11. 11. • Precipitation is the product of a rapid condensation process (if this process is slow, it only causes cloudy skies). It may include snow, hail, sleet, drizzle, fog, mist and rain.
  12. 12. Atmospheric pressure (or air pressure) is the weight of air resting on the earth's surface. Pressure is shown on a weather map, often called a synoptic map, with lines called isobars.
  13. 13. Measuring the weather Weather stations are places where a variety of instruments are used to record regular data on the weather. The most important instruments used in a weather station are shown below.  Hygrometers  Rain gauges  Barometers  Maximum and minimum thermometers
  14. 14. Hygrometers are special thermometers that measure humidity by calculating the amount of water vapour in the air. Hygrometers
  15. 15. Rain gauges are containers that collect and measure rainfall or any other form of precipitation. Levels of rainfall are measured in millimetres (mm). Rain gauges
  16. 16.  Barometers are used to measure atmospheric pressure. They may be either mercury or aneroid (vacuum) barometers. Often they are attached to a pen that charts movements in pressure on a piece of paper. The resulting chart is called a barograph. Barometers
  17. 17. Maximum and minimum thermometers measure the highest and lowest temperature in degrees celsius. From the lowest temperatures to the highest temperatures. Maximum and minimum thermometers
  18. 18. THANKYOU Presented by Abdul rab 12131AA002